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PACKING AND MARKING
The ends govern the size of nail to use, as modified by thickness of sides, tops, and bottoms. If ends and cleats are of the same thickness, drive approximately
. 50 per cent. of nails into ends and 50 per cent. into cleats. If end has four cleats of material thicker than the end itself, let thickness of cleats determine size of nail to be used and drive all nails into cleats.
If the ends are made from woods of two groups, use the nails specified for the harder wood. For instance, if the ends are made of white pine mixed with hemlock, the nails specified for "Group 2" woods should be used. If the nails specified for the white pine are either 9d, 8d, or 7d, the use of nails one penny smaller automatically provides for closer spacing. If, however, the nails specified are 6d or smaller, the substitution of nails one penny smaller should be accompanied by closer spacing (one-quarter inch closer spacing is the accepted rule) if that can be done.
The number of nails specified is not the maximum number which can be driven. Increasing the number of nails 50 per cent. will increase the strength of the box more than 100 per cent. on an average. The danger from splits, due to driving twice or even three times as many nails as specified in these tables, is negligible. In a great majority of cases it is wiser to increase the number of nails driven. It is also far more effective in providing additional serviceability, and much more economical than increasing the thickness of the material.
| Reproduced from Commerce Reports No. 21, of May 28, 1924, issued by Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C.
DIVERSION AND RECONSIGNMENT
DIVERSION AND RECONSIGNMENT.
The question often arises as to the distinction between service performed as a "diversion" and that performed as a "reconsignment." There has never been any definite or authoritative decision or ruling on that point. It is the contention of some that any change made before the arrival of a shipment at its original destination is a diversion, while changes made after arrival constitute a reconsignment; others hold that a diversion is a change made only in the routing before arrival and that a reconsignment is any other change before arrival or any change, including routing made after arrival. However, one must be guided by the definition of these terms as given in the tariffs of the carriers. As used in tariffs governing the diversion or reconsignment of carload shipments of general merchåndise, the terms are synonymous, being defined as follows:
(a) A change in name of consignee.
ment of car, or both.
The privilege of diverting or reconsigning shipments is of great value and benefit to shippers; in fact, it is essential to many. The perishable food industries could hardly thrive without it. In the banana industry, for instance, many shipments are made before sales are consummated. The bananas consumed in the United States are imported, and upon their arrival at our ports are unloaded from the ships directly into freight cars, and those which have not been sold are shipped in the direction of the large consuming centers at which sales are anticipated; and when sold, they are reconsigned to the purchasers and diverted, if necessary, to another route. In this way deliveries are made promptly, and the bananas reach the consumer at an earlier date than would be possible otherwise.
While the use of the diversion and reconsignment service is not usually contemplated by the average shipper before or at the time of forwarding a shipment, it is a common practice for shippers of such commodities as coal, lumber, grain, perishable goods, etc., to start a shipment to some point in the direction of an anticipated market or demand for the goods, with the expectation that before, or at least shortly after, arrival at its destination, a sale, and most likely a diversion or reconsignment, will be consummated.
The practice of diverting or reconsigning shipments has played an important part in commercial developments throughout the country. Formerly the large distributive centers of the country were the points at which supplies were stored by jobbers preparatory to being shipped out in smaller lots throughout the adjacent territory. But, with the spread of population, this adjacent territory developed
. smaller distributive centers of its own and, with transportation extending more and more over its area, shipments have come more directly to the consumer. In many lines the jobber of the city has now become largely a broker who directs distribution without directly handling the goods distributed, which is made possible by reason of the diversion and reconsignment service rendered by the transportaDIVERSION AND RECONSIGNMENT
tion companies. In a sense this distributive development is analogous to the early transportation betterments that came with the consolidation of small railway systems and the establishment of through routes and joint rates.
The primary advantages of the diversion or reconsignment privilege are found in the saving in transportation costs to the shipper; the increase in the fluidity and regularity of movement of seasonal goods; the elimination of economic waste by reducing the handling of goods between the producer and the consumer; and the facility with which commodities may be turned in the direction of points of most active demand. In other words, the diversion and reconsignment privileges increase the efficiency of transportation facilities in performing their most important function of bringing together supply and demand in many lines. The shipper of perishable goods, for instance, is enabled to divert or reconsign his shipment from a market already over-stocked, thus often converting a prospective loss into a gain.
The rules and regulations of the carriers, governing their diversion and reconsignment services, apply only to shipments handled in carload quantities. Less than carload shipments may be diverted or reconsigned, but in such cases the carriers make no charge for the privilege, because they do not make any concessions to shippers or perform extra services, as is done in the case of carload freight. As a matter of fact, it involves much labor and expense to locate a small shipment in transit and, except in extreme emergencies, the carriers will not undertake to do so, but will simply place instructions with the agent at destination to be acted upon after the arrival of the shipment.
The diverting and reconsignment of a shipment before its arrival at the billed destination are privileges accorded by the transportation lines, and not services incumbent upon them to perform, regardless of the conditions under which they are attempted. In the very nature of things, a transportation company can not be expected in every case to locate a shipment before it arrives at its billed destination and divert or reconsign it to some other place, or otherwise carry out the orders of a shipper. The transportation company, however, having undertaken to perform the service, is charged with the duty of making very diligent efforts through every reasonable means at its command to carry it out successfully and is not responsible for failure to do so unless such failure is due to negligence on the part of its representatives.
In order that the service may be performed with greatest success and at the least expense to all concerned, prompt and proper action on the part of the shipper is most essential, and especially so in cases involving a change in destination to one nearer the point of origin, or to one reached via a route not passing through the first destination. The shipper, therefore, should be thoroughly familiar with every detail and requirement of the rules and practices of the carriers with respect to the diversion and reconsignment of shipments, so that a request for that service may be placed in the proper form and with the proper representative of the carrier.
Quick action and correct procedure are of the greatest moment in these cases. The slightest delay or error in presenting the requests to the carrier may be costly to the shipper. The request may be made on the agent at the point of shipment, or on the traffic manager, general freight agent, superintendent of transportation, or superintendent of car service of the carrier having the shipment in its possesDIVERSION AND RECONSIGNMENT
sion; or, if the shipment has reached its destination, it may be filed there with the agent of the carrier. The request should contain a complete description of the shipment, date shipped, names of shipper, shipping point, consignee and destination, car number (if carload), route, and clear and definite instructions as to the changes desired, and be accompanied by the original bill of lading or other documents required by the carrier.
The services of diverting or reconsigning carload shipments of general merchandise are usually subject to the following conditions:
(a) That shipments have not broken bulk.
(b) Orders will not be accepted for diversion or reconsignment to a station or to a point of delivery against which an embargo is in force. Shipments made under authorized permits are not subject to this condition.
(c) On “straight” consignments, the original bill of lading should be surrendered or other proof of ownership established. On shipments consigned "to order," original bill of lading should be surrendered for endorsement or exchange, or in its absence satisfactory bond of indemnity executed in lieu thereof, or other approved security given at the time the diversion or reconsignment order is placed.
(d) Request for diversion or reconsignment must be made or confirmed in writing.
(e) All charges must be prepaid or guaranteed..
As a rule charges for diverting or reconsigning carload shipments of general merchandise are not made in such cases as the following:
(a) For a single diversion or reconsignment, if order for such diversion or reconsignment is received at initial billing point before car leaves the yard at such initial billing point, provided the change involves no extra movement of the car.
(b) For a single change in the name of consignee at destination and/or a single change in, or a single addition to the designation of his place of delivery at destination, if order for such changes is received in time to permit instructions to be given yard employees prior to arrival at destination or terminal yard.
(c) Where a car is placed for delivery at destination and an order for the delivery of the contents thereof to other than the billed consignee is or has been presented to and accepted by the agent of the carrier at destination, and no change is involved in billing records, nor additional movement of car required.
(d) Where a change in route is made necessary by an embargo placed against the billed destination, or route thereto, subsequent to acceptance of the shipment by the carrier at point of origin.
(e) Where a car has been placed for unloading and is ordered reforwarded to a point within switching limits.
The following is the schedule of charges applied by practically all carriers for the service of diverting or reconsigning carload shipments of general merchandise.
(a) For Diversion or Reconsignment to any Point Before Arrival.-If order for diversion or reconsignment is placed in time to permit service being performed prior to arrival of car at billed destination, or if the destination is served by a terminal yard, then prior to arrival at such yard, $2.70 per car.
(b) For Diversion or Reconsignment to Points Within Destination Switching Limits, After Arrival of Car, but Before Placed for Unloading.- If order is placed in time to permit instructions being given by carrier to its yard employees within DIVERSION AND RECONSIGNMENT
twenty-four hours after arrival of car at destination, or if destination is served by a terminal yard, then within twenty-four hours after arrival at such yard, $2.70 per car. If order is placed subsequent to twenty-four hours after arrival, $6.30 per car.
(c) For Diversion or Reconsignment to Points Outside of Destination Switching Limits, After Arrival of Car, but Before Placed for Unloading.–After arrival of car at billed destination or, if the destination is served by a terminal yard, then after arrival at such yard, $6.30 per car.
(d) For Diversion or Reconsignment After Car is placed for Unloading and Reforwarded Without Being Unloaded.- To points within destination switching limits, no charges. To points outside of destination switching limits, $6.30 per car.
(e) For a change in name of consignor, with no further change in billing instructions, a charge of $1.50, but no charge will be made for this change if order therefor is placed before car leaves billing point and the change involves no extra movement of car.
Under the diversion and reconsignment rules of the carriers, in the case of a change in the destination of a carload shipment of general merchandise before being placed for unloading, the charges to the new destination are generally based on the usual through rates from the point of origin to the new destination, applicable via the point at which the shipment is diverted or reconsigned, on the date shipment was forwarded from point of origin, plus the diversion or reconsignment charge. If the usual through rate from the point of origin to the new destination is not applicable via the point at which the shipment is diverted or reconsigned, the charge assessed is usually based on the rates in effect to and from the latter point, plus the diversion or reconsignment charge.
If a car has been placed for unloading at the original billed destination and diverted or reconsigned without being unloaded, to a point outside of the switching limits, it is charged at tariff rates to and from the point at which it was placed for unloading, plus $6.30 per car, subject to a minimum total charge based on the usual through rate from point of origin to final destination, plus $6.30 diversion or recon
signment charge. The shipper, however, has the right, in cases of this kind, to avail FREIGHT RATES himself of such advantages as may result from making a reshipment, that is, by
paying all accrued transportation charges on the inbound movement and making a new consignment under a new bill of lading.
If a car is placed for unloading on a public delivery track, but has not been accepted or unloaded by the consignee or owner, it will, for the purpose of applying diversion or reconsignment rules, be treated the same as a car which has not been placed for unloading.
On shipments of general merchandise only one change in destination is permitted at the usual through rate from point of origin. If a subsequent change is desired, which involves a movement of the car, the shipment will be charged at the rates to and from the point where reforwarded, plus $6.30 per car, in addition to the charges already accrued. And if, on the subsequent change in destination, the shipment is forwarded to a point short of the billed destination, the charge is made on basis of the rates to and from the point at which the first diversion or reconsignment was accomp.ished, plus $6.30 per car, in addition to other charges previously accrued.