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All express shipments must be prepared or packed in a manner to secure safe transportation with ordinary care on the part of the express company.

Consideration should be given to the fact that express shipments are necessarily handled many times in transit; that the shortage of cars at times makes it necessary that express cars be loaded practically solid; that shipments vary as to size, weight and shape, which adds to the difficulty of stowing freight in the cars.

Shipments of particularly fragile nature, such as glassware, in addition to being very carefully packed, should be labeled to indicate the nature of contents.

Liquids in glass should not be placed in the same containers with other merchandise.


Shipments wrapped in paper must not ordinarily exceed 35 pounds, and then at least two sheets of heavy wrapping paper must be used and package tied up with heavy cord round each end and over the center.

Cartons--Use nothing but standard test cartons described in Classification Rules. The best way to secure the flaps of one-piece or slotted cartons is to glue them over the entire area of contact with silicate of soda.

When paper tape is used is must be at least two inches in width and the ends must lap 27/2 inches or more over the sides of the box and be glued firmly to all surfaces with which they come in contact. Paper tape is good added protection, but do not overestimate its strength as a means of holding a shipment together.

Two-piece or three-piece paper cartons must be securely tied with heavy cord (in one piece) or cloth or metal tape.

Second-hand Containers—Considerable risk is involved in the use of secondhand containers for express shipments and we strongly urge that they be not used. If used (the old marks must be effectively erased), they must meet the classification requirements, which means they must be practically in as good condition and as strong as when new and the ends must be fastened. It naturally follows that greater care should be used in gluing the flaps and sealing these shipments than in the case of new cartons.

Live Animals, Live Stock, Live Birds—Crate used should be of sufficient strength to prevent injury or escape of animals or birds and to ensure handling without damage to crate, contents or attendants, and lower slat or board on crate should be securely fastened to the bottom and be of sufficient height to prevent the possibility of the animal or bird becoming injured by its legs protruding between the lower slat and the floor of the crate.

Furniture-Furniture must be crated, whether new or second-hand.

Liquids in Cans-Caps on cans must be fastened so that the air pressure from inside of can will not force them if shipment receives a jolt.

Metal Castings—The safest and surest way to ship castings is to box, truss or crate them. Stove castings, firebrick and other articles of such fragile nature should be fully protected by wood.

Printed Matter-Paper, pamphlets and other printed matter when shipped in packages should be well tied or bound together before being wrapped so that the shifting of contents in handling will not break the wrapping paper. Thousands of such shipments reach repair rooms simply because the wrapping paper has been relied upon to hold the package together and has not proven strong enough.

These suggestions are based on the carriers' experience and cover a few of the classes of shipments and commodities which frequently find their way to "Bad Order” rooms. These suggestions are in accord with Classification Rules.



Always show shipper's name and address.
Place plain, legible addresses on each piece of each shipment.

Place address directly on shipments by use of crayon (not chalk), brush or stencil, if possible to do so.

Always erase old marks.

When marking heavy shipments or shipments of iced goods, addresses must be placed on some protected part of shipment where they will not come in contact with other shipments.

"Inside Information” is always valuable. Place name and address inside each package.

Containers used continuously, such as bread baskets, gas tanks, etc., must be marked with two tags.

C. O. D. Shipments—Shipper's name, street and number, amount of C. O. D. and C. O. D. number or invoice number to bepla inly shown on shipment and C. O. D. envelope. These envelopes to be so attached that they can be removed at destination without mutilation. They are the envelopes used for return of money order, and must therefore be in mailable condition. Carrier will furnish, upon application, pouch envelope to contain C. O. D. envelope and invoices, to insure delivery to consignee.

Commodities listed below are those which most frequently find their way into No Mark” Departments; therefore special care should be used in marking such shipments and suggest the following:

When not boxed or crated, must bave two marks, both to be attached to the inner surface

of the package, bale or tire, and to consist (1) Automobile Tires (not boxed or {of a strong tag securely attached, and (2) crated).

another tag bearing the same address, securely bound by burlap or cloth, or an address label pasted on the inner surface.

Always remove old marks. Place owner's Baggage (trunks, suit cases, golf

name and address inside. Affix one label firmly, bags, hampers, tool chests, etc.).

(attach one tag securely.

Direct marking by stencil or brush. These COMMODITIES Bales (bedding, carpets, rugs, etc.).

shipments will not be accepted marked with tags. Always place duplicate address label on inside of bale.


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Shipper's name and address must be shown on each piece of each shipment (other than carload shipments).

Cases 666, 667 and 668 of the October term of the United States Supreme Court cover the action of the Southeastern Express Co., Southern Traffic League, and Interstate Commerce Commission versus the American Railway Express Co., in connection with the proceedings instituted by the Southeastern Express Co. to force the American Railway Express Co. to establish through routes and joint rates between all points served by them respectively, whether local or common points, and to permit the shipper to give the routing instructions. The American Railway Express Co. declined to do this, limiting its concurrence to routes between the local points of one company and the local points of the other. In this way it attempted to secure to itself, either the entire haul or the longest possible haul. The cases were consolidated and the Commission ordered the establishment of some of the through routes prayed for, finding that in order to secure adequate service it was necessary and desirable in the public interest that the competitive joint routes be established although the American Railway Express Co. had reasonable routes from origin to destination, or from origin to a point nearer destination than the joint through routes established. (Southeastern Express Co. vs. American Railway Express Co., 78 I. C. C. 126; 81 I. C. C. 247.)


Before the effective date of the order, a suit to enjoin its enforcement was brought by the American Railway Express Co. against the United States in the Federal Court for Northern Georgia. The Seaboard Air Line, one of the many railroads with which the American Railway Express Co. has a contract, intervened as plaintiff. The Interstate Commerce Commission, the Southeastern Express Company, and shipper's associations intervened as defendants. The court held that the order was void on the RAILWAY EXPRESS SERVICE

ground that the American Railway Express Co. is a "carrier by railroad" within the meaning of paragraph 4, Section 15 of the Interstate Commerce Act, and that, therefore, the Commission was, on the facts found, without power to make the order. A temporary injunction was granted (293 Fed., 31).

The decision by the Supreme Court, rendered on June 2, 1924, held:

(1) The American Railway Express Company is not a "carrier by railroad" within the meaning of paragraph 4, Section 15 of the Interstate Commerce Act.



(2) The Interstate Commerce Commission bas the power to establish through routes "whenever deemed by it to be necessary or desirable in the public interest." In transportation, the quality of the service furnished may be as important to the shipper as the rate.

(3) The existence of a competitive route ordinarily implies an option in the shipper. To give him the privilege of directing the routing is a corollary of the establishment of competitive routes. The Commission's order that the shipper by express may direct the routing is not unreasonable.



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