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PUBLISHED BY LUTHER TUCKER & SON produced and eggs laid, which remain through winter. EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS, 395 BROADWAY, ALBANY, N. Y.
This is the usual course with aphides generally. But the J. J. TIIOMAS, ASSOCIATE EDITOR, UNION SPRINGS, N. Y.
grain aphis is an exception to this remarkable rule. Dr. TERMS_FIFTY CENTS A YEAR. -Ten copies of the COLTIVATOR and
F. has found that this insect produces young, and not Ten of the Annuat. REGISTER OF Roral AFFAIRS, with one of each eggs, the whole year through; they are left to freeze on free to the Agent, Five Dollars.
the wheat stalks as winter approaches, and thaw in to life THE CULTIVATOR has been published twenty-eight years. A New Series was commenced in 1863, and the nine volumes for 1853, 4, 5, 6. again the next spring. And as other aphides need no 7, 8, 9, 60 and 61 can be furnished, bound and post paid, at $1.00 each males to enable them to produce young, (whose eggs are
" THE COUNTRY GENTLEMAN," a weekly Agricultural Journal not laid,) he does not know but the grain aphis may thus of 16 quarto pages, making two vols. yearly of 416 pages, at $2.00 per year, is issued by the same publishers.
go on and produce the young female perpetually. This
point needs further investigation. These insects produce The Cultivator & Couutry Gentleman. in a single day—and thus increasing, a single female will
four young at a time, and will nearly double their progeny
have two million descendants in twenty days if all survive AGRICULTURAL DISCUSSIONS
-a sufficient explanation of the enormous increase at AT THE STATE FAIR AT ROCHESTER-FIRST EVENING.
harvest time. Several insects, the natural enemies of this Insectsun-Grain Aphis, Wheat Midge, &c. aphis, were next mentioned, which serve to reduce its
Dr. Asa Fitch opened the discussion by a short lec- vast numbers. ture on the grain aphis. He stated that it had existed In answer to an inquiry of Geo. GEDDES, Dr. F. des. in Europe from time immemorial—it was described by cribed the lady-bug, one of these natural enemies, and Fabricius 81 years ago-but most of the early accounts stated that it never committed any injury to crops. * There were quite imperfect. Its existence between harvests, are many species of this lady-bug, or Coccinella. G. Gedand its hiding place at that interval, was entirely unknown des said he had a crop. covered with the aphis the past until traced out within two years in this country. Dr. F. season, and they all suddenly disappeared, when on erthen gave an account of its successive ravages. This amination the crop was found covered with lady-bugs. T. year it has moved westward—it has measurably disappear. C. Peters inquired if Dr. F. thought the aphis likely to ed at the east. It has no doubt existed here for many prove a permanent evil; he replied he thought not, that years, but in small numbers and thinly scattered. Al it would probably only occasionally, and during unusual though Aphides are known to multiply rapidly, yet we years, get the better of these other insects which destroy have no instance of such rapid multiplication known, as it. has been exhibited by the grain aphis in the past and
Dr. F. also gave it as his opinion, in reply to a further present year. This insect resembles the cabbage lice in question, that the wheat midge will be likely to prove a its general character-sucks juices from the wheat plant, formidable foe to the farmer, whenever the weather may and thus abstracts nutriinent from the crop. It needs no be favorable to its increase. In dry seasons, and in dry wings except to pass from one field to another, and we localities, the fly cannot lay its eggs so abundantly; but accordingly find these furnished it only late in autumn on wet places and in wet seasons its destructive effects when about to migrate. A curious change takes place in may be expected. He also stated that in order to prevent these insects in summer—when they feed early in the the depredations of the midge, Hessian Aly, and other season on the green blades, their color is of a grass green; similar insects, it is necessary to give the crops a fertile but as soon as they begin to partake of the finer and soil, so as to make a strong growth-while on a poor crop richer food of the kernels, their hue changes to a fine it will not withstand their assaults. rich yellow; and the parent insect has been known to
G. GEDDES said he had been accustomed to take what bring forth brood exhibiting this change within the space
Dr. Fitch said as a truth; but he could not help think. of two or three days. Dr. F. in describing its habits, ing he was mistaken in this matter of the midge. In 1846 showed the fallacy of the occasional notion that small the midge was exceedingly destructive--he totally lost 70 insects could be of spontaneous production—and men
acres that promised an abundant harvest. Now, for five tioned the curious fact that aphides generally lay eggs at years, he has had good crops—the midge has done him no one time of the year, and bring forth young at another. material barm, notwithstanding the varying seasons in In the early part of the year, the female brings forth per.
these later years. He admitted that he now gave better sect insects only, and without access to the male ; and at • He thinks however that swine have been injured when they have this tine all are females. Towards winter, males are acrid substance, as a defence.
eaten these lady-bugs in excesg—as the latter are covered with an
cultivation, and farmed better, than then. He now raises were singularly influenced by causes that controlled their Soule wheat, without seeing a midge in it; last year had increase—a few years ago they were overrun by field mice 16 acres, and none was discovered; but he has nearly -"you could hardly turn over a chip, but wbat there given it up, because the Mediterranean is so much more would be a mouse under it.” The next year they were productive that it pays better, even at a reduced price. all gone. He thought many of these things " beyond T. C. PETERS thought Dr. Fitch correct, so far as practice our ken.” Still he thought the introduction of new va exists among farmers generally—he thought that the gene- rieties might be useful. ral practice of raising the Mediterranean was the reason
Second Evening --Draining. that the midge had diminished. An experienced flour manufacturer (KEMPSHALL of
After A. B. CONGER, chairman of the meetings, bad Rochester,) said that the “white wheat” had evidently
offered a series of propositions, embodying the substance much degenerated of late years, [as it may by successive of last evening's discussions, GEORGE GEDDES opened the growth from seed,) and the only way to restore it, in his discussion for this evening on underdraining. He said opinion, is to change the seed. He had almost given up
his principal object was not to impart instruction, but to the idea of ever getting good white wheat again. He bring out information from others. He alluded to the found Mediterranean wheat to improve every year; it physical condition of the locality of Rochester--the con“ bleaches out ”—and at the present time, he would rather densation of moisture from the lake at this place, in prohave the flour of Mediterranean than of white wheat. ducing frequent showers, as shown by meteorological tables. One sort had improved, while the other had deteriorated. At Lewiston, out of the prevailing range of winds from
Prof. Dewey expressed his grateful thanks for the ex. the water, much less is found to fall. The water that ceedingly interesting lecture of Dr. Fico, containing as falls is carried off from the ground by streams, and by it does, satisfactory indications of great labor and patient evaporation from the clouds and thus a perpetval round research, and conferring a lasting and great benefit upon
is going on. About three-fourths of this water is found the country at large, for the facts it has developed.
to pass off by evaporation; nearly one-fourth by streams; It was stated by several present that early sown and leaving a small portion to disappear in some unknown early ripening wheat was more likely to escape the midge; way. Perfectly dry earth, will receive and bold seven while some remarked that this rule should be reversed for inches of water to every foot in depth, without its runspring wheat, which should be sown late.
ning off. If a soil should be plowed three feet deep, it G. Geddes wished to put a question to Dr. Fica, would hold 21 inches like a sponge. This is the reason Why, if the midge increased at first, it did not continue that trenched soila hold so much without becoming overto increase-instead of going away as it now evidently is charged, or becoming soon dry. A well pulverized soil is doing? Dr. Fitch did not admit that it was passing will be filled with water, if the soil is wet.
one quarter interstices or air, if the soil is dry; but these
In the best away, but thought that during some seasons it was more wabundant and destructive than others—he had known it
condition for growth of plants, these interstices bold air, in former seasons to nearly pass away apparently, not and the particles of earth themselves are filled with really, but afterwards to return from its lurking places in moisture. An excess of water bas been found to reduce destructive force, and be feared this would be the case in the temperature 64 degrees in summer
or equal to an the instance referred to in the question.
elevation of two thousand feet or five degrees of latitude.
The speaker then added, "now, gentlemen, if you wish G. GEDDES alluded to the fact that early wheat was
to carry the soil of Rochester five degrees further South, more apt to escape its ravages, and that this was a promi- you must underdrain thoroughly." To ascertain if soils nent reason that the Mediterranean wheat escaped. A need underdraining, observe if water stands in post holes; farmer from Seneca county, differed from the expressed opinion of some others, as to the value of white wheatportance and advantages of underdraining were then point
or if frost is most destructive in low places. The immany in that county were returning to its culture, and ed out by some striking examples—one case had just were successful—they were decidedly of the opinion that the midge there was passing away.
come to hand, where a landowner obtained 34 tons of hay
per acre, where before he could not obtain more than one T. KEMPSHALL of Monroe Co., stated that the “Genesee ton. The speaker then went on to describe the different Flour” had deteriorated in character, and the fact could modes of laying drains, and showed the importance of not be disguised-his own experience as a flour manufactu- | doing the work right. He himself had cut many ditches rer, had taught him this at his cost—the white wheat of | without draining his land, not then understanding the which it was made, had “run out,"—lost its quality. G. stratification of the subsoil. In order to understand the GEDDES asked why millers were willing to pay a shilling work well, he recommended farmers to study the works more per bushel for white wheat, if it was not so good ? which had been written upon the subject.
T. KEMPSHALL replied that many millers would not T. C. PETERS of Genesee Co., said that if draining others thought it would yield rather more flour—while were carried out judiciously and thoroughly, it would others wanted it to whiten up such as was dark colored. alone increase the products of the State one-third-that L. F. ALLEN bad found that at Buffalo the white wheat there is but little land in the State that may not be greatwas always the highest priced—the Kentucky white wheat ly benefitted by underdraining. In extensive regions it sells there for $1.30 per busbel-Ohio white wheat a little makes the difference of at least one hundred per cent. less—red wheat 10 to 15 cts. lower-spring wheat still less. The coarse or aquatic grasses indicate the want of drainBakers will pay a dollar more per barrel for white wheat age; and to remove this water, and bring the temperature, four, because it will absorb more water, and make more as had just been stated, down to a level 2,000 feet lower, bread than any other four. He corroborated the state the advantages could be hardly estimated. He thought ment of others, that late sown spring wheat was more one of the best things the State Agricultural Society could likely to escape the midge. He said that depredators ! do was to encourage the general adoption of underdrain
age-to make it an important object for its labors for of the soil had caused the growth of coarse wet grasses, several years to come.
and where the operation would double or triple the value H. T. E. FOSTER of Seneca county, said that JOHN JOHN- of the soil. He admitted, as he had done before, that STON had out his drains about 24 feet deep, and 2 rods there might be much land that did not need it. But he apart. Both he and Robr. J. Swan had found it of great did not think there was a farm of a hundred acres in the importance, wlieat crops having increased to 40 bushels wbole of Alleghany county, some portions of which, at per acre. He commended the practice of farmers draw. least, would not be benefitted by draining. ing a distinct and accurate map of all their drains, that they
Third Evening---Fences, &c. might in future know precisely where to tap them. He
A. B. CONGER, chairman, briefly summed up the leadsaid J. Johnston preferred drawing tile several miles to ing points reached by last evening's discussion on undermaking stone drains with stone at hand. In reply to a
draining, the substance of which was given in our report question, he said that without draining manure was nearly of that discussion. The subject for the present evening thrown away, which was one reason that good crops could not be obtained without this practice.
Fences and Cattle Law of New York. SOLON ROBINSON requested T. C. Peters to point out the kinds of soil most benefitted by underdraining. The the statistics he was about to present, during four years
T. C. Peters opened the discussion. He had obtained latter said that, with the exception of Long Island, there extensive travel throughout the state. He alluded to the was hardly a locality in the State that did not require it. great importance of providing fencing for the future-old He gave the rule already mentioned, of digging trial boles, fences were decaying, and new ones would be needed, in order to observe when the water would stand, and and we should have to adopt more nearly the practice of where in such cases underdraining is always needed.
European countries. He assumed a mile of highway to G. Geddes mentioned the case of a distinguished farmer each square mile of land which is probably far within of Westchester county, (SAMUEL Faile,) who had gone bounds. There are 28 million acres of land of this among the old farmers in that county and very thorough- about 16 millions are improved and 10 millions unim. ly tile drained a large farm, that before was not really proved—the remaining 2 millions probably is villages, &c.. worth anything for cultivating, that now had really as
according to several authorities cited. According to his tonished the old farmers there, and was actually worth estimate there were about 28,000 miles of highway in the $200 per acre
state, or 56,000 miles of road fence. The cost of road H. T. BROOKS of Wyoming, expressed his surprise that fence he placed at a dollar a rod—the capital required to no qualification was made for the different circumstances keep up the fence, another dollar at interest. The total of farmers. In Wyoming county, the place of his resi, annual cost of keeping up road fences, is over two mildence, it would not pay, and he would give one thousand lion dollars, or nearly one half the entire state tax. dollars to any one who would find a farmer that would
The average size of farms over the whole state is estibuy a drained farm at its increased cost. A reply was mated carefully at 100 acres each—these fenced in 10 acre made by a gentleman present, who had laid some 15 miles lots, require 800 rods of fence on each farm-besides the of tile within a few years, who said that it cost about cost of the waste land. The whole cost of all fences in $30 per acre to do it, and that the cost was always paid the state, he figured at $144,000,000. The annual infor within three years by the increased crops. He thought terest on the fences on each farm is $56—or $28,000,000 that if soil was tenacious enough to hold manure well, it are to be charged to the farmers of this state to keep up would always need draining. He said that farmers might the fences annually. Yet all the taxes paid by by farmers adopt poor husbandry, even on drained land, but that is only 33 cents per acre,—the cities paying a large porgood farmers would find the operation in most instances tion-yet the annual tax that fences occasion is one dollar absolutely essential to success. He recommended poor and twelve and a half cents per acre ! cultivators, who thought draining too expensive, to sell a
A member present stated that he had made a careful portion of their lands, and drain and give good cultivation estimate of the roads of the state from Smith's large new to the rest. G. GEDDEs asked if there was any one present who had down, and he made the amount about twice as great, or
map, which gives every public highway, accurately laid practiced underdraining, that had lost money by it—if x0, 60,000 miles, requiring 120,000 miles of highway fence. he would please to speak, now, on this occasion ? No one
The chairman (A. B. Conger,) in reply to an inquiry, answered.
BAKER of Steuben county, being called upon by said that the public had only the right of way on the land H. T. Brooks, said that his land was very similar to that owned by private individuals—who really owned the land of Mr. Brooks, but that his experiments in underdraining thus occupied. He then explained the present road law had led him to very different conclusions-he had under for the exclusion of cattle from the highway. drained land that was worth about thirty dollars per acre, L. F. Allen thought that while in some districts, where and increased its real value to over one hundred dollars there are substantial God-fearing farmers, this law might per acre-in some instances to one hundred and fifty dol- by some mutual agreement be carried out; yet throughlars per acre. This land he uses for raising sheep and out most of the state he believed it would be as much of a grass. The audience now became somewbat excited, when dead letter as the law against travelling on the SabbathSolon Robinson inquired “if this Mr. Baker was really and he mentioned some instances where irresponsible the Mr. Baker that Mr. Brooks intended to call up in his vagabonds" had annoyed their better neighbors by taking favor ?” when the latter admitted that he was—but he advantage of this law; and the latter feared the threats thought that for hill land draining would not be profi- of these vagabonds, should they enforce the law. He retable. T. C. Peters thought that the object of his friend, gards the present necessity of farmers to fence against Mr. Brooks, was to call out discussion--and he described intruders, as a most formidable evil, but he bardly knew the many localities, even on bill land, where the wetness | how to furnish a remedy.
Dr. Thompson of Aurora, described the efforts of his abły impressed with live fences, but had returned with a neighbors in procuring the enactment of a special law, to different opinion-be regarded them as a very expensive exclude cattle from the streets of his village, which, with fence, although they miglit be the best that could be in the determination of a number of land-owners, they had troduced on the westem prairies. In travelling through carried out and entirely excluded cattle and other animals. France, no fences were to be seen-cattle were sometimes Their highways had become smooth grass plots, and now observed feeding tied by a halter, but generally they were after the lapse of several years, it had become unnecessary kept up. In France there were not enough fences to to use gates, -and many of them had been removed from suit our wants; in England they had too much. In their binges. So well pleased bad the neighboring farm. England premiums bad been offered for the most sucers become with these results, that the past winter they cessful eradication of hedges. The President had conhad asked for a similar town law, and this had led to the cluded that he had too much fencing on his own farmenactment of the state law now in force-they bad in he intended to reduce it one-half, and make his fields fact received in this way much more than they asked for. larger. In England the bedge evidently destroys the
Solon Robinson said a correspondent had proposed an value of the land for several feet on each side, by the amendment of that law, by which it should become the exhaustion of the roots, and the necessary trimming is ex. duty of the pathmaster to enforce the law and exclude the pensive. He is satisfied that in this State we have a great cattle, as a part of his duty in keeping the road in order. deal more fence than is necessary, but he would recomL. F. Allen replied by asking, “who made the pathmaster? mend a gradual reduction in this respect. Is it not the very men who, owning little or no land them
T. C. Peters moved that the Society approve of the selves, claim the privilege of breaking that law, by turn- present road law—that it meets the view of the State ing their unruly animals into it--would pathmasters tbus Agricultural Society—and that it recommend and urge its manufactured be likely to enforce it ?”
enforcement. Carried nearly unanimously. T. C. Peters said he thought the law much more gene
Col. Johnson, Secretary of the Society, was requested rally enforced than Mr. Allen was aware of. He cited in to state some of his observations in Europe, more particustances where years ago men bad raised a cow and a horse, larly in relation to the great exhibition of the World's &c., in the road. They were cured of this practice by his Fair. He said that notwithstanding the refusal of the leaving his road fences low on purpose, and then notifying American Government to appropriate any thing for facilithem that the law would be rigidly enforced if the cattle tating the exhibition of American produetions, every intruded in the fields. The result, after some litigation, courtesy was accorded to American exhibitors that could be was successful; and as he was willing that they should asked. When the juries, which were composed of the most procure the feed if they would take care of the cattle, they intelligent men of all nations, declared the awards, all were had as a consequence become scrupulously careful of his astonished that out of only 95 American exhibitors, 83 reinterests
, by asking the privilege to keep his fences up for ceived premiums! No other nation received any thing like the sake of the feed. Under the new law he had succeed. this
. As a proof of the immense extent of that exhibied in having it carried out, by promptness and energy, tion, be stated that 26 acres—9 acres more than the great and by fearlessness of any threats. It was only in those Exhibition of 1851—were densely filled with the choicest neighborhoods where the inhabitants lacked back-bone productions and objects. This exhibition showed a rethat the law was trodden underfoot-where these owners
markable progress in ten years. Throughoat nearly every of depredators perceived that their threats produced an part of it, indications were distinetly visible that Amerieffect. He thought it ought to be made the duty of path- can inventions, as shown in 1851, had been extensively masters to enforce the law, and a fine be annexed to its diffused, modified, and adopted there. He mentioned a neglect, so that they would have a sufficient excuse for number of exceedingly interesting instances to show this doing their duty. He stated, in answer to a question, result, and showed conclusively the most important rethat there was no law to compel farmers to fence the sults that would have been derived from a little govern
mental aid. Col. J. said that he was astonished to perhighway. Judge Warner stated a serious defect in the present within the last ten years—and it now indicated a high de
ceive the wonderful advancement in English agriculture law, in not providing for the payment of damages which cattle might commit in breaking into fields or enclosures. gree of perfection. The officer should have power to assess damages on the
THE NEW-YORK STATE AG. SOCIETY. sale of the cattle. A member (name not heard) thought the law would
Exhibition at Rochester, Sept. 28-Oct. 3. never be enforced until street fences were removed, and
Floral Hall and the Fruits. he thought, perhaps, the Society should take some action It appeared to be universally conceded that no previous with this view. Another member expressed his surprise fair had ever shown so rich and varied a display nor so that the gentleman from Erie, (L. F. Allen,) “who was extensive a collection of Fruits as occupied three or six feet four or five inches high,” should have any fear, as four hundred feet of the wide tables that lined the interior he expressed, of the threats of any one. D. M. Clark of of the spacious tent devoted to them. The namber of Alleghany, said there were many in bis county that bad amateur collections was very numerous, and a large share formerly been in the practice of street pasturing--one who of them were of great merit.' The “professional list' owned 20 head, who had turned them into the road and was not less so; the aim of the exbibitors was evidently hired out his pasture, had been induced to conform to the not to throw together everything they raised, good and requisitions of the new law, and it has generally been car. bad, but to exhibit only valuable sorts, grown in the best ried out.
manner. Ellwanger & Barry's collections, eclipsed of E. Cornell, President of the Society, stated some of his course, all others; but some of the rest were worthy of observations when in Europe. He had gone abroad favor all praise. Among the principal exhibitors of general
collections were J. M. Mattison, of Jacksonville, Tomp- are expensive, costing a thousand dollars each, and one kins county; W. B. Smith, Syracuse; and J. Donnelan & will make two thousand tile in a day. From the statement Son, W. King, Frost & Co., and C. J. Ryan, near Roches of the cost of manufacture, we infer that such pipes may ter. The collections of native grapes far exceeded any be made for about two-thirds the expense of common thing previously shown; to these, large contributions were earthen tile, while it is of better quality. made by C. L. Hoag of Lockport; Hooker & Co., Seely Standing beside this model was the admirable lime-light & Co., Frost & Co., and Ellwanger & Barry of Rochester ; for locomotives, invented by Dr. G. H. Smith of Rochesand an especially fine collection of thirty sorts, some of ter. Common gas is used instead of hydrogen, and at. great excellence and variety, by the Pleasant Valley Wine mospheric air for oxygen-the orifices through which they Company, Hammondsport, Steuben county. Fine speci- pass being similar to those of a common compound blow. mens of the Adirondac grape were shown by J. W. pipe. The light emitted is about fifteen times as strong Bailey of Plattsburgh, Clinton county. This new sort, as that of the common locomotive lamp. The gas is com. which he thinks a seedling of the Isabella, possesses a good pressed in a reservoir of four or five cubic feet capacity, deal of the appearance and characteristics of its reputed and reduced in bulk about ten times with a pressure of parent, is nearly or quite free from pulp, and of a very some 200 pounds to the inch, and when once filled will agreeable and pleasant flavor. The bunches were good continue running eight or nine hours. and andsome. Most persons would prefer it to the Isa- Daniel Sager of Greenbushi, exhibited model of a bella, although the latter when fully ripe, which is very wagon-brake, which appeared to possess great merit. It rarely the case, is hard to excel. Some fruit raisers ob is so constructed that when the vehicle descends a hill the jected slightly to the Adirondac for being “watery," and brake instantly becomes self-acting, but not in backing not quite so marked in its favor as would be desirable; the wagon. A cast iron block presses the tire of the wheel, but if as early as is claimed for it, namely, a month before and lasts till it is literally worn out, when it is at once rethe Isabella, it cannot fail to become a favorite.
placed by another. The whole contrivance is both inThe Floral department of this hall was admirably arrang- genious and simple, and may be attached to a common ed—as was expected from the master hand of James Vick wagon at a cost of $4 to $6. the Superintendent. The costly artificial temples of ver- Fish's patent nursery or night lamp, is a new invention, dure seen on former occasions, gave place to the simple possessing much convenience. It is simply a lamp, burn. and refreshing arrangement of a natural garden. The ing gas or kerosene, and heating a small boiler. A three leading features of this arrangement have been already quart reservoir is boiled at a cost of one cent. The water mentioned in a former number of this journal, and we may be kept hot, and boiled rapidly at short notice by wish only to commend particularly on this occasion, the turning up the flame. It must be a fine thing for a sick entire keeping in the union of moss-covered evergreenlined tables for both fruits and flowers, rustic railing for
The Mica Lamp Chimney Co. of Syracuse, exhibited bordering the alleys for spectators, and the fine apparently their lamp chimneys, which possess the several advantages natural beds of large house-plants which were interspersed of not breaking is allowed to fall, not cracking by heat, on the large grass plot in the central portion of the tent. remaining unsoiled by smoke, and being easily cleaned. The mode of constructing these beds was to place the They are certainly valuable. plants together in close contact over the surface of the S. B. Dewey, Jr., of Rochester, exhibited a collection bed ; line its exterior with curiously worn irregular stones of kerosene lamps; among them is a small night lamp, of equal size, and entirely obscure the pots by a carpet of which we have tested for several weeks, and it is a perfect evergreen boughs.
little contrivance of its kind-the flame being easily reAbout one quarter of the whole circle of flower tables duced to the size of a pin's head if needed, and readily was covered with a brilliant profusion from the untiring regulated. Mrs. Van Namee of Rensselaer Co., who has for so many Hutchinson & Lyon of Cayuga, also had on exhibition years contributed largely to the floral display at the State an excellent contrivance for the perfect combination of "fairs. One of the finest floral ornaments in this collection kerosene in lamps—which even obviated the use of was a beautiful and simple basket, trimmed with ever-chimneys in some instances, and rendered simple the labor greens and filled with flowers, with a delicate wreath en- of trimming. twining its handle—a far more tasteful object than the The rest of the contents of Domestic Hall exhibited in. elaborate structures, shields, stars and other forms, made dustry, taste and ingenuity, but they do not need separate up stifly of flowers themselves. There were several other notices in a condensed report like this, and their variety collections of flowers of nearly equal merit, besides ex. may be understood by naming a few, such as furs, quilts, tensive ones from Frost & Co. and Ellwanger & Barry. carpets, rugg, ottomans, sewing machines, penmanship, The Domestic Hall.
photographs, paintings, embroidery, clothes wringers, This fine permanent building was well filled with a mis pianos, “native wines,” preserved fruits, travelling bags cellaneous collection of ingenuity and skill. It contained and trunks, articles of dress, bedsteads, barometers, hats, some objects of especial interest. One of the most so was models of bridges, hose, yarn, flannel, stocking-yarn, a model of Ogden's machine for manufacturing cement mittens, and Dewey's fine paintings of fruits and flowers pipe for drains and water pipe. This machine is likely to for nurserymen and others. prove one of much value. The tile is made under a high The Dairy and Mechanics' Halls. pressure, giving them a very compact. texture, regular Dairy Fall was not well filled. A few large and form and finished surface. As the process of burning is apparently excellent cheeses from Oneida county were the obviated, the pipe may be made more cheaply than by the whole representation under this head. One of them usual mode of burning clay. It may be also used instead weighed over half a ton. Most of the newly used cheese of lead pipe for the conveyance of water underground, vats were in the hall—including the Oneida, Roe's, and and of course at far less expense than lead. The machines | others. A number of newly patented churns were ob