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Berved, but nearly all had the defect of too much com. The show of SHEEP was unusually fine and very explexity, while they did not appear to possess any decided tensive. The ranges of pens extended for about a quaradvantage over simpler sorts. A similar objection, com- ter of a mile. Among the Spanish Merinos, were 35 plexity, existed with some of the butter workers. The fine animals from George Campbell of Vermont, which same hall contained a moderate exhibition of good vege- were not excelled by any in this class; the largest ram tables-a good collection of grains and seeds, and several bad sheared 20 lbs. one years' growth, last season, and 211 complex patent bee-hives. Another subdivision of the lbs. this year. Pitts & Wiley of Honeoye, 52 bead of hall was occupied with a moderate collection of stoves the full blood Spanish, excellent animals. S. Hillman of and hot air furnaces, a number of water listers, and a Avon, 10 handsome rams of the Atwood Merinos. Wm. miscellaneous collection of mechanical contrivances, some Chamberlain about sixty head of Spanish Merinos, over of considerable interest and value. A simple, ten dollar 40 of which were full blood,—in the hands of his excel. root cutter, made by J. R. Robertson, Syracuse, appeared lent manager Carl Heyne. Among other exhibitore, we to be one of the best we bave seen. A superb collection observed the names of Carl Heyne himself, W. L. Chamof cutlery was exhibited by D. R. Barton & Co. of Roch- berlain, E. G. Cook, N. M. Dart, John Pierce, John ester. A new grain cradle, possessing some conveniences Brown, E. N. Bissell, and others. A pair of large and fine for adjusting and regulation, in connection with durability, Leicesters were exhibited by James Lawrie, Scarborough, came from Remingtons, Markbam & Co. of Ilion. D. W. C. W. Amos F. Wood, Jefferson Co., Jurian Wipne of Seely of Albany, exhibited a good brick machine. A Albany Co., and Geo. Miller, C. W., several fine animals of neat, compact and strong willow peeler was furnished by the same breed. Brodie, Campbell & Co. had a large and Easterbrooks of Geneva. Wm. Lines of Rochester had excellent herd on the grounds. John Snell, Brampton, a compact and convenient coal sifter. Well made steam C. W., had 18 Cotswolds and 4 Leicesters; the two-year engines were contributed by D. A. Woodbury & Co., animals weighing about 320 lbs., and shearing 15 lbs.; Rochester. Eames' Water Engine, of which some of the yearlings weigh about 270 lbs. James F. Converse our readers will remember a remarkable account in Jast and E. Gazley were prominent among the large exhibitors year's CountRY GENTLEMAN, was also on exhibition. It of excellent Cotswolds; and there were good ones from possesses the power of elevating a stream of water to a Cooper Sayre of Ontario Co. A half-dozen large and fat height many times greater than the head which elevates ones, bred by F, W. Stone of Guelph, C. W., and fattened it, by the simple reciprocating motion of a piston—and and exhibited by W. M. Smith of Detroit, were stated to while it is extremely simple, it operates somewhat as a weigh 400 lbs. each. steam engine, only the head of water works it, in the Charles B. Meek of Canandaigua, bad some excellent same way that the head of steam drives in the steam specimens of bis Hampshire and Shropshire Downs. Geo. engine. It is not unlike the water ram in its results, but Betteridge of Riga, showed some good Cotswolds. Among operates with little or no waste of water. Without seeing the South-Downs, nothing of course could excel the splenit in actual operation we were disposed to think very did animals of Samuel Thorne; while some animals of favorably of it, and that it promises to be extremely great excellence were also shown by James 0. Sheldon of valuable.
Geneva, P. Lorillard of Fordham, A. B. Conger of HaverThe Live Stock.
straw, &c. Very fine Shropshire Downs were exhibited CATTLE.—The collection was moderate, but embraced by J. Lorillard, and Hampshire Downs by A. T. Parsons. some excellent animals. There were no extensive herds Among the exhibitors of Leicesters were C. B. Eastman of Short-Horns on the ground. Among the exhibitors of Jefferson county, and others. were Geo. Miller of Markham, C. W.; James 0. Sheldon
SWINE.—There were many fine animals, but the of Geneva; E. Griffin of Duchess county; A. B. Conger exhibition was not quite equal to the extensive one last of Haverstraw; Dr. George Phillips of Ogdensburgh, who year at Watertown. Among the exhibitors of Yorkshires had many good animals ; A. Stevens of Batavia ; and c. and kindred breeds, were Robert Ball, T. 0. Jones, K. Ward of Le Roy. The principal exhibitors of Devons, Brodie, Campbell & Co., A. C. Clark, and others. E. S. were Joseph Hilton of New Scotland ; A. Stevens of Hayward showed a fine herd with some mixed blood. Batavia ; and A. B. Conger of Haverstraw. S. D. Hun- James F. Converse an extensive herd of thorough bred gerford, Brodie, Campbell & Co., and J. F. Converse, all / Yorkshires. A large and fine Essex boar was brougbt by had very fine Ayrshires. Erastus Corning, Jr., of Albany, R. B. & A. A. Underhill of Duchess Co. T. T. Cavanagh as usual, nearly swept the board with his excellent Here. exhibited a huge animal of the Yorkshire class, that was fords—if we mistake not, he carried off all the premiums stated to weigh full half a ton., but one, which was awarded to John Hovey of Broome POULTRY.-The exhibition of poultry was a fine onecounty.
two hundred feet in length were densely packed with One of the most interesting exhibitions on the grounds, cages of handsome and selected breeds. Among the was that of the skill of a young man by the name of Wil- prominent contributors were Heffron & Best and E. N. liams, from Jefferson Co., who without yoke, or any kind of Bissell, who had many animals—and Lewis F. Allen, J. harness or lines, preserved complete control of six young R. Page, D. P. Newell, E. P. Cheever, P. S. Clute, G. steers, driving them and working them through all kinds Westfall, W. King, and E. A. Wendell of Albany, all of evolutions, and almost literally doubling and twisting of whom had valuable contributions. them, with scarcely ever speaking a word, and almost
Implements and Machines, wholly by gentle signs of the whip or hand. Such perfect The collection of these was extensive and valuable, and discipline and control, with never a loud word, furnished as was to be expected, was especially so in Mowers and a strong contrast with the noisy vociferation with which Reapers, and in Horse-powers and Thrashing Machines some farmers think it necessary to drive oxen, accompa- characteristics of the great grain-raising region in which nied by repeated blows of the whip.
the fair was held. In viewing the long lines of these machines, extending across the grounds, they suggested the and it sowed cloverseed very evenly, and much faster and immense importance at present attached to inventions of better than could be sown by hand. The plaster attachthis character, furnishing, as they do, the only means by ment, in our opinion, is superior to anything else that was which the million farmers of the northern states can now exhibited in that line, considering the price of it and concarry on successfully the cultivation of grain, while so venience. many laborers have passed from the plow to the battle- J. Nourse & Co., Boston, Mass., exbibited a universal field.
plow, with iron beam, having several different patterns of The following list of exhibitors of horse-powers and mold-boards, for different kinds of work, which appeared thrashing machines, many of whom bad several machines to possess quite as much merit as any other cast-iron plow each, will show the extent and value of this part of the on the ground. exbibition :-Emery Brothers, and Wheeler, Melick & Of horse hoes there were but two implements entered. Co., Albany; R. & M. Harder, Cobleskill; G. Westing. Of these Milton Alden's horse hoe, or thill cultivator, took house & Co., Schenectady; Birdsall & Brokaw, West Hen- the first prize, $8. There was, besides, a large variety of rietta ; Dow & Fowler, Fowlerville; J. M. Harvey & Son, one-horse and two-horse cultivators, which were most ex. Amsterdam; Lawrence & Gould, Troy; Hildreth & Co., cellent implements, well made, and of good style. Lockport; Perigo, Avery & Gould, Groton, and Fisher, Mr. J. Fink, Baldwinsville, N. Y., exhibited a Union Weiland & Co., Buffalo. Most or all of these machines Climax Cultivator, which is a most superior implement, indicated great excellence.
especially for working among potatoes, and for digging Among other machines on the ground, were Emery's them. In the line of Potato Diggers, where farmers do cross-cut saw, La Tourette's tile machine, which screens not raise but one-fourth or half an acre, this will subserve the clay and makes the tile at one operation, and which an excellent purpose, as the small iron harrow, which is was kept at work on the ground; valuable sectional cast attached to the implement, will bring out every potato te rollers and clod-crushers, from Burrall of Geneva; a vi- the surface of the ground. brating or dirt-shaking potato digger, which may prove There was a good assortment of harrows on the ground, valuable, from Wm. B. Ryan of East Pembroke; a fine and one combined revolving harrow, which discloses a new collection of steel plows and cultivators from Remingtons, and valuable principle, and which we have seen in operaMarkham & Co., Ilion ; another collection of good and tion, and know to be a valuable implement, took the first durable iron-frame harrows and cultivators, from J. Fink premium. of Baldwinsville; and another collection from Whiteside,
Intimately connected with harrows was a revolving cast. Bennett & Co. of Brockport.
iron clod crusher, which, no doubt, would operate well
where lumps and clods are always sufficiently dry not to The large collection of Mowers and Reapers will be noticed next week; but the newly invented Self-Raker at- pack into the grooves, in which case it would be but little tached to Kirby's Reaper, should not be overlooked. This better than a plain land roller.
There has evidently been a vast amount of thought and contrivance is a very simple one, is moved by gearing, and appeared by an imperfect trial with straw, to do its work money expended in endeavoring to get up implements
that are different from anything now in use, and which in a very complete manner. There was a very good number of grain drills on the furmers. This was the case here at the fair. There were
beror were, and never will be, of any practical utility to ground, and at first sight it would seem rather difficult to thousands of dollars worth of farm implements that were, determine which one was really the best. Bickford & utterly worthless as real practical implements, and still the Hoffinan, Macedon, N. Y., and P. Seymour, East Bloom inventors flatter themselves that they bave produced somefield, N. Y., exhibited each a combined drill, broadcast thing that will astonish the world. Of such implements grain sower, seed sower attachment, and an attachment
we do not propose to say anything, but to speak of those for sowing plaster, ashes, guano, or any other fertilizer at which possess true merit, that will stand the test in future, the same time. Mr. M. Downey, Springfield, Clarke Co., years, and which will operate well whenever they may be 0., exhibited a combined grain drill
, which, by the way, put to the test. took the first and only premium, of a silver medal, which possessed many features which recommend it highly to
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) every farmer who wants a good drill,
TURNIPS AFTER CORN AGAIN. on this class of tarm implements, who were all prac
I notice an article in last week's COUNTRY GENTLEMAN tical farmers, were guided by the price of the im- entitled “ Corn after Turnips," by your correspondent, Mr.. plement, its simplicity, its durability and its con- BARTLETT, and as I have had some experience in the matvenience. This last one would admit of the tubes being ter, which I certainly paid well for, you shall have it. in a line or in a zig-zag position ; the grass seed attach- loads of Ruta Bagas, on a lot consisting of about 14 acres,
Some four years since I raised a noble crop-some 30 ment was behind the tubes, which left the grass seed to which was a heavy clover sward turned under in June, and be covered by the rain ; the grain tubes were India rub- well top-dressed with fine compost. The next season I planber, instead of iron or zinc, which is quite preferable ; (ted to corn, supposing, of course, to receive good returns, and the price was nearly one-third less than the other as the land had been so thoroughly fed the year previous. drills. And, more than this, there was a land measurer sufficient grain really to pay for barvesting. I have also
The result was, however, a total failure-there not being attached to this drill, by which the teamster could see at known similar cases of failure in our locality since. The a glance exactly how much ground he had passed over, reason I am wbolly unable to assign, as the land was cerand how much grain and grass seed also he is sowing pertainly in good tilth, but infer the turnips must extract
some ingredient from the soil which is all-important to Ira S. Stanbrough, Newark, exhibited a hand seeding the corn crop. Perhaps Prof. Johnson, or some other of machine, with plaster sower attached, which is a genuine know the facts, without pretending to assign the cause.
our agricultural chemists, can tell us what it is. We only. macbine, and costs but littte. We saw it in operation, Salisbury, Conn.
W. J. PETTEE
Tbree bushels of seed,
1.00 1.87 1.50 3.00 2.00
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) are turned into a lot where there is plenty of water, but SOWED CORN.
no feed. At 12 they go into the stable, where tbe cort
is already placed in their mangers, in quantity about 20 I became a farmer in April, 1859, and therefore as my pounds per cow. At 2 they are again milled and turned experience in farming is brief, those who choose can skip out where they just get feed enough to keep them busy over what I have to say. But experienced or not, I find till 5 or 6, when they are again turned into the stable, I have succeeded in making farming, on $100 land, pay; in their mangers.
where about 40 pounds per cow, of corn, has been placed and if I was asked to name the reason, I should unhesitat
The reader can judge how large a proportion of their ingly point to the production of sowed corn. My produc- food is corn. I estimate two-thirds, though their pasture tion of this crop this year will amount to about 15 acres, is good, but allow one half. Well then, 67 animals in 10 of which I have just finished cutting, designed more 23 days days bad consumed just 231 square rods of corn,
or 10 rods per day for the whole herd, or the sixteenth of particularly for late use; the balance has either been fed,
an acre per day for one-half the living of 67 cows; or oneor is yet standing to be fed before frost, if there is time eighth acre per day for their entire living; or some 4,200 enough before that event, or to be instantly cut down pounds of the fodder, or 60 pounds per day per bead for should that event be threatened.
the half of it. Calculation shows that 108 rods should, at I have before explained my method of raising sowed this rate support a cow in milk 365 days. Will any root corn, but as I see so much poor stuff under this title about crop in the universe beat this ?
For upland an abundance of manure must be used, and the country, I consider it my duty to repeat my system. besides the cultivatien, one boeing and weeding is given.
On the largest scale, I raise this crop on the Mohawk The distance apart of the rows the same, say 24 inches, Flats. In June I turn over an old meadow, harrow and the stalks about 3 inches apart. If the reader will thoroughly, and with the Albany drill, sow Western corn take the trouble to calculate, he will find that if the stalks in the lap or at the lap of every other furrow. I culti- averaged a pound each with these conditions, the yield vate once with Alden's thill cultivator, and that is all till should be 56 tons per acre, but they do not. A good harvest.
stalk in the tassel will weigh a pound, as I have many times Now at the lowest estimate, I am reaping 25 to 30 tons proved, but they will not average that. of the best cow food in the world per acre, at the trifling For winter use, the corn is bound in bundles, and set outlay of
up in the stack.yard in moderate sized stooks well bound, Plowing once per acre, gay.
$2.00 consisting of twelve bundles. From this yard it is taken Harrowing per acre, say
as fed out, and I have fed as late as February 1st. It Sowing and once cultivating,
kept well till then. Cutting and binding. Hauling to yard and stooking..
Let me close my essay with an incident appropos to the
subject. One day last June, when our hay crop looked Or per acre, That is to say, the fodder stacked up in my yard costs less this State, whose reputation is national, and who is besides
unpromising enough, I met a distinguisbed politician of than two dollars per ton, or less than one cent for ten being a politician, a practical farmer-much the noblest pounds. I have said nothing about manure, for I use none at all “what shall we do for hay next winter? Shall we sow
calling of the two by the way, -"Mr. W.," said be, for the Flat's crop, and it leaves the land in a most excel. Hungarian grass ?" lent condition for the succeeding crop, which is oats or
The Governor, by the way, was one of the first to bring barley with grass seeds; for be it understood, sowed corn that humbug from Towa into this county. I replied that is an exhausting crop. In the most perfect degree it I sowed Western corn, and was then about to sow ten comes up to the requirements I have seen discussed in the Country GENTLEMAN during the last year, of a fallow acres of flats for winter use, besides my usual crop for crop. It shades the land; it assists in decomposing the eight acres of his flats with corn.
Acting upon my advice, he sowed some six or
I met him the other sod; it assists in destroying and smothering weeds by its day. He had harvested his crop, and remarked " what a luxuriant and late growth, and it requires that the
weeds splendid crop it is. Why is there not more of it proshould be destroyed in the earlier stage of its growth. duced " What more is required of a fallow crop ?
American Farmers, ask yourselves that question, and Talk about roots! carrots, turnips, &c. I have heard of 1,000 bushels of the former-some twenty tons per
cease imitating English farmers. Adap: your farming to your
climate. Utica, Sept., 1862. acre; and of the latter, the Scotch farmers talk about eight or ten tons, and in rare instances as high as fifteen, but I venture to say that no person in the United
The Provincial Fair of Upper Canada. States ever gucceeded in raising over an acre or two of either at those rates. It is generally small patches that
We much regret that unavoidable circumstances preproduce at the rate of 1,000 bushels of carrots per acre ; vented our attending the exhibition of the Provincial Ag. the labor actually forbids extensive fields, even if cellar Society of Canada West, week before last at Toronto. room did not.
From friends who were present we learn that it was well But the objector says the root crop is worth the most. attended, the sales of admission tickets amounting in the It ought to be, for it doubtless costs at least five times as
In several de much to produce one-half the quantity, or in other words, whole to probably $12,000 or $13,000. I can produce ten pounds of sowed corn as cheaply as i partments—particularly perhaps, Short-Horned, Galloway could one pound of any root crop, unless it may be pota- and Angus Cattle, and the mutton breed of Sheep, the toes of some of the new and hardy varieties.
show is thought to have been a remarkably good one, and Now let us see what the value of sowed corn really is. throughout it probably compares favorably with any ever Let me first premise that I took the trouble to weigh a held by the association. portion of my upland crop in August, and I found it to be 36 tons of the green fodder per acre, and not nearly fully
Mr. Harris of the Genesee Farmer, who was present grown at that, though probably quite as valuable as if ma. has kindly furnished us with a copy of the Catalogue of ture. Bnt as to the value. I feed and milk 66 to 68 the Exhibition. This is a most important adjunct to the cows. They are milked at 4 o'clock A. M. As soon as interest and usefulness of such a Show, and ever since we milked a bag of two bushels of "ships” is fed out to some had the opportunity of learning its value at the Foreign of the more deserving of the herd. After breakfast, or about 7, they are turned out upon after-feed, and kept exhibitions, we have been most desirous that our Society there about three hours. They fill themselves pretty well, should also issue a Catalogue of its exhibitions. To do though not sufficiently to lie down generally. At 10 they' this, however, with any degree of completeness, it is ab
40 18. Other Medium Wooled..
97 21. Fat, 27
10. for Special Prizes,
solutely essential that all entries should be made several NEW IMPLEMENT FOR CULTIVATING. weeks in advance; and it has been thought doubtful
A late number of the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN contained whether we should succeed in inducing or compelling our
a brief notice of a new implement for planting and cultiimpatient people to take this anticipatory trouble. The
vating, invented by S. W. Hall of Elmira. It was ex. Catalogue before us contains 100 pages, and 1814 entries bibited at the State Fair at Rochester, but we understand numbered successively, and arranged in classes and divisions corresponding to those of the Premium List. Thus through a mistake of the Committee
, was not seen nor
reported upon. 'We gave it some examination, and found we ascertain that the number of entries was as follows:
it to comprise several points of merit. It is used for both
87 planting and cultivating. Its leading object is to obviato 2. Agricultural.. 3. Road and Carriage.... 143 | 17. Cheviots,.
ig the necessity of carefully guiding the horses in marking, 4. Heavy Draught...
| 19. Merino and Saxon, 50 planting and cultivating, by making a track in which they 5. Short-Horns.. 123 20. Other Fine Wooled,
will accurately walk with but little attention. A single
straight furrow having been made, two parallel pieces of 8. Ayrshires...
74 22. Yorkshire... 9. Galloway and Angus,. 62 23. Large Berkshire,
18 timber or scantling, furnished with small wheels, and
24. Other Large Breeds.... 11. Grades..... 52 25. Suffolks..
38 cultivator teeth, follow, marking two perfectly parallel 12. Fat and Working...
32 26. Improved Berkshire,
27. Other Small Breeds, 37 straight furrows. The implement being drawn by two 13. Leicesters,
226 | 28. Poultry and Rabbits, 14. Cotswolds,
horses, a new surrow is made at each passing. Between Aggregate of the whole...
these tracks, the seed is deposited—the rows of course We give the above in extenso because it presents in being quite straight and parallel. The contrivances for tabular views both the classification of breeds adopted and dropping beans, corn, carrots, beets, and potatoes, are the relative numbers in which they were represent- good ones, and show much ingenuity. After the crops ed. The Short-Horns, Herefords, Cotswolds and South- have come up, they may be cultivated by the same maDowns shown by the President, Fred. Wm. Stone, Esq., chine, with great accuracy, the rows having no curves nor were among the finest in their several classes. Mr. John
crooks, and admitting the teeth or knives to run very Snell, Col. Denison, Messrs. John and George MILLER, closely—thus saving much hand labor. For cultivating and Daniel Tre, were among the large and prominent carrots and other small plants, while in an early stage of exhibitors. From the American side of the line were T. growth, a contrivance is attached that cuts very closely to L. Harison, Esq., and Messrs. BRODIE, CAMPBELL & Co. the rows, at the same time that it protects the young
For the Canada Company's prize for the best 25 bushels plants from being covered by masses and clods of earth. of winter wheat, there were 22 entries; for the best 2 and cleans the cultivator teeth when they become clogged, bushels of white winter wheat, 40 entries; for the best for digging potatoes, a set of hooks is placed in the im2 bushels red winter, 15 entries ; for the best 2 bushels plement, which move along through the centre of the ror white spring, 22 entries; and for the best 2 bushels red with none of the usual care required to keep a potato spring, 39 entries. Our informant thought these samples plow in the center; as, to use the inventor's phrase, of grain not equal to those exhibited on former occasions. there is no dodging." This implement is rather comThe Toronto Globe, in its very full report of the exhi
plex, and costs about $60. bition, says, the show of agricultural implements, of
There are two leading objections to it, which we trust fanning mills and of threshing machines, of straw cutters the inventor may obviate. The first is its complex strucand root cutters, of cider presses and of cheese presses, ture and consequent cost. Possibly the frame-work may of horse rakes and hand rakes, of scythes and snaiths, of be greatly simplified. The other is its inability to work steam engines, of harrows, of churns, of plows, is, we but one row at a time—although this objection is at least think, taken all together, better than we have ever seen
partly obviated by the extreme accuracy with which the before in this Province." The same paper, which is one of the most ably managed and influential of the Canadian planting is done, and the closeness with which the culti
vating is done to the rows. Yet if a simpler and lighter journals, also notices the fact “that many of the articles form of frame could be devised, so that instead of formshown are copies of others of American make,” and adds ing two furrows only, four could be cut at once, with three the following pertinent remarks :
intermediate planted rows or drills, the machine would Our manufacturers and the people of this Province, who buy from the manufacturers, are much indebted to American work more rapidly by three times, and be more in accordsuggestions, and we still think those who have the manage- ance with the wants of American husbandry, which calls ment of the Exhibition are guilty of a very narrow-minded for horse labor, with as few attendants as practicable. polioy in not opening the prizes for competition to our neigh-Garrett's Horse-boe, which is used on the clean, smooth, bors. The object in holding the exhibition at all, we suppose, is not to enable Canadian manufacturers to get premiums, highly cultivated lands of England, cleans or cultivates ments will be offected which will redound to the good of the farmers usually plant in this country; and every invention but to create competition among them, whereby improve eight rows of carrots at once, planted nearer together than Province as a whole. By encouraging American manufacturers to come here, many valuable hints would be obtained that will enable farmers here, where hand-labor is more To exclude them because they would take a good many prizes, expensive, and horse-labor cheaper, to sweep through is a sort of system by which we "cut off our nose to spite our their corn-fields and root crops, taking more than one row face."
Lack of space compels us to close this imperfect notice at a time, will meet their approval in this respect. Their by adding that we hope to have a considerable representa successful use, presupposes, of course, good land in fine tion from Canada at our State Fair, both as visitors and cultivation, and not grassy, stony, rooty, stumpy ground, exhibitors. Our departments are now all open to them, rendered uneven by “cradle knolls.” on the same terms as to our own citizens, and the com
PATENT OFFICE REPORT.-Hon. D. P. HOLLOWAY, Community of interest between the farmers and breeders on missioner of Patents, will please accept our thanks for cothe two sides of the border, is annually increasing and pies of the Report on Agriculture for 1861. A copy of strengthening.
of the Report on Mechanics would be very acceptable.
L, H, T.
SURFACE APPLICATION OF MANURE. seed in the manure to supply any deficiency in the meadow,
This ripened hay should be cut from meadows that bare "At one of the meetings of the New-York State Ag. Society. 1860, been made so rich that it will not deteriorate them so as Major DICKINSON is reported as saying: 'I hold that one load of ma
to prevent their yielding a good crop thereafter. Manure nure on the surface is worth two loads plowed in.'" This remark, made by me to a body of practical farmers in the spring. The plaster not only holds all the ammo
prepared in this way through the winter is ready for use of large experience, and of the very highest intelligence nia with which it comes in contact in the yard, but has in their art, being received without discussion, it was not the power of accumulating more after being spread on the supposed at the time to be necessary to prove it—especial- meadow or pasture. In hauling out the manure, a yoke ly before so enlightened an audience. I certainly did not of oxen is the best, because the cheapest. A yoke of
oxen well fed, with a careful man to drive them, will fat expect to be called on by a reader of the Country Gen- almost as fast at this business as to lie idle; and they can TLEMAN to defend so plain a proposition; much less by therefore be increasing in value every day. The man one who sets himself up as a teacher of agriculture. But that spreads it must have brains, as there will be some so it is, and I beg the indulgence of agricultural readers portions of the field that need more than others to make
He sbould stand on the load while for trespassing on their patience to prove the truth of my spreading, as he can see much better from that position assertion, for the benefit of Mr. BARTLETT and a few new where and how to spread the manure; and besides he can beginners.
spread it faster in this way than when it is unloaded in Eight tons of manure, properly prepared and judicious- piles about the field. I never permit a man to unload in ly applied to the surface of an acre of poor, thin meadow piles for the purpose of making haste for dinner, rain or soil, that would not produce more than half a ton of hay night. He may unbitch from his wagon to make baste
for anything, but manure is too precious for top-dressing to the acre without it, will increase the yield of hay to to be piled up in the field. No man can apply it to grass one ton per acre. And if the grass is cut early,—that is, as it should be, after it is unloaded in piles, for the reason before the seed begins to form,-anu the meadow is not that all that is left in the pile must be spread, and if not pastured, the same application of manure three years after sufficient, it must answer; and still worse, the fine whiel ward will increase the yield to one and a half tons per into the pile instead of being taken as it should be to
would be left in the bottom of the wagon is pulled off acre;
and the same process repeated three years there. some portion of the field where strawberries, moss, or after, will make it produce two tons to the acre. The some other pernicious things are trying to run the grass roots and rootlets would be increased quite as much by out, which latter course is as much preferable to harrowthe application as the growth above ground. Each ap. ing and scarifying the meadow, as it would be to feed the plication of this manure will add one hundred per cent. proper food to stunted scurvy cattle whose hides have to the original growth. This large incrense is on the most grown fast to their bones from starvation, instead of scarifavorable soils; but to prevent its being an extreme case I fying their bides to give them a start. will reduce the increase three-fourths, so as to meet the I never saw a skillful top-dresser whose meadows "run most unfavorable soils that can be found; and even then, out,” and I never saw a man, or one that had ever seen one load of manure thus applied is worth two loads plow- one of that class of farmers, whose sheep had “run out ed in, for at the end of ten years the sod will liave so in- or deteriorated in his hands. creased in thickness and in substance, as to contain more Top-dressing sometimes can be applied to the cereals fertilizing material for plowing under, than is contained in to great advantage, especially when the piece is seeded forty-eight tons of such manure plowed in.
down. In the year 1859, the crop of oats was in many Now let us take a much stronger case:
sections a failure, in others a short crop, by reason of the Plow up the soil by the road-side of your meadow, cold drying winds which followed the rains, which so where it is as nearly as possible like your meadow soil; crusted the soil over that the roots neither received suffidraw and spread twenty-five loads of it on an acre of the cient air nor surface moisture. I then top-dressed 35 meadow, and after an interval of two years, spread the acres of oats, and 25 of spring wheat, with ten busbels of same amount again, and you will thereby increase the of ashes burnt from sods, and two bushels of salt, to the quantity of hay from fifty to one bundred per cent., if the acre, which served, with the aid of the after rains, to feed original yield was not more than three-fourths of a ton to the roots and stimulate the growth, so that the oats and the acre. Then take one other acre of such land, and wheat thus treated yielded twice as much as other oats spread one hundred loads of the same soil upon it, and and wheat which I raised that season on equally good and plow it in, and if you derive ten per cent. advantage well prepared ground, without the top-dressing. from the operation, you will have accomplished more than After the manure has been spread from the wagon, it I could do.
should be spread over again after a rain. Eight tops to Again, sow ten bushels of ashes on an acre of mendow the acre are not sufficient to cover the whole surface, but producing less than a ton to the acre, and it will increase the manure can be spread much more nicely when wet the yield from one-fourth to one-half of a ton. And that than when dry. There are two objections, however, to is not all; it will bring in and promote the growth of drawing when wet. One is, the manure is then much other grasses that did not before make their appearance, heavier to handle, and the other, which is by far the and add very much to the quantity of sod to be plowed greatest, is that it cuts up and injures some soils almost as in. Then take the same amount of ashes to the acre, much as the manure does good. The second spreading and plow it in immediately after spreading, and you will should be made to touch every place which was not reachfind by comparison that one bushel for top-dressing is ed the first time, even if some places have to be slightly worth ten plowed in. With plaster the case is still uncovered to do it, as the rain will bave washed out stronger with this difference--that it does not increase enough to give all the plants a taste, where it lay in the the sod to the same extent. I must not be understood first place. that the same soil is always best to top dress with. While It is better to spread small quantities of manure often I have invariably found it to answer an exceedingly good over the surface of the whole farm, than to put large purpose, I have found that clay is much better than any quantities on some places, letting other portions go withmuck with which I am acquainted. The preparation and out any, except for a few crops which require quick rich application of these fertilizers, is simple, plain, and con- soils before the farmer has time to enrich his soil sufficientsistent with nature.
ly by the slower process. This I know is against the It is well while making manure in the yard to spread teachings of Liebig and Way, as well as most of the agrioccasionally a load of plaster on it, at the rate of say one cultural writers of ancient and modern times. But I ton of plaster to fifty tons of manure. It is well also to bave the practical experience of our own country to susfeed occasionally through the winter some hay that has tain me, which after all is the surest teacher. been cut after it has ripened, so as to have abundance of A sufficient quantity of manure applied to a thin soil