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Ilolmdel, N. J.


(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)

nailing pickets on just wide enough to exclude the ewes, RAISING LAMBS FOR BUTCHERS---No. 2. and put a small trough within, placing in it some sweet

cornmeal, ground coarse, and a little salt at first sprinkled After the ewes are well rested, and used to grass so Your lambs will soon find it out, and if you please that there is no danger of over-eating, they may gradual- to take time, you will find it an advantage to cut some ly be put on better pasture. At this time an important turnips or potatoes up fine for them. point is to aimed at, and kept steadily in view, viz.,

By now giving your ewes plenty to eat, and nursing not to hurry your ewes too fast in the fall

, so that the your Jambs, they should be fit for market in June, and

the ewes in September worth $1 more than cost, which, thrift cannot be kept up in the winter, but aim at with lambs and wool, should pay full $6.50 or $7 per bead a constant gain in condition, changing from worse to for ewes wintered, especially if you raise many twins. better, and not from better to worse.

Of course if your ewes are good milkers, as they begin to spring bag

EARLY TRAINING OF COLTS. they will begin to get thin; but this thinness is per. fectly natural, and does not interfere with the ewes being Early training on a judicious system is acknowledged to in good heart and very thrifty. About the 1st of Oct., I produce the best results with the young. J. F. French should say,—others, Nov. 1st, -the ram should be turned of North Hampton, gives in the New-England Farmer, a in.

I have now to write on a delicate matter, but I shall communication on this subject, from which we abstract write what I know to be so, and reserve the proof for the the following paragraph: future, if it becomes necessary to produce it. In select- “I have two colts, one eight months old, and the other ing your stock ram then, don't be too pinching, but buy a one year and eight months. They are both accustomed good one, as it will be money well laid out, and that you to the harness. The oldest I bave frequently used in the will never regret; and by all means buy a South-Down. sleigh. On one occasion this winter, when sleigbing was As I have watched this matter closely for fourteen years, good, it has taken me, together with my little son, to I can say with confidence that no other breed is better or Portsmouth and back, a distance of nine miles each way, as good. But it does not follow that you need buy of me. with no inconvenience or injury whatever. The colt is There are many good South-Down flocks. I would be large of its age, in good condition as to its flesls, and high glad if there were ten times as many. I might mention spirited; and I required it to walk at least two-thirds of Mr. Thorne's of New York State, Thomas Buffum of New- the distance each way. It was well fed in the city, taken port, R. I., Mr. Joby Worth, Westchester, Chester Co., through streets where it could hear various sounds, and Pa., and very many others; but my readers will notice witness all sorts of objects--still it was not suffered to tire, their advertisements.

or scarcely to sweat at all, and to every appearance was When I first commenced with South-Downs, many of as lively and bright when I reached home as when I startour old fashioned farmers would not pay ten dollars for a ed. To have forced it beyond its strength that distance, ram lamb. Since seeing the great advantage, these same or balf the distance, would have been injurious—but carefarmers bave willingly paid $25 for ram lambs, only keep- ful training is always beneficial, and we rarely begin too ing from 20 to 50 ewes, and will any day tell you that young with anything." they would not be without a South-Down ram for fifty Lambert Maynard, owner of " Trotting Childers," who dollars; but I have said, and say now, that from $15 to has had much experience in raising and training colts, told $25 is enough for a farmer to pay for a ram lamb just to Mr. F. that "his colts are all broken to the harness beraise butcher's lambs. Some contend that a Leicester, Cotswold or other long-wool, is as good, but a host of wit | fore they are a year old, or as he more properly expressnesses say they are not. A few years ago many of the ed it, educated. He rarely, if ever, uses a whip. As to Leicesters were scattered in this section, but after a fair its injuring them to use them so young, he remarked that trial, the South-Down proved so much better, that I do be never exercised them so hard as they exercise themnot know of a single Leicester left. Some of our farmers

selves when alone." used both in one season, dividing the ewes equally. The result was that the South-Down cross was fat and sold

The editor of the Farmer adds: “No suggestion with clean before a single Leicester cross was fit for market. regard to colts can be more judicious. The highest spiritThe best of New-York butchers buy lambs in this section; ed colt we ever saw we broke in accordance with the they all say use by all means a full blood South-Down ram? suggestions given by Mr. French. We began by putting I may here stop to say that all black-faced sheep are not on the bridle only, and continued through an entire month South-Downs, and that the improved South-Down is much to add various parts of the harness, until he was perfectly better than the common.

accustomed to every part of it. He was allowed to stand Every thing working as it should, by the 1st of March with the harness on from morning until noon, when it was pour lambs will commence dropping. I should therefore taken off

, the colt watered and fed, and after dinner a part commence about Feb. 1st, to give the ewes some grairi

, or the whole harness put on again. At the end of this and gradually increase to half a pint apiece by March 1st time we put him to a light wagon, alone, and drove bim -then by April 1st have it increased to one pint of corn. a mile, and had no trouble with him afterward." meal or one and a half pints oats. If the ground should be much bare, so that the ewes can get to the ground,

[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.j they will not need roots before lambing, but is confined SAWDUST AS LITTER FOR STABLES. to yards on clover hay and cornstalks, I should give about one pound turnips apiece per day, increasing to ten Every person who has had any experience in milking pounds when lambs are four weeks old; but if the ewes in stables, knows how difficult it is to keep the milk free can run through April on good sod intended for plowing, from any foreign matter, wbich does not add much to its they will not need so many roots. Many of our best far- flavor. I have practiced several years, fall and spring, mers never feed any roots, but they keep no more sheep than they can keep well; yet it is at this point that roots while cows were in milk, to litter my stable with sawdust, are of great service, as they help to keep the sheep off by applying at night one bushel to eight cows. I accomthe grass intended for pasture until it gets well started, plish a triple object by it. It keeps the stable clean; it and that almost insures good pasture through the season. keeps the cows cleaner; and last, not least, it adds to the

When the lambs are three or four weeks old, they can manure pile by absorbing the urine of the animals. Let be learned to eat cornmeal by putting a little in the the doubting try it. Hiram WALKER. Mexico, N. Y. worth, mixed with a little salt. After learning a few to flective of the hand, partition off a pen under shelter by Who is the most unpopular officer with some of the relativeves, putting a bottom and top railing across, then ' ladies ?-General Housework.

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.]

For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) HOW TO SHEAR SHEEP.

TEACHING CALVES TO DRINK. Having seen an article on shearing sheep in your paper, MESSRS. EDITORS—In the Co. Gent. of April 24th, A. which seemed to me was unworkmanlike and behind the Moss gave us a very good article on the treatment of cows times, and hoping that some may be benefitted by a few and calves, but I must beg leave to differ from him with directions that will be of great value to the beginner, if regard to teaching calves to drink. He says that he not to an old hand; and even be, if induced to follow, may “backs them up in one corner of the yard or stable, puts give up bis tying and the waggon boxes.

their neck between his knees, puts his finger in their Any ordinary floor that the farmer has, where he can mouths, then inserts their nose in the pail, and in this have his sheep bandy, will answer the purpose. If one man is to shear alone, take some strong material, (gunny way they soon learn to help themselves.” Two years ago bags ripped open are as good as anything, so that they I should probably have swallowed the whole of this as will make a piece say 6 by 8 feet, or what is better 8 by law and gospel,” but my experience last spring taught 10; spread some short straw or any litter that is not too me better doctrine. Having two calves that I wished to short on the floor, and tack your cloth over it, using separate from the cows, I shut them up in the stable one common lath or any thin strips to nail through-making the straw as even as you can. If there is to be more than night after they had sucked, and the next morning I milkone shearer, it is better to have one bed for each man, them, but it was “no go;" neither of them would eat. At

ed in a common wooden pail, and set it before one of but where room is scarce, it will do to have them together. night

' I milked again and placed it before them, when At the end of the day you will find that this will pay. they drank it in double quick time. I know farmers who When this is done, and your place swept out, you are ready for the sheep. See that it is clean of all 'straw and regularly practice this mode of treating their calves, and

with success. dirt at the door of the pen ; lay the sheep down on its

You can add meal to it, and they will eat right side, rest on your left knee being at the back of the it as readily as they do the milk. Brother farmers try it, slieep; put your right foot over the sheep, carrying his and report progress. F. A. WHITBECK. Yaplank, 1. 1. left tore leg well forward, and with your left hand on his left hind leg pressed well back, you will have your sheep

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) ready for operation. Begin on the upper side of his Coarse Flour and Meal for Raising Calves. stomach, and shear lengthwise of the sheep; shear the brisket and the inside of the hind legs—be careful to cut

It requires no labored argument to convince any farmer off all of the small locks—(if they are left on they look at the present day, that it is better for the cow and calf very bad.), When you have the stomach sheared then you both, that the calf should be brought up separate from stand astride of the sheep, and with your right hand raise the dam; as the teasing and worry of the calf is injurious the head a little ways from the bed, and shear with your to her, besides keeping her constantly excited. As it is left hand as far as the back of the neck. Here a beginner may use his right hand occasionally—be careful not not good economy to rear them on new milk, it becomes to go beyond the back bone.

necessary to substitute some other food to mix with the As you shear, raise the sheep up gradually so that by skimmed milk or whey, to make up for the loss of the the time you are at the shoulder you will have the sheep butter or cheese in the food, and not produce a loose state sitting on his rump-then you will be on your right knee of the bowels. I have tried scalding corn-meal and corn with the sheep's head over your left leg and under your arm-shear well down in this position until you have to and rye together; then I have made it into a pudding, as reach after the wool. Now let the sheep come down you would for table use-giving them a portion in each gradually, until by the time you are at the hind leg, he meal; but always found more or less difficulty in making will lay flat-then you will be astride of him on your them eat it, and when they did, its effect was too loose a knees, with your right foot over his neck, which will keep state of bowels. For several years I have used a coarse bim from flouncing. When this side is done, proceed with the other in the same way, but using the right hand four, which I could buy at the same price of corn-meal, (you will perceive that the fleece is at his back all the whey-does not settle to the bottom like meal; they eat

and use it uncooked. It readily mixes with the milk or time.) If you prefer using your right hand all the time, it readily, and they thrive on this mixture as on new milk. then lay the sheep on the other side to begin, or some I practice feeding calves in this way till fall feed is good, like that way the best where they use the left hand. If and have no more trouble to winter them than I do my the right hand is used all the time, the work will not cows. I keep them in the same stable with my cows; look as well and evenly. The way to hold the shears to cut a smooth and even of oat-meal each per day, or its equivalent, and when

give them the same chance, with the addition of one quart cut, is to grasp the shears partly on the blade, and bring grass comes they thrive at once, without waiting half the them partly shut, and run them in the wool, baving previously drawn the skin smooth where it is inclined to season to recruit. HIRAM WALKER, Mexico, N. Y. wrinkle-pressing against the sheep-shut the shears but a little way with a draw back at the same time, and if

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultiyator.] done rightly, it will leave the sheep in handsome ridges

CARE OF HORSES. of 4 to 1 inch wide--that will be so close to the skin that it will often sunburn on long wool sheep with the edges

I have found one table spoonful of air-slacked lime, about one-quarter of an inch long. Any one who has each alternate day, often cure a horse with a heavy cough seen sheep shorn in this way, will gladly give up the old from a cold. Many horses, if blanketed in the stable, way which leaves some of it nearly an inch long, and will take a cold every time they get a dash of rain in the with an appearance as if it had been gnawed off which winter, when if not blanketed in the stable, they will be makes your flock of sheep look badly for a long time.

The tendency to cut the sheep is greatly lessened when entirely free. The blanket should be used when standing shorn in this way. I have shorn a great many in a day, out, and if the horse is extra heated coming in, till the that did not have even a pinch on them. To cut one is blood has time to get to its usual heat. This I have the exception, not the rule.

practiced lor about twenty years, and bave lost no borses. I have written this in hopes that Young Farmer may

JERSEY. induce his neighbors to adopt this way, and for any other shearers who may see this. I have seen men at forty

LE The Ashtabula Co. (Ohio) Ag. Society has appointgive up the Young Farmer's way and learn this method. ed its next exhibition at Jefferson, Sept. 24–26. PresiApril 14th, 1862,


dent, Calvin DODGE; Secretary, W. H. Burgess.


[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) results, we would continue to make use of this fact, as far How to Improve a Badly Run Farm.

as circumstances will admit, by adopting a systematic

change or rotation of crops. There are many good and MESSRS. EDITORS—Having in a former article advised sufficient reasons besides those already given, in favor of those with limited means, to buy farms that were more or a rotation ; but the readers of the Co. Gent. being familless run down, and stated that they would have to adopt iar with them, I shall proceed to consider what crops some course of improvement, by which the land may be should be included in a rotation for a badly run out farm. brought up and made productive, I will now proceed to be to consider what crops have been grown to impoverish

Perhaps the best way to determine this question, will point out the course that it will be best for them to pur- the land. But this has already been done to some ex

tent, in considering the necessity of a change of crops. The first and most important point to be considered Hence, having seen that the small grains have been the and attended too, is a general change of crops. Most principal crops raised in running down the land, it will farms that are run down, have been under a long course

be best to raise as little as possible of them, and find

some other crops to take their place. of cropping with one or more of the different small grains,

Now there is one crop that I have seldom, if ever, heard such as wheat, rye, barley or oats—one of these grains charged with wearing out, or even injuring land. True, generally being made a leading crop; in wheat sections, we sometimes bear of land becoming “clover sick” in it is wheat, in other sections oats. And although rye and England. But I believe such cases are exceedingly rare, barley are raised to some extent, yet a large portion of if there are any at all, in this country, and more especialbadly run land has been mainly cropped with wheat or ly when plaster is sown on the clover, as it always should oats; while these crops are calculated to have as bad be on all but very rich lands. But on the contrary, while effect on land, and to give it a poor worn-out appearance clover never impoverishes land, it is seldom raised withas quick as perhaps any other crops; though in reality it out improving the soil and putting it in a much better may not be so very badly run down for other crops, be state for other crops; and this improvement being much sides wheat and oats. Again, such land is generally not greater and more surprising on badly run land that has plowed more than four or five inches deep; consequently, been but seldom, if ever, clovered. Again, clover can though the land may sooner appear to be worn out, yet be made a very profitable crop, as I hope to show when in reality it is only badly run to that depth. Hence a writing more in detail in regard to its cultivation. Now change of crops, and deep and thorough cultivation, may for these reasons, and many more, some of which may be be expected to produce excellent results.

given another time, clover should be the leading crop in This may be illustrated by relating a little of my own bringing up land. experience. (And here let me say, I do not intend to Next to clover I consider corn the best crop to grow in state or recommend anything in these remarks, that I do improving the soil. The reason for this opinion can be not consider warranted by my own experience or observa easily made apparent to all, in this way. Who ever heard tion.) I compenced farming on a small place that had of land being run down where clover and corn were the been let to neighboring farmers, -no one residing on the principal crops; and these crops, made good by thorough place for many years, before it came into my hands. As and deep cultivation and manuring, were mostly consumed is often the case; all that was raised was taken off from, on the farm, as, of course, they should be? Such cases and nothing returned to the land. It had not been seed must be exceedingly rare, if indeed there are any. For ed down for a long time until the spring before I bought my part, I have yet to meet with the first one. True, run it, it was seeded to clover. Wheat had been the princi. down land will not continue to produce as good crops for pal crop, alternating occasionally with oats—the last any considerable length of time after a change as it does crop, which was oats, only yielding some twelve or thirteen at first. Yet by raising clover and corn for the principal bushels per acre. It was so badly run out, that it was crops, and feeding a large portion of both on the farm, difficult to get any one to take it. The spring it came into the land may be constantly improving, and the crops after my possession, I planted six acres to corn and potatoes, the first and principal effect of a change is worn off, be the corn yielding at the rate of fifty bushels of shelled continually growing better. It is true that corn grown year corn to the acre, and the potatoes at the rate of 160 after year on the same field for a long time will on most bushels per acre. These crops were raised without any soils run down the land. But when it is grown only once mapure, except the clover sod of the previous spring's in four or five years, in a judicious rotation, and everything seeding, and were undoubtedly due to a change of crops, in relation to the crop well managed, the general effect deep plowing, and good cultivation. Nor was this all; and result will be altogether different. by making a general change of crops and management, But, though corn and clover should be the principal the land was not only made productive and profitable, crops, yet there should be some kind of grain sown after but the general appearance and credit of the place was corn to seed down with. Wbat this should be may perbrought up and improved so much, tbat when I wished to laps be best determined in each particular section, regard sell and buy a larger farm, it sold for about double what being had not only to what would be likely to succeed it cost me. I have also pursued a similar course or change best, but also to the kind of grain that clover will take of crops on my present farm, —which was considerably the best with, it being always important to get a good run down-with very satisfactory results.

seeding There are many sinsilar instances of the great benefit In considering the best way to improve a badly run of a change of crops, that have come under my notice, farm, I have not alluded to underdraining, for the reason but I can make room for only one or two. One is in re that a man commencing on such a farm, more or less in gard to a piece of rather poor bemlock land, that, as it debt, will have but little means or inclination to do any. was not considered very good wbeat Jand, had been kept thing of the kind, but will rather choose to buy a farm that in spring crops some years, and as the owner said, "wanted may be improved without it. Still there may be instances seeding down.”. He said he did not expect much wheat, where it will best to buy land that needs underdraining. as it was not wheat land, and had been a going in spring In such cases due allowance should be made for it in crops some time and wanted rest; but that in order to purchasing, and sufficient money retained to pay at least get it in a good condition for meadow, and well sceded, some portion of the expense. he was going to summer fallow and sow it to wheat.” As good and deep cultivation and manuring, which Yet that field gave 30 bushels per acre, which was an ex- should include a liberal use of plaster and ashes, have been tra crop for that kind of land. In another instance, the frequently alluded to, it will not be necessary in concluding, same kind of land that had been badly run to spring to do more than merely state that while they are very imcrops, was sown to wbeat on oat stubble, and gave over portant on all farms, no one need ever think to succeed 20 bushels per acre.

for any length of time on badly worn land without giving Having shown that a change of crops produces good both the strictest attention. And that, as a general change


in the course of cropping and manner of cultivation will stock; and the ligature must press evenly and with suffigive good crops on the start; so these crops should be so cient force to bring the cut face of the inserted bud into managed and used as to give the largest amount of ma- close contact with the wood of the stock. On a stiff thick nure that it may be practical to make, thus making good bark, or with a stiff bud, this pressure must be stronger crops add largely to the amount of manure, which in turn than with a softer bark, which might be injured if top will add to the amount of crops, and this course followed severe. For the details of the operation, see the first up, will be sure, sooner or later, to make a good produc- number of the Illustrated Annual Register or the first tive farm. Orleans Co., N. Y.

volume of Rural Affairs, p. 60, where every part is minute

ly described and made plain by engravings. Stealing Fruit, and Hedges for Protection.

Usefulness of Toads in Gardens. I have a vineyard which last year suffered greatly from the depredatious of idle boys and men-so much that I At a recent meeting of the Brooklyn Hort. Society, the lost nearly half of the fruit, and as the Empire State can subject of toads in gardens was under discussion, when not boast of a law to protect the fruit and vine-grower, I Mr. Burgess, an “old country gardener of long exhave taken the liberty to request you to inform me through perience,” stated that thirty years observation had conthe Co. Gent., if there is not some hedge plant (in con. nection with a board fence,) whose thorns would make it vinced him that it was the snail and not the toad which impassable. Is the Osage Orange hardy enough? If not, devoured strawberries and their vines. Most people athow is the Buckthorn or Honey Locust?

Would either of tributed the destruction to toads, but he was certain that them do? Your experience will no doubt at once suggest they were harmless. In gardens le considered them of the best and most reliable. H, V. F. Stuyvesant, N. Y. great use, and all gardeners should look upon them as

their best friends. Mr. Fuller endorsed all that had been The Osage Orange forms the most terrific barrier against said upon the subject, and he was glad to hear it. He fruit thieves--being densely armed along all the branches believed the toad a most valuable auxiliary to the garor shoots with stiff and very short thorns; and when these dener. They were worth $500 a piece, as they keep the constitute a thick hedge, attempting to pass is a most un- ground clear of insects entirely. Besides they can be desirable task. The winters at Stuyvesant may be too less it was true. Those in his garden knew him, and

domesticated! This was not generally known; neverthesevere; yet possibly by cutting a good underdrain along would follow in order to get the insects, caterpillars, etc. or near the line of the hedge, the plants may be enabled Their preservation ought to be attended to. Mr. Burgess to endure the winters, or if cut back partially by frost it was of the opinion that there should be a fine for killing may prove a serious detriment. Next to the Osage, the them.” Honey Locust is probably best. It is very hardy, and

ROOT PRUNING FRUIT TREES. some of the plants are quite thorny. It needs cutting back well, to form a dense hedge. The Buckthorn is both At the last evening meeting of the Brooklyn Horticulbardy and dense in growth, but is nearly destitute of tural Society, the subject of root pruning was discussed. thorns. Whatever may be used for the hedge, it will Mr. Burgess said that unless properly attended to, fruit prove a perfect failure, unless properly cut back, and a trees, when early, bear three times too much, thus exstrip of land four or five feet wide on each side, is kept hausting themselves. They should be root pruned the clean and well cultivated for some years.

first three years, and fed with rotten manure. Mr. Brophy, another practical gardener, stated that he had done

root pruning for 22 years; all fruit trees require such atBudding Fruit Trees,

tention, because the roots spread. Cutting gives them a Will you or some of your correspondents tell me the healthy condition. The length of a pear tree root is wonproper time for budding the peach, cherry, apple, and derful ; he had known those of comparatively young trees pear-also the “modus operandi," and much oblige a

to extend twenty feet. Mr. Burgess—I have seen them

thirty-five feet long. Mr. Brophy considered it necessary As a general rule, bud when the bark peels freely, and for any fruit tree, pear, apple, quince, cherry, etc., to be

spaded round about two feet in the spring; this will imtowards the latter part of this peeling season, as the new prove it. He cited as proof that the best orchards are ly formed buds are then more mature and better ripened where the ground is plowed every year. It is the stirring than before, and the cambium or cement between the bark and cutting the roots which gives them their thrifty and wood is thicker and causes the bud to adhere better. condition. Mr. Fuller remarked that a root never feeds A little later still, when the bark is not easily raised from from the same place two years; as its main stem grows

and extends, it throws out fibres or rootlets at different the wood, the operation cannot be well performed, and places. These side roots successively die off each year. will be likely to fail. This period will vary much accord. The root of a grapevine feeds at the end, and if six feet ing to the influences which affect growth, as season, culti- long, the space between it and the vine is lost. The root vation, soil, &c., but usually the cherry must be budded should be cut down to two feet. Also with all stoned first, then the apple and pear, and lastly the peach.

fruit trees, if six feet high, the root should be pruned As

down to two feet. Old quince trees should be pruned, soon as the cherry begins to form the terminate bud of its for the rootlets die off, and the main stem needs food. shoots, budding should be performed; this is often about when this pruning is done, the roots should be led with or soon after midsummer. In some places, pear stocks rich soil, &c. Mr. Fuller illustrated what he meant by cease growing quite as early; while in others growth con- some strawberry roots; from a root of six inches he trimtinues a month later--in the latter case, the work may of med off half, and would even prefer only one inch of root

to the whole of it. He also explained in an interesting course be done much later. Budding the peach is usually and intelligent manner, that strawberries were biennial and done in the last week of summer and the first two weeks not perennial, as generally suppposed, and showed from of autumn.

the roots present that the original died off when two years The great leading requisite for success is a freely grow- old. A member desired to know which was the best-to ing stock. On such a stock the bark will peel freely; prune in spring and feed with rich soil, or in the fall and

not feed the roots. Mr. Fuller replied that the operation while on an unthrifty or slunted one, it will not peel at in the spring would ensure a fall crop the next season, all, and the work cannot be done. A sharp knife is essen-while if done in the fall, only half a crop would be obtial for cutting off the bud, and slitting the bark of the 'tained.


[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.)

Yor the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] CULTURE OF INDIAN CORN. Seasoned Fence Posts---Cheap and Good Fence. In answer to the call of 0. W. TRUE of Maine, in the EDITORS Co. GENT.-Some thirty-three years since I had Co. Gent. of April 17th, for more specific directions for about five hundred panels of post and rail fence made. raising corn, I will detail my own practice more at length The posts were locust, the rails white oak Some ten for his and others' benefit. As soon as convenient after years since the principal part of the posts were so decaythe buckwheat has been removed, we baul and spread all ed that it became necessary to build the fence over ; there the manure that may have been made after wheat sowing, was a rempant of about forty panels that appeared to and thus we go on hauling and spreading the manure stand firm, and of course was not repaired when the balpretty much as it is made through the winter as the weather ance was made over. Although ten years have now passmay permit, finishing generally some time in April, so as ed since the balance was made over, yet the fence stands to plant, if circumstances favor it, about the 1st of May. firm, and possibly will last from two to four or six years The time of applying the manure does not appear to affect longer. the yield of corn, but the product is plainly in proportion This fence now standing, was made from well seasoned to the grantity and quality of manure. By shallow plow, locust. Nothing could be more conclusive to my mind, ing, I mean the sballower the better, provided the ground is turned upside down, but it is difficult to make good that it was the condition of the timber from which the work under four or five inches deep. I was cured of deep posts were made, which has caused it to last ten years lonplowing for corn long ago; and as for subsoiling, I have ger than that which was made from green timber. For seen too much of it by others to try it myself. When we the last ten years I have built more or less fence out of plant in bills, the poultry droppings are hoed up fine, and strips of boards, or perhaps they might be denominated a man preceding the droppers divides a handfull among

laths. I cut my timber fourteen feet long, and hare it

The timber four or five bills, and draws a little dirt on it with his foot sawed three inches wide and one inch thick.

I use is wbite oak. to prevent the grain coming in immediate contact with

Other kinds of hard wood might anthe manure, which would be dangerous. When we have swer, but not as well. Five of these laths are a sufficient drilled the corn, the fine manure was sowed on the sur shield against any stock which has weight of character face afterward, but I would prefer baving it covered with sufficient to be suffered to run at large. Three posts form the seed, hence the inquiry in regard to the Gage.

a panel ; each lath receives three fence nails, one at each Chester Co., Pa.

A. W. W.

post--nine-penny nails are the best. I have never known

ibe nails to be drawn or broken by shrinkage, which is (For the Cultivator and Country Gentleman )

often the case with wide boards. A fence of this desWhat I Have Learned about Raising Corn in cription can never be injured by the action of the wind, Thirty Years.

and unlike post and rail fence, it will not sag down hill or

on sideling ground. 1. It is best to plow the land well before planting, be

In the construction of a fence of this kind, the concause that will save work in planting and boeing, although sumption of timber is but tribing, which is in many secit does not usually increase the crop_indeed I have seen posts are locust and seasoned, it would be safe to say that

tions of our country, a matter of first importance. If the good corn grow on the same land for several years in suc- a fence of this description would last thirty years. After cession without the land being plowed at all.

a little practice, two men can put up twelve panels per 2. It is best (if planted in hills) to make the rows run day. Efficiency and economy considered, I like the above both ways, and then the cultivator or plow will go both described fence better than any I have ever had on any

farm. ways, and it will be but little work to hoe it. It is also

Elm Grove, Ohio Co., Va. best to put a little quick manure in the bill, to give it an early start, but if guano is used in the hill put it 5 or 6

(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator. inches one side of the seed; if it is put under the seed, it Protection of Fruit Trees from Curculios, &c. will kill it.

3. It is best to try or sprout some of the seed before MESSRS. LUTHER TUCKER & Son—I had occasion to planting to be sure it will grow. Do not get the bills too visit a friend a few days ago. I took a walk through his thick, 31 feet each way, four stalks in a hill

, is right on orchard, and observed some plum and cherry trees with my land—if I plant thicker, the ears will be small. It is better to plant some sort of corn which inclines to grow something tied around them, which on closer inspection, a cob longer than will fill out on the tip end, as there will proved to be cotton batting. On inquiring what it was then be room on the cob for as much corn to grow as the for, Mr. W. informed me that it was a plan of bis for strength of the land will admit of.

preventing insects (which eat up everything in the shape 4. When hoeing, the top of the ground should be kept of a plum, nectarine, &c., in this part of the country,) mellow and level, and free from weeds. When ready to hoe the last time, which should be the first part of July, from climbing the trees and destroying the fruit. scatter a yery little turnip seed all over the ground, and

He has some very fine plums, which have blossomed if the land is in good order, there will probably be a fair and formed fruit well for 3 years, but it was all destroyed crop of turnips for cattle, provided the corn is cut up by by insects, until he used the cotton wool, since which he the roots as soon as it is ripe enough; but if the corn bay never failed in having a large crop of plums, &c. stand too late, turnips will be scarce.

The “modus operandi " is as follows:-Procure some 5. It is bard to keep the same sort of seed a long time, cotton batting, cut it in strips 3 inches wide, wrap it because if I save for seed the ears which are first ripe, in a around the trunk of the tree about 2 feet from the few years it gives a small, early sort. If I save the largest ground; then tie a string about an inch from the bottom ears for seed, it only takes a few years to get a very late so that the top will hang over somewhat like an umbrella.

If I save such ears as grow two on a stalk I soon This effectually prevents the insects and ants (which are have a sort which will grow 3 or 4, or 5, ears on a stalk, very troublesome in this neighborhood not only eating but all small.

the fruit but also the tender shoots,) from passing up the 6. Corn will shrink by drying in the crib more than crunk, as it is impossible for them to go through or to we are apt to suppose probably 25 bushels out of 100. cross it. When I succeed in raising 100 bushels of well dried corn I send you this, hoping it may be of service to some of on one acre in one year, I intend to save the corn till all the plum growers among whom your journal is circulated. my neighbors cau see it. Near Springfield, Mass. Jefferson County, Ky.

G. D. N.

N. P. A.


C. B.

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