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WEIGHTS AND WEIGHING

WEIGHTS AND WEIGHING

DEFINITION

The following are the definitions of the different weight terms:

Gross Weight. The weight of a car or package and its contents.
Tare Weight.-The weight of a car or package empty.
Net Weight. The weight of the contents of a car or package.
Estimated Weight.—The weight specifically prescribed in tariffs for goods shipped

in certain packages or in a certain manner.
Agreed Weight.--The weight prescribed by agreement between carrier and

shipper for goods shipped in certain packages or in a certain manner. Minimum Weight.-The least weight at which carriers will compute freight

charges or apply certain rates.
Weight Light.—The weight of a car empty.
Weight Loaded.—The weight of a car and its contents.
Marked Weight.-The weight of an empty car as stenciled or marked thereon.

BASIS OF
CHARGES

The weight of a shipment is usually the basis used in computing freight charges. It may be the actual, estimated, agreed, or minimum weight, according to the provisions of the tariffs of the carrier assessing the charges. Erroneous weights result in charges being made that are too high or too low, and since the Interstate Commerce Act imposes upon the carrier the duty of charging, and upon the shipper of paying, proper charges on freight, accuracy in the weights used is as important as accuracy in the rates applied. It is, therefore, essential that all concerned should be thoroughly acquainted with the rules and practices with respect to weighing freight.

When a freight car is built it is weighed before being placed in transportation service and the weight (called tare weight) is stenciled on the sides of the car, together with the date and place at which weighed. The car service rules of the carriers

require that a car shall be re-weighed each year for the first two years it is in service, WHEN CARS ARE and once every two years thereafter. However, a car may be re-weighed whenever

necessary for any reason. It is frequently done to settle controversies between carrier and shipper over the question of the correctness of the weight used in computing freight charges on a shipment. In some cases cars are re-weighed just before being loaded.

METHOD OF WEIGHING

Carload freight should be weighed at the point of origin, or, if no scales are at the point of origin, then the weighing should be performed at scales as near thereto as practicable, and such scales, be they railroad or private, should be tested and operated in accordance with the specifications and rules of the carriers, and weights ascertained in the following manner:

(a) When track scale weights are used for computing freight charges, weighing
must be done by or under the supervision of the carrier or its representatives, or under
properly supervised weight agreements.
(b) Cars may be weighed at rest:

(1) When uncoupled and free at both ends.
(2) When coupled at one end and free at the other end, only at points

where the scale rails are level and approach rails level for a distance
of 50 feet, and when the scales are kept in first-class condition.

WEIGHTS AND WEIGHING

METHOD OF
WEIGHING.

(Con.)

RE-WEIGHING

(c) Cars may be weighed in motion only when uncoupled and free at both ends and alone, upon scales properly designed for weighing in motion and in charge of a competent weighmaster.

(d) Cars loaded with long material extending from one car to another may be weighed coupled at rest. They may also be weighed coupled in motion on scales of sufficient length to properly weigh together the cars so coupled.

(e) When the actual tare of a car has been ascertained immediately before loading, it should be used in lieu of the marked tare.

(f) If a loaded car upon arrival at destination is re-weighed on request of consignee or shipper, and the actual tare of the car is ascertained after the entire lading has been removed (including all packing and the debris resulting from lading), it should be used in lieu of the marked tare. If the car is reloaded by the consignee, such actual tare should be used.

(g) The marked tare should be used to arrive at the net weight of the load, except as provided in paragraphs (e) and (f).

Re-weighing of freight in carloads will be performed when the contents of the car have been transferred en route, or where the car has met with an accident, or other reasons which indicate that a part of the shipment is lost in transit. Carload freight will also be re-weighed when the carrier believes it is necessary to test the accuracy of previous weights as obtained by the re-weighing carrier or connecting carriers.

When the consignor or consignee believes that the weights as submitted by the carrier are erroneous, then the car may be re-weighed, but subject to charges for such re-weighing as prescribed in the tariffs of the carriers, such re-weighing charges fluctuating according to the scales upon which the car is re-weighed, that is, on private scales or on carriers' scales. No charges will be assessed by the carrier when a discrepancy is shown which indicates that the previous weights as obtained by the carriers were erroneous, subject, however, to the rules governing “Tolerances.”

A record should be kept at the scale at which car is weighed, showing the gross, tare (whether actual or stenciled), net weights, the date and time of weighing, and weather conditions, also whether the car was weighed at rest or in motion, coupled or uncoupled, and whether or not any debris was on or in the car, and if so, the amount.

The record of weighing should be recorded on the carrier's way-bill or card-bill, together with the name of point where weight was obtained, and the record as shown should be transmitted to connecting lines if no through billing arrangements are in effect, and also to the consignee on destination freight bill. If weights are obtained under weight agreements, then the records should so indicate.

Definition of Tolerance.—The difference in weights due to variation in scales or weighing which may be permitted without correction of the billed weight.

Where carload freight, the weight of which is not subject to change from its inherent nature, is check-weighed or re-weighed en route or at destination, at the request of shipper or consignee, no correction will be made in the billed weight, except as provided below:

If the difference between the original net weight and the weight obtained by reweighing does not exceed the tolerance, the first weight will not be changed. If such difference exceeds the tolerance, the car should be weighed a third time, if practicable. If the third weighing confirms the original weight within the tolerance, no change will be made. Where the original weight cannot be applied as above, the lower of the second or third weights should be used where the difference between the second and third weight does not exceed the tolerance.

WEIGHT
RECORDS

TOLERANCE

WEIGHTS AND WEIGHING

TOLERANCE

(Con.)

In deciding between weights obtained on track scales as to which is the more correct, all of the conditions under which the several weighings were done should be taken into consideration, including the class of scale, condition, how recently tested, the manner of weighing, whether car was at rest or in motion, coupled or uncoupled, actual or stenciled tare used, the time of weighing, weather conditions and the reliability of the weigher, giving precedence to that weight obtained under the best conditions.

The consignor or consignee is permitted to show the actual weight of any carload shipment either by means of shipper's authenticated invoice or by weighing the entire load on platform scales, or by so weighing a proper portion of uniform or standard weight articles (not less than ten (10) per cent. of the lading), weighing to be performed under supervision of the carrier, provided such total weight includes all blocking, packing and debris resulting from the lading. This actual weight will be used to determine freight charges (subject to weight agreements applicable), provided the difference in weight exceeds the tolerance.

The tolerance is usually one per cent. (1%) of the lading, with a minimum of 500 pounds, on all carload freight, except on coal and coke, where the tolerance is usually one per cent. (1%) of the lading, with a minimum of 1,000 pounds. When ashes, cinders, clay, dolomite, ganister, gravel, mill scale, ore, sand, slag, all stone (not cut), and similar bulk freight, brick and soft drain tile, are loaded in open cars, the tolerance is usually one per cent. (1%) of the lading, with a minimum of 1,000 pounds. However, tolerance on coal and coke generally does not include difference in weight due to evaporation, this being usually determined and published in carrier's tariff.

Weights of commodities subject from their inherent nature to shrinkage in weight, properly obtained at or near point of origin, should not be changed, except as provided for in the tariffs of the carriers. If obvious error is discovered, each case should be dealt with upon its individual merits and report made to the carrier with all the facts.

WEIGHT
AGREEMENTS

Weight agreements, covering the weights of shipments, between the shipper and the carrier, may be established upon application of the shipper to the carrier. The weighing agreement standardizes the weight of the shipper's goods, assuring the shipper of actual knowledge as to the weights that should apply on the goods. Under this arrangement the carriers, through their weighing departments, make weighing tests of the shipper's goods, and, after arriving at the weights for the different kinds of goods, an agreement is made which provides for the acceptance by the carriers of the shipper's freight at the agreed weights. This facilitates the forwarding of shipments and obviates re-weighing in transit, which means that the goods will not be subject to various scale weights, particularly when such scales would probably indicate a weight different from the correct weight, on account of weather elements or the scales not being in proper condition. Under the agreement between the shipper and carrier, the shipper is required to permit an examination of his records, and the carriers, through their weighing departments, will certain periods re-weigh goods so as to provide for different weights that might be caused through any change made in methods of packing since original weights were obtained. This action on the part of the carriers is necessary in view of Section 10 of the Act to Regulate Commerce obligating the carrier to assess, and the shipper to pay, the proper and lawful charges on goods transported by the carrier.

WEIGHTS AND WEIGHING

NATIONAL CODE
OF RULES

The American Railway Association has drafted a Code of Weighing and Reweighing Rules which has been adopted by many railroads. This Code, with the public announcement of the Interstate Commerce Commission indorsing and recommending it, is reproduced on the following pages.

RULES GOVERNING THE WEIGHING AND RE-WEIGHING OF CARLOAD FREIGHT.

Adopted May 20, 1914.

INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION.

NATIONAL CODE OF RULES GOVERNING THE WEIGHING AND RE-WEIGHING

OF CARLOAD FREIGHT. The American Railway Association has adopted the code of rules governing the weighing and re-weighing of carload freight reported by its Weighing Committee, and recommends that it be made generally applicable on interstate traffic. These rules have been considered and approved by the National Industrial Traffic League. The Interstate Commerce Commission, recognizing the great benefits to be derived from uniformity in weighing and re-weighing rules, is desirous of lending its influence to the movement. The Commission, therefore, indorses the rules governing the weighing and re-weighing of carload freight adopted by the American Railway Association and recommends that they be made effective on interstate transportation throughout the country.

This action, of course, is subject to the right and duty of the Commission to inquire into the legality or reasonableness of any rule or rules which may be made the subject of complaint. By the Commission.

GEORGE B. McGINTY, (SEAL)

Secretary. WASHINGTON, D. C., June 9, 1914.

Section E.-When the actual tare of a car has been ascertained immediately before loading, it shall be used in lieu of the marked tare, except as provided in Section F.

Section F.- If a loaded car upon arrival at destination is weighed and the actual tare is ascertained after the entire lading of the car has been removed, including all packing and the debris resulting from that lading, it shall be used in lieu of the marked tare. If the car is reloaded by the consignee, actual tare obtained in like manner may be used.

Section G.–The marked tare should be used to arrive at the net weight of the load, except as provided in Sections E and F of this rule.

RULE 4.-WEIGHTS—WHERE ASCERTAINED. Carload freight should be weighed at point of origin, or as near thereto as practicable.

INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH. These rules do not change or amend the rules, minimum weights or estimated weights provided in tariffs or the classifications governing the tariffs, nor the rules and regulations of the individual lines as filed with the Interstate Commerce Commission.

RULE 1.-SUPERVISION OF SCALES. When weights obtained on railroad or private scales are used for the assessment of freight charges, such scales shall be maintained, tested and operated in accordance with the Track Scale Specifications and Rules approved by The American Railway Association.

RULE 2.-WEIGHTS-By Whom ASCERTAINED. Weights should be ascertained by competent employes after proper instruction and under proper supervision.

RULE 3.-WEIGHTS—How ASCERTAINED.
Section A.-When track scale weights are used for the
assessment of freight charges, weighing must be done by
or under the supervision of the carriers or their represent-
atives or under properly supervised weight agreements.

Section B.-Cars may be weighed at rest:
(1) When uncoupled and free at both ends.
(2) When coupled at one end and free at the other

end, only at points where the scale rails are level
and approach rails level for a distance of 50 feet,
and when the scales are kept in first class con-

dition.
Section C.-Cars may be weighed in motion, only when
uncoupled and free at both ends and alone, upon scales
properly designed for weighing in motion and in charge
of a competent weighmaster.

Section D.—Cars loaded with long material extending from one car to another may be weighed coupled at rest. They may also be weighed coupled in motion on scales of sufficient length to properly weigh together the cars so coupled.

RULE 5.—WHEN CARS MAY BE RE-WEIGHED. Section A.-When the lading has been transferred en route, where car has met with an accident, or where for other reasons there is evidence of loss in transit, the carriers will, when practicable, re-weigh the car.

Section B.-Carload freight may also be re-weighed en route or at destination for the information of the interested carriers and to test the accuracy of the previous weighings. (See Rule 8.)

Section C.-When request is made by consignor or consignee for the re-weighing of any car, such re-weighing shall be done, whenever practicable, the car to be weighed again if necessary--subject to Rule 9.

RULE 6.-NOTIFICATION. Upon request the consignor will be furnished with the gross, tare and net weights and all changes made therein.

WEIGHTS AND WEIGHING

RULE 7.-INFORMATION TO BE SHOWN ON SCALE RECORD WEIGHT CERTIFICATE, WAY-BILL, FREIGHT-BILL, ETC.

Section A.-A record should be kept at each track scale showing the gross, tare (whether actual or stenciled) and net weight; the date and time of weighing; the condition of the weather; whether weighed at rest or in motion; coupled at one or both ends or uncoupled; when actual tare is used, estimated amount of debris in

either by means of shipper's authenticated invoice or by weighing the entire load on platform scales, or by so weighing a proper portion of uniform or standard weight articles (not less than ten (10) per cent of the lading), weighing to be performed under supervision of the carrier; provided such total weight includes all blocking, packing and debris resulting from the lading in question. This actual weight will be used to determine freight charges (subject to weight agreements if applicable), provided the difference in weight exceeds the tolerance.

the car.

Section E.—The tolerance shall be one per cent (1%) of the lading, with a minimum of 500 pounds, on all carload freight, including coal and coke, except that when ashes, cinders, clay, dolomite, ganister, gravel, mill-scale, ore, sand, slag, all stone (not cut), and similar bulk freight, brick and soft drain tile are loaded in open cars, the tolerance shall be one per cent (1%) of the lading, with a minimum of 1,000 pounds.

Nore.-Tolerance on coal and coke does not include difference in weight due to evaporation, which shall be determined and published in initial carrier's tariff.

Section B.- The point at which car is weighed and the gross, tare and net weights will be noted in ink or indelible pencil on regular way-bill and slip-bill or card-bill. When actual tare is used instead of marked tare it should be so specified (see Rule 3). The method of ascertaining the weight should also be specified as Railroad Scale, Weighing Bureau, Shippers', Tariff, Classification or Agreement Weight. This information must also be shown on transfers to connecting line, on correction sheets when issued, carried on way-bills to destination, and shown on freight bills.

Section C.-When track scales are equipped with registering or recording, device and sticker form of scale tickets is used, said tickets may be used in same manner as provided above, and if space is provided thereon, the information shown in Section A will be added.

Section D.-Where side cards are provided for the purpose, weights should be endorsed thereon.

Section E.-In case agent at point of origin receives request from consignor for the result of weighing or reweighing, proper notation should be made on billing accompanying the car to destination. (See Rule 6.)

Section F.-Where weights are obtained for billing purposes under weight agreements which do not provide for use of the gross and tare weights, the gross and tare weights need not be shown as provided in Sections B, C and D.

RULE 8.-WEIGHTS TO GOVERN AND TOLERANCE.*

Section A.—Where carload freight, the weight of which is not subject to change from its inherent nature, is checkweighed or re-weighed en route or at destination, no correction will be made in the billed weight except as provided below:

Section B.-If the difference between the original net weight and the weight obtained by re-weighing does not exceed the tolerance provided in this rule, the first weight will not be changed. If such difference exceeds the tolerance, the car should be weighed a third time if practicable. If the third weighing confirms the original weight within the tolerance, no change shall be made. Where the original weight cannot be applied as above, the lower of the second or third weights shall be used where the difference between the second and third weight does not exceed the tolerance.

Section C.-In deciding between weights obtained on track scales as to which is the more correct, all of the conditions under which the several weighings were done must be taken into consideration, including the class of scale, condition, how recently tested, the manner of weighing, whether car was at rest or in motion, coupled or uncoupled, actual or stenciled tare used, the time of weighing, weather conditions and the reliability of the weigher, giving precedence to that weight obtained under the best conditions.

Section D.—The consignor or consignee shall be permitted to show the actual weight of any carload shipment

* DEFINITION OF TOLERANCE.—The difference in weights due to variation in scales or weighing which may be permitted without correction of the billed weight.

Section F.–Weights of commodities subject to shrinkage in weight from their inherent nature, properly obtained at or near point of origin, should not be changed, except as provided for in the tariffs of the carriers. If obvious error is discovered, each case should be dealt with upon its individual merits and report made to the originating carrier with all the facts. RULE 9.-CHARGES FOR WEIGHING AND RE-WEIGHING.

Section A.-When weights are obtained for the assessment of freight charges, no charge will be made by the carrier for the service.

Section B.-When a car is weighed or re-weighed, either empty or loaded, at request of either consignor or consignee, the service and charges will be in accordance with conditions named below, subject to the rules and carload minimum weights prescribed in tariffs and classifications.

Section C.-When a shipper or consignee requests that a car containing a commodity which is not subject to shrinkage from its inherent nature be re-weighed, this service, wherever practicable, will be performed by the carrier without charge, provided such re-weighing discloses error in the billed weight of more than the tolerance provided in Rule 8. When a car contains a commodity which is subject to shrinkage from its inherent nature, no charge will be made if the billed weight is changed, as per Rule 8, Section F.

Section D.-When a car is weighed or re-weighed either empty or loaded at request of either consignor or consignee, a charge will be made each time car is weighed (except as provided in Section C):

(1) On private scales located at the industry,

per car. (2) On other private scales, conveniently located, $ per car.

(See Note.) (3) On railroad company's scales, conveniently located,

· per car. NOTE.-The parties desiring the weighing done must make their own arrangements with the owners of the scales for their use; the charge of $

covers only the weighing service performed by

toe carrier.

Section E.-When inbound freight is weighed or reweighed by a switching line (not participating in the freight rate) the above charges will be assessed, regardless of any variation in weights, and will be in addition to the regular switching charge. If no change is made in billed weight, the charge will be against the party or road requesting weighing; when change is made in billed weight, the charge will be made by the switching line against the delivering road.

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