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(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) last spring, and has been multiplied with success, and queens TRANSFERRING BEES.
of pure blood have been sent into almost every part of the
Union. More than one hundred of them reached California ANSWER TO J. E., Belmont Co., O. He wishes to get the during the past autuma. It appears that California is the bees and combs from a large to a small hive. The proposition American paradise of bees. They swarm there from five to of opening the holes in the top, and setting an empty hive seven times a year, and the climate is such that they do not
pass a single week without gathering honey. We are not over, will not to likely to succeed. The trouble and annoyance surprised that the Italian bee has been propagated so much that attend the bees in the attempt, will be very likely to in- moro quickly in the United States than with us, although we terfere with their labors. If the hire they are in is a good are so much nearer to their cative country. It is because one, aside from its size, and tho comb new, I would cut it off they have their
pockets full of dollars, and a good dose of
the Americans possees two things of which we have but little, at the bottom, leaving the proper dimensions. If the bive German enthusiasm. and combs are old, let them be till they swarm, when that The same correspondent speaks of the recent commencemay be put into a suitable hive. Three weeks from the time ment of a monthly bee journal published at New-York under the first swarın issues, drive out the balance of the bees into favorable auspices. Welcome to our new brother, and may a new hive also. If the hive they are in is too large for he have numerous readers. We regret exceedingly our want them to swarm, drive out a swarm at the proper season, set of knowledge of the English language, as we would not willit on one side the old stand, 18 inches, 'The new one the ingly lose a word of the novelties it will contain. same distance the other side. If either gets more than half Bucks Co., Pa.
O. W. TAYLOR, the bees, put it farther off In 3 weeks drive out the old bive, as in the other case. Should it be desired to make the present
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) hive smaller, the bees should be pacified with tobacco smoke
HOW TO KEEP SAP-BUCKETS. first ; then with a square make a mark where it is to be cut off. At this season, (April) when most of the combs are empty, the
MESSRS. EDITORS-In the Co. Gent. of April 3d, an inhive may be laid on its side-eren without anything over the bottom to confine the bees, and the boards of the hive sawed quiry is raised as to the best manner of keeping sap-buckets off as if it were an empty box. The hivo may then be turn through the summer. In reply will give my experience. ed bottom up, and the combs cut off even with the bottom My buckets are made of cedar; they are light and durable. with a knife, one at a time, the bees brushed back as you Two hoops at the bottom and one at top. When the " sapproceed. When done, the hive may be returned to the stand, and the bees hardly know that anything has been done. The ping season ” is over I collect by buckets to the " boiling whole thing is done quietly, simply by the use of smoke. It place,” and scald them thoroughly in water. This will preis not necessary to smoke them continually, nor a great deal vent their being worm-eaten during the suminer. I then at any time, but an occasional puff will keep them peaceable. stack them 3 and 4 deep bottom up, and put them away in At the beginning a few strong puffs may be required.
a good dry place in an out-house. In this way have kept St. Jobasville, N. Y.
them from year to year, never having lost a single one from any cause.
If your correspondent will pursue this course (Translated from the French Bee Journal for the Co. Gent.)
with his buckets, I will warrant them all right the next
spring. Take them out the next spring, tap the hoops a An Editor's Experience in Keeping Italian Bees. little, scald them out, and you can then tap the trees und
your buckets will hold tho sap. WHAT IT COST HIM TO INTRODUCE ITALIAN BEES INTO HIS APIARY.
Having told your correspondent C. F. S. how to keep his Up to this timo, March, 1861, (haring had the Italian bee sap-buckets, I want him to tell me how to prevert hens from one season only,) we are not able to decide the question eating their eggs? If there is any remedy short of cutting whether they are more active than our own bce. We find their heads off, should like to know J. F. BABCOCK. them to be very eager in their searches after honey, great
P. $. Very little maple sugar made in this vicinity, on
account of depth of snow. Winter wheat is looking well. gourmands even, and we frequently see them endeavoring to
Unadilla Forks, N. Y., April 20.
J. F. B. enter the neighboring hives. If honey be placed at a certain distance from their hive they discover it sooner than the na
(For the Country Gentleman andCultivator.] tive bee. As to its strength we would judge that in its com
KEEPING DUCKS---INQUIRIES. bats with our native bee it is overcome three times out of four. The day that we received our bees they were in a most MESSRS. EDITORS--I wish this season to raise a dozen attractive good humor, the fatigue of the journey had over- ducks for profit, but there is no brook or spring on the prem. come them, and we believed in good faith that they were en- ises, and I dont want to have thein wander off to some disdowed with a most exemplary sweetness of disposition. We here affirm to those who do not love bees because they fear tance from the house in search of water. How can I fix a their sting, that these never sting. We moreover can add, as place for them in the yard? I suppose setting a tub in the the German gardener wrote last year to the "Society of Ac- ground would be a good plan, but we haven't any tubs to climation” at Paris, "that the Italian bee shows itself at spare. A flour barrel of course would leak. It would be tached to its master to such a degree that there is no neces- too much expense and trouble to dig out a little pit, and line sity for using a bee hat or masque in approaching its hive." it with cement. If I had a tub, trough or some such thing, But we shall take good care how we propagate the story as I should bave to fill it from the well once in a while. did the aforesaid gardener, that the Italian bee goes to work Will you or some of your correspondents please tell me two hours before our native bee-that is to say, a long time what is the best and easiest way to fix it, as tho ducks cannot before daylight in the morning. We are of opinion that if be kept at hoine without some access to water? Is raising the French public were to encounter Italian bees foraging for Jucks to sell profitable ? honey by the aid of lanterns, they would occasion numerous I wish some one would answer "A. A. U.'s" inquiry in inconveniences to their owners. This, of course, is often the current volume, page 173, of your paper, about a disease of case in Germany.
fowls in which they lose their neck foathers. I have a rooster Many persons have sought to obtain these bees of us, and that has lost a good many feathers from his neck, and strange when we have told them the price, they have exclaimed in looking red skin shows. The rest of his skin seems very astonishment. But it cost us 440 francs to import 9 colonies, dry and scurfy. He is dull and very lean. His plumage is or about 50 francs each, (about $10 U. S. currency.) This is very shabby and homely, while before, that is last fall, he not dear, for wo know of others who bave had great difficulty was a very handsome spangled rooster. He has been just so in saving one colony out of three. We may here mention 4 or 5 months. His appetite is good enough, and he is only M. Abbe Vochelet, de l'Eure, who procured a couple of a year old. What is the trouble with him?' He isn't lousy. colonies last year, and they cost him 70 francs each ($14.) In cleaning out the ben-house the other day, I got a numWhoever desires a novelty, has got to pay for it. We will do ber of hen lice on me. Oh, what bothersome things they what we can to multiply those bees, so as to be able to furnish are! You have to take everything off immediately and them at a reasonable price the coming autumn, otherwise our search thoroughly for the little rascals, or you will learn how friends will have to import them and take their chance as a lousy hen feels. I might tell you how I made keeping a we did.
few hens and selling their eggs profitable, even when I had One of our New.York correspondents, Mr. EHRICK PARA to buy all the grain to feed them with, but perhaps you don't LY, writes us that the Italian bee arrived in the United States' care anything about it. (Let us have it.] G. M. Conn.
(For the Country Gentlemar. and Cultivator.) thing like wool speculating; you never know anywhere COCHRAN'S FARM ACCOUNT BOOK. near where you are to land.
Duncan's Falls, O., March 3, 1862. Eds. Co. GENT.—I notice in the last Co. Gent. a long We can endorse all our correspondent says in favor of article on farm accounts, and as it is a subject in which Prof. Cochran's Farm Account Books. They were every farmer is interested, and as the first of April is noticed in this paper when first issued, some years ago, approaching, the best time of the year to commence, I and we kept them for sale as long as we could procure wish to introduce to your readers a sett of books gotten them. If to be had at all, now, it must be by applying up expressly for the purpose, by the late Prof. COCHRAN to Prof. C.'s widow, Mrs. E. Cochran, Detroit, Mich. of Detroit, Mich. It is nine years next month since I The price of the three books was $2. jumped, as it were, out of a city on to a farm. From that date to this, I have kept an account of most every
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator, thing connected with it; aid of all the books I have seen COAL TAR FOR FENCE POSTS. or could make, there has none seemed so well suited for
MESSRS. EDITORS—In Co. Gent., vol. 19th, page 221, a farmer as the sett mentioned above. No doubt some is an article by B. W. Rogers, in relation to the preservaof your readers have seen it, and appreciate it. Fivetion of fence posts
, &c., in which he recommends the use minutes every evening, one evening at the end of every of coal tar and rosin in equal parts. I believe that the month, and one day at the end of the year, will give you rosin is superfluous. Inclosed you will find a chip which an account of everything-a balance sheet at the end of every month, and at the end of the year a general state
was taken from a fence poșt set five years ago, smeared ment of what you have lost or gained, whether on field with coal tar alone; it was taken out about three or four A. or B., dairy or cattle, bogs or sheep; and then you inches below the surface, where a post usually commences will know how to lay the ropes for another year.
to decay. The adjoining posi, split from the same log, This sett of books consists of a day-book and ledger, (and I should think the two lay side and side,) set at the and an explanatory book accompanying them, In the
same time, but not coal-tarred, has decayed so that you last part of the day-book is a time table, made as follows: can kick into it more than an inch. This in my estima[See table above.]
tion, proves the efficiency of coal tar, In applying the The time table is about as perfect one as can be arrang- tar, I think that the timber should be well seasoned; heat ed, as under head of remarks you can write down what the tar, letting it boil a few minutes, then apply hot. An your labor is at each day, as the table will show the time old paint brush is the best thing that I have ever used for and place. It will do just as well for a farmer of a thou- putting it on. Cover the whole surface of the post that sand acres, as for one of a hundred; no matter whether is to remain in the ground, and from eight to ten inches he keeps one hand or twenty, except in the latter case it of that above. After it has dried, which is usually in one would be necessary for him to sew a few leaves into the or two weeks, tar again as before, and as soon as dry the Ledger. The Ledger has paper ruled especially for posts are ready to set. If Mr. Rogers will try the experipoultry and for farm produce.
ment, I think he will find that coal tar alone will be as The explanatory book will teach any one in a few hour's efficient as though rosin were mixed with it. time, so that they will bave no trouble whatever. In Huron County, 0. this way also many of our farmer boys' would learn how to keep books, which in alter life would prove useful to
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) them.
DOMESTIC TEA. I have been olten amused in looking over my books, as at first I thought of stock, horses were the most profitable Before I close I will give you the name of a leaf that makes to raise, whereas in the series of years I have lost money as good tea as the average you get from China, for you may at it, and find that these insignificant sheep (as some de- know that a good deal of that brought from China is not signate them,) have never failed every year to pay a good gathered from the Ten plant, but from wild herbs. interest above both feed and care, whether wool was
Pick the common blackberry, while young and green, and thirty or sixty cents a pound. So of wheat, between the the red raspberry leaves--dry, and mix half and half. This midge, rust and frost, it only held its own, while potatoes makes a very good tea in taste and favor. Try it. are as sure as sheep. Buying and feeding hogs is some
S. W. JEWETT.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] seventh as much as in that of urine. Beside much loss of POUDRETTE FACTORY.
other valuable constituents of the mass.
The night soil collected then in villages and cities Eps. Co. Gent. I am very glad your correspondent may (as in chis case) undergo a loss of 80 to 90 per cent. J. M. C. has again called the attention of farmers to the in quantity, and a large additional deterioration in quality.” manufacture of home-made poudrette, (as per Co. Gent.
This fact thus demonstrated by analytical figures that March 27.) I am not at all particular whether a brick men place so little value on this fertilizer, because when
cannot be called in question, explains why many practical vault or a wooden box is used in saving the fecal matters left to itself, and only removed from the vaults once a of the privy. The main object is to get the farmers to year, it amounts to little more than a noisome slop, chiefly attend to this matter, and in the most economical way. made up in fact, as well as in appearance, of paper, cobs
and sticks. For with J. M. C. “I think that this source of procuring
I have thus freely quoted from Prof. Johnson, for he a valuable manure is not sufficiently appreciated by our has put the matter in a language that “a cliild might unfarmers, and this has been one source of waste on the derstand," and a question here presents itself, “how can farm that should be guarded against.”. Therefore I hope the farmer make the most of these deposits ?” to be excused if I offer 'a "few more last words” upon scribed in my letter in the Co. GENT of the 6th March, viz:
The Professor recommends a similar plan to that I dethis subject, which by the way some may think a very stale Provide a sufficient quantity of well dried pulverized “But evil to him that evil thinketh."
muck, (a good loam will answer,) which in the summer In my communication in your issue of the 6th March, I season should be daily applied in quantity sufficient to quoted somewbat from Prof. S. W. Jobnson's report, absorb the liquid portion. The whole mass in warm 1857, to the Connecticut State Agricultural Society. In weather should be daily mixed by the use of a loe, which this I quote from his Report of 1869. This I do, for 1 (from the quantity of muck used) should come out
clean," "As the mass accumulates it may be removed know of no one else who handles this matter quite as well a cleanly, decent job.” The contents may be piled up as he does. He says: “James Smith of Deanston, the under cover, or what I think a better way, it should be illustrious originator of thorough drainage,' is said to spread in some outbuilding, dried, sifted, and put up in have asserted that the waste of one man for a year suf- barrels or boxes for use when wanted, or the dried material fices to manure half an acre of land, and in Flanders we may be used several times over, so says the Rev. H. are told that the manure from such a source is valued at Moule, pages 110 and 111 Patent Office Report 1860. $9.00 per annum.
One more extract and I close. The Professor sayg “We shall err on the safe side if we assume the agri.
“This programme makes indeed a good deal of work, cultural value of the exuviæ of each inhabitant to be so muck is to be bauled, and somebody must fork over the per year. It is easy then to understand that on an ordi- stuff every day; but it will pay; there is no doubt of nary sized farm which supports a family of five to ten that. The work will not be offensive, the compost will persons an annual loss of material may occur to the amount be rich, the privy itself will be a place not to be abof from $25 to $50.
L. BARTLETT. “I fully believe that the night soil produced by a family of ten adults may be made to yield here, as it certainly
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] does in Flanders, a clear profit of $100.
A Good and Cheap Farm Gate. “This is certainly no unimportant item in agricultural
EDITORS Co. GENTLEMAN-I have noticed that you have practice, and our best farmers are bestowing upon it the described almost every kind of farm gate except the kind regard it deserves."
The farmer who clears out his privy vault, but once a I make ; and as mine is the cheapest and simplest I ever year, the contents of which are treated as nine-tenths of heard of, I will describe it. I take a stout chestnut rail our farmers manage this matter, will be sadly disappoint with one straight flat side, and cut it off to the riglut ed if he expects to raise from it the value of five dollars length to reach from the ground to the top of the post it from each adult member of his family. For, as says the is to hang to; put a band on the lower end, and an iron Professor, “When urine and fæces are mixed together at a summer temperature, they almost immediately begin to pin in it, say seven-eighths or one inch in diameter; then decompose; the ammonia-yielding substances they con- lay it down and lay on the boards, enough to make it four tain, at once yield ammonia, which passes off into the air, feet high, (beginning say four inches from bottom,) and and their sulphates are dissipated as sulphuretted hydroscribe on each side of the boards, saw in and chip out gen. This process goes on with great rapidity, and only requires a few days to complete itself. Thus the waste of i with a chisel until you let them down flush ; then nail near all the ammonia, the most costly ingredient, is in them, and nail on an inch strip to bold all fast ; put an evitable, if the night soil be left to itself a few days in inch board on each side at the latch, and bolt them, and warm weather. It thus happens that the contents of then brace on with three $ inch carriage bolts, taking necessaries left to themselves, as is the case ninety-nine about eight, costing two cents each, and the gate is done. times out of a hundred, are liable to, nay must, undergo A good man can make half a dozen a day. To hang them, great loss of fertilizing matters. As a result of these de. put a rock at the bottom of the post, and drill a hole two teriorating processes the night soil as found in necessaries is inches deep in it for the foot, and either put in pin and greatly inferior in quantity, and vastly so in quality, to band, or round the top of the rail, and spike on the top the original urine and fæces. This is evident from the of your post a plank projecting over with a hole in it. analysis of the poudrettes which are manufactured from it. The three links and hook I consider the best fastening.
“During the present year I have had opportunity to I think it a good plan to plant a tree near the post, that examine a specimen of night soil taken from a large quan. it may grow into a gate post by the time the present one tity collected in the village of New Caanan, and fairly decays. representing the average quality of this substance as found I have 16 gates of this kind on my place, and think at the beginning of winter in ordinary privies. I am in them a great saving of money where time is worth seven debted to Edwin Hoyt, Esq., of New Canaan, for this shillings a day. I intend to keep making until I am rid sample."
John HINCAMAN. The Professor gives the analysis, "as taken from the P. S.-Some of my gates have an iron eye at the top heap," in contrast with the original unadulterated article. for the top pin to play in, and some have neither brace But it is unnecessary here to give the figures. The re- nor tie rod, and yet they do not sag. If big post sags, a sult of the analysis, however, showing there was but ball wedge of stone or wood between foot rock and post brings the original amount of ammonia in the fæces, and but one-l all up right,
of the old bars.
Cheese for the English Market.
mated at 257 lbs., or of cheese at 514 lbs., at the rate of
24 lbs. to 28 gallons of milk. . Aiton sets the yield much A cheese-dealer in New-York, who ships large quanti higher, saying that “ thousands of the best A yrshire cows, ties to England, writes to a dairyman of Herkimer county when in prime condition and well fed, produce 1000 galas follows:
lons of milk per annum." One of the four cows origin"The cheese for the English market should be colored, ally imported into this country by John P. Cushing, Esq., but not too deeply—not darker than straw color, and not of Massachusetts, gave in one year 3864 quarts, beer over salted, which was the great error committed some measure, or about 966 gallons, at 10 lbs. to the gallon, years ago—the great desideratum being that the quality being an average of over 104 beer quarts a day for the of the cheese should be rich ; and the cheese should be whole year. This and some other yields of Ayrsbires in well pressed, avoiding that porous character, which we are this country being not so large as those stated by Aiton, glad to say is now inuch less frequent than it used to be a Mr. Flint suggests that our climate is less favorable to the few years ago, but which is still occasionally complained of production of milk than the moister one of Great Britain. by English consumers."
At page 31, vol. 17 of Co. Gent., we find an account
of a cow belonging to a farmer in Maine, which with only (For the Country Gentlewad and Cultivator.)
ordinary feed, gave a produce from April to January of The Average Yield of Milk and Butter per Cow. 250 lbs. of butter and 45 lbs. new milk cheese, besides
raising a calf; and appended to the account the editorial Messrs. Editors—I presume that there are many of remark that a whole dairy of such cows would be very your readers who, as well as myself, might adopt the lan- profitable, though in herds of ten or more cows there are
generally enough poor milkers to eat up a good share of guage of J. W. PROCTOR, of Essex, Mass., and say in the profits of the best ; "and that consequently, to make regard to several articles on the above subject, which ap- dairying profitable, we must discriminate more closely, peared in your volumes of last year, what he has said in and keep only paying cows. regard to one of them. “I have been much interested," At page 97, same vol., we find that Mr. SHATTUCK'S says Mr. PROCTOR, “in Mr. Wattles' statement of his dairy, consisting of 30 cows, or 22 full grown cows and 8
heifers, yielded in butter at the rate of 191 lbs. per cow, Dairy Products for several years past.” I also was much or calling the 8 beifers equal to cows, at the rate of 212 interested in that communication, as also in several others
lbs. per cow. which treat of the same subject, and of others closely connected with it; and thinking that the statements made in regard to the large dairy of Z. Prart, Esq., consisting
At page 98, same vol., we find several interesting items in the course of last year would go far towards determin- of 60 cows. The yield of these 50 cows averaged in ing pretty satisfactorily what might be considered a fair milk, for the usual season of about 8 months, 636 gallons milk and also a fair butter yield per cow—or at least, an in 1867, 681 gallons in 1858, 601 gallons in 1859, and average yield of these two dairy products I concluded 525 gallons in 1860, or 260, 270, 245 and 214 gallons reto collate all the statements bearing upon these points spectively per cow for the years named. The average with the view of obtaining conclusions which might be yield in bulter, was for the years named, respectively 130, considered final, or at least sufficiently satisfactory on 161, 166 and 182 lbs. per cow for the season. these points, which had not yet been settled beyond all bable reason for the gradual increase in butter from year question in my own mind, nor, so far as I could judge to year, while the milk was, with one exception, gradu. from inquiries and conversations, in the minds of any of ally decreasing from year to year, is not mentioned, but my neighbors. As there may be several who would like this remarkable fact was probably owing to a gradual invery much to have these points settled and fixed in their crease in the richness of the pastures and other feeding minds, or in some form of record for future reference and stuff. Mr. Prate's cows are of what is called the native guidance, and as the statements made in the COUNTRY
breed. GENTLEMAN for 1861, seem sufficiently numerous and sufficiently trustworthy for the purpose of obtaining such Small Dairy” of 6 cows, from which, after reserving about
At page 143, same vol., we find the “Product of a fixed and final conclusions, I have been induced to pre. one quart of milk daily for table use, J. L. R. made in sent to your readers the results of my investigations iu as 1860, 1,387 lbs. of butter, which is a fraction over 231 brief and as serviceable a form as possible.
lbs. per cow.
In this statement 3 heifers and 1 farrow In deducing inferences from the facts about to be pass- cow are called equal to 3 cows. ed under review, it should be remembered that the produce of a cow, whether in milk or butter, must depend butter yield of the dairy of Mr. ALBERT YALE, and who
At page 162, same vol., we have an account of the very much upon the breed, the size, the food and several ever will turn to his statement and observe the several other circumstances which must be taken into account, manifestations therein given of a superior and unusually and for which allowance must be made, in forming an judicious management, especially as to plastering bis meaopinion as to what might be reasonably expected from dows and pastures, frequent salting of his cows, cutting any particular cow, or as to whether any particular cow hay earlier than usual, and a few other points, will not be is a good, average or poor milker.
Before proceeding to collect into one view and collate surprised when he learns that, after such superior manthe several statements to be found in Vols. 17 and 18 of agement, Mr. Yale gets a yield of 255 lbs. of butter per
cow-that being the average of 10 cows for one year, the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN, being the vols. for 1861, it may
AGRÍCOLA. serve a good purpose, for some one at least, to state what Mr. Flint in his "Milch Cows and Dairy Farming,"
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) the highest authority on the subject—says in regard to To Keep Bugs off Squash or Cucumber Plants. the average and maximum yields of Ayrshire cows. As
Knock the bottoms out of cheese boxes, nail on screen a specimen of maximum or very large yields, Mr. F. says, cloth, and set them over the hills. When not in use pack “The Ayrshire cow has been known to produce over ten them away, and one set will last a number of years, imperial gallons of good milk a day." As to average
SUBSCRIBER. yields it is said, “Youаtt estimates the daily yield of an Ayrshire cow, for the first two or three months after calv. BARN-YARD MANURE FOR WIRE WORMS.-A Wayne ing, at five gallons a day, on an average ; for the next Co. correspondent of the Rural New Yorker, says that three months, at three gallons ; and for the next four "common barn-yard manure in the hill will prevent the months, at one gallon and a half. This would be 850 wire worm from destroying young corn.” We have obgallons as the annual average of a cow; but allowing for served that corn, bill-manured suffered, less from worms some unproductive cows, he estimates the average of a than that without, but supposed it mostly due to the dairy at 600 gallons per annum for each cow.” Reckon- more rapid growth of the corn. It will pay well in any ing that 3} gallons of the Ayrshire cow's milk will yield event to try the experimenta-pay in earlier corn and a 14 lbs. of butter, the annual produce in butter is esti-surer and heavier crop.
The following Table gives the Capacity of the several Sizes of Rams, and the Dimensions of the Pipes to be used in
connection with them.
Quantity of Water fur. Length of Pipes. Size nished per minute,
of by the spring or Ram. brook to which the! Drive. Discharge.
ram is adapted. Feet.
Dis. Drive pipe for any head or Dis. pipe for not Dis. pipe for over cbarge. fall not exceeding 10 feet. over 50 st, rise. 50 & not exceed.
ing 100 it, in hit. % inch, 6 lbs. per yard.
8 lbs. per rod. 14 lbs. per rod. x do.
11 lbs. do.
do. 10 lbs.
11 lbs. do.
do. do. 23 lbs. do.
do. 28 Ibs. do. do. 40 lbs. do.
6 lbs. do. 8 lbs. per
yard. do. 22 lbs. pr ft. (of cast iron.) 20 lbs. co. 23 lbs. do.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.] Thus the reason is quite apparent why your corresponTHE HYDRAULIC RAM.
dent, Messrs. Editors," has seen nothing in opposition to
the general adoption of the ram." A deficiency in fall or A correspondent of the GENTLEMAN of April 17th, re. in supply of water, a Icak in the discharge pipe, or of too marks that “much has been said in favor of the ram and long a stroke in the movement of the valve, which in little or nothing as yet in opposition to its use; adding Douglas's rams is so made as to be adjusted to a longer that “ he knows instances where it bas failed and been be productive of evil. So it is if a man builds his mill
or shorter stroke-any one, I say, of these defects, may thrown aside." No doubt of it.
where the fall is insufficient, or the supply of water is too He desires to know how he can prevent its stopping, a small, his case would be a failure, but this would be no source of great annoyance. In answer to his inquiries, I argument against the use of water power for driving masend you Douglas's statement concerning the quantity of clinery. So of the ram. When the requisite conditions water furnished by spring or brook, size of drive and dis- are all complied with, the ram will work with as much cer
tainty as does the machinery in a mill driven by watercharge pipes, &c. It is of general interest to all who do power, where there is a good fall and water plenty. or may use a ram for raising water. It is as follows:
GEORGE (See Table at the head of this page.] I judge from the statement of your correspondent, that
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.j there may be a lack of water to work a rain of that size. The Culture and Removal of the White Pine. His strainer on the supply or drive pipe, may be too coarse or too fine, or omitted entirely; there may be a
Of all American Evergreens, none are more beautiful leakage in the discharge pipe; or the stroke of the valve or of more early and rapid growth to maturity than the may be too long. Any one of these difficulties or a com. pine; hence the value of the pine becomes enhanced to bination of two or more of them, would account for the those who would attain an early maturity in shrubbery stoppage.
Greater head or fall than named in the table, will de. for the adornment of a rural home and its surroundings. mand heavier pipes used both for driving and discharging. It is best to remove the pine from the mountains where Mr. Douglas says, “where the fall is great a small ram they usually grow, at as early an age as practicable-say should be used. A brook or spring furnishing 7 gallons when the plant is 6 or 8 inches in height, at which time a minute, with a fall of 8 or 10 feet, No. 4 should be used. you will place them in your garden in rows three feet If only three or four feet fall, then use No. 5.
Douglas states that “the ram may be used where but apart, and a space of two feet between each plant in the 18 inches of fall can be bad, yet more is better.” To en-row.
Be careful that each plant has a ball of earth atable any person to make bis own calculation as to what tached to its roots as large as a quart cup. You will now, fall is sufficient to supply a ram to raise a given amount during the growing season, be careful to work them as of water where wanted, it may be safely calculated that you would your garden vegetables, about one-seventh part of the water can be raised and dis- Your trees may now remain from two to four years in charged, say 10 times as high as the fall applied, and so your nursery, as may best suit your convenience. The on in the same proportion as the fall or rise varies." Mr. most desirable size for transplanting is when the tree has D. adds, “if a ram be placed under a head of 5 feet, of attained the height of three or four feet, at which time it 7 gallons drawn from the spring or brook, one gallon may will have become perfectly acclimated to your soil. The be raised 25 feet, or half a gallon 50 feet. Or with 10 best time I find for removal to be from the 20th of March feet fall, of 14 gallons drawn from the spring, one may to the 15th of April, the winds having to a great decan be raised 100 feet,
like proportion.”gree abated. In removing your pines from the nursery, Prof. Loomis says, “the power expended in working a be careful to prepare a hole from three to four feet in ram is the product of the quantity of water used, multi- diameter, and loosening the bottom six or eight inches plied by the height through which it falls before it acts on below the roots of the tree. Never set the tree deeper the machine. The useful effect produced is the product than it grew in the nursery. Be careful in removing, to of the quantity of water raised, multiplied by the height dig sufficiently far from the body to avoid injuring or to which it is elevated. In experiments carefully made bruising the small fibrous roots, as these are necessary to for the purpose, the expense was found to be to the useful the life and growth of the tree. Take up all the earth effect as 50 to 32; that is to say, the machine employed you can, which will adhere to the roots in removing from usefully nearly two-thirds of its force. The valve may its bed, placing, if necessary, a broad plank or sheet under be made to close from 40 to 100 times a minute, accord the roots in lifting the tree, to prevent the dislocating of ing to the range of motion allowed it, and the pressure of the earth from the roots. Set in carefully, and tramp with the water."
the feet until all is firm and compact. If the season is An English writer on the hydraulic ram says—“it is very dry, water occasionally, and if the tree is large, three an exceedingly useful machine for elevating water to a stakes may be driven diagonally, to which fasten the body, considerable height. It is simple in construction and has to prevent the winds from loosening the earth at the roots. no parts liable to get out of order, and will work contin. Be careful not to place them in clumps in your landscape nously for years without repairs, after being once put in grounds, nearer each other than 14 or 16' feet, or you operation, all that is required being a small stream of would avoid a second removal. water with a few feet of fall, it being dependent for its I have adopted the above plan in the cultivation of the operation on the momentum of the falling stream, which pine, having grown many bundreds of them, and scarcely is confined in a supply pipe."
lost a tree. Isaac P. SHELBY. Fayette Co., Ky.