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346 & 348 BROADWAY.



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of

New York.



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COULOMB COUGH, a violent expiratory movement, ex pleurisy, pneumonia, and bronchitis; at other cited by some stimulus in the respiratory organs, times painless, but exhausting, as in the paroxin which the air is forcibly expelled, carrying ysms of spasmodic coughs. Cough, symptomwith it the mucus or other products accumula- atic of other than pulmonary disease, is not acted in the air passages. Any irritation from acrid companied by any characteristic phenomena disvapors, liquid or solid foreign bodies, too abun- coverable by auscultation and percussion. The dant or morbid secretions, or even the action of gravity of cough as a symptom depends on the cold air on the irritated mucous membrane, may disease in which it occurs ; spasmodic coughs produce a cough; the impression is conveyed generally are not dangerous, except from the to the respiratory nervous centre, the medulla liability to rupture of vessels, or other simply oblongata, by the excitor fibres of the par vagum, mechanical consequences. For the relief of and the motor impulse is transmitted to the ab- cough the prescriptions are almost innumerable, dominal and other muscles concerned in respi- consisting of compounds of narcotics, antispasration. Coughing occurs when the source of modics, demulcents, expectorants, and alterairritation is in or below the posterior fauces; and tives, according to the character of the sympsneezing when the irritating cause acts on the tom, the stage of the disease, and the fancy of the nasal mucous membrane. The act of coughing, physician. as defined by physiologists, consists in a long COULOMB, CHARLES AUGUSTE DE, a French inspiration which fills the lúngs; in the closure philosopher, born at Angoulême, June 14, 1736, of the glottis, when the expiratory effort com- died in Paris, Aug. 23, 1806. In early life he mences; and in the bursting open of the closed was sent to the West Indies as an engineer, glottis by the sudden blast of air forced up from and remained there employed in the constrncthe air passages. The cause of cough may be in tion of military works 3 years. In 1773 he the respiratory system, or it may be symptom- presented to the academy a memoir on cohesion, atic of disease in the digestive and other organs. and in 1777 won a prize for improvements in The cough in laryngitis, croup, and folliculitis the mariner's compass, and in 1781 another for arises from irritation in the throat and larynx; a theory of machines. As a commissary of the in bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy, and phthisis, government he won great praise from the inthe cause is in the thoracic cavity. Cough may habitants of Brittany for his defence of their be dry, as in the first stage of pleurisy; or humid, interests against the schemes of certain proas in certain stages of pneumonia and in advanced jectors of canals, and was publicly honored with consumption; this act may be single, and with gifts from them. Leaving Paris at the time distant intervals, or paroxysmal and' long con- of the revolution, he devoted himself to the tinued, as in whooping cough, phthisis, and bron- education of his children and the study of elecchial catarrh; it may be accompanied by a ring- tricity. His published memoirs are upon the ing metallic sound, as in croup and whooping statical questions of architecture; the mariner's cough, by a hollow resonance or gurgling, as in compass; modes of working under water; simphthisis with cavities, and by hoarseness, as in ple machines and the stiffness of ropes; windlaryngeal disease. The character of the cough mills; the force of torsion; a stationary compass, is characteristic of certain diseases ; that of in which the needle is hung by floss silk; electriwliooping cough and of croup is highly diagnos- city and magnetism, to which he devoted 9 tic; in pleurisy it is dry and hard; in pneumo- memoirs ; the friction of pivots; the circulation nia, generally humid, with viscid rusty sputa; of sap in the poplar; the work of day laborin consumption it varies with the stage of the ers; and the cohesion of fluids. His fame rests affection; but in all these, taken in connection principally on his electrical experiments and with other symptoms, the cough is a valuable calculations. For our knowledge of the forces diagnostic sign. Many râles, characteristic of of electricity we are perhaps as much indebtmorbid changes, are only or best recognized in ed to him as to any one. În private character the increased respiration after coughing. Cough he was as estimable as in science he was prois frequently accompanied by pain, as in acute found, thorough, and exact.

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COUNCIL (Lat. concilium, an assembly for cons have voted (St. Athanasins, for instance, consultation), in ecclesiastical history, an assem- having been but a deacon when he took the bly of bishops legitimately convoked, to deter- leading part in the council of Nice) are excepmino questions concerning the faith, rites, and tional, and thought to be founded on the circumdiscipline of the church. Councils are either stance that they were the representatives of provincial, national, or general, according as bishops. The pope, in person or by legates, they are composed of the prelates of a province, presides over the council and directs its transa nation, or of all Christendom; and their juris- actions; the emperors who presided in some diction is of corresponding extent. The name early eastern councils having done so only in an is also given to the diocesan synod, called by executive and protective capacity. The decithe bishop for the direction of the spiritual af- sion is usually according to the majority of the fairs of his diocese. Provincial councils are votes cast; but in the council of Constance the called and presided over by a metropolitan bish- 4 nations, Italy, France, Germany, and Engop. Their chief design is to make local discipli- land, each voted separately. General councils nary regulations; and though they may discuss do not create new dogmas, but interpret and questions of faith, their decisions concerning declare what was originally contained in Scripdoctrines have no force unless confirmed by the ture and tradition, and according to Roman Caauthority of the Catholic church. The general tholic belief are under the immediate guidance councils of Basel and Trent enjoined that pro- of the Holy Spirit, and therefore infallible, when vincial councils should be held once in 3 years, they pronounce concerning matters of faith. but in recent times the injunction is often dis- Their infallibility, however, does not extend to regarded. In France no metropolitan bishop is questions of discipline, history, politics, or scipermitted to call a council unless by express ence, nor even to the grounds of their decision, sanction of the civil power. National coun- nor to collateral observations. The disciplinary cils assemble under the presidency of the pri- ordinances are usually termed canons (canones), mate or of a legate of the holy see; they are and the decisions concerning doctrines, dogmas composed of all the bishops of a kingdom, and (dogmata); in the council of Trent, on the

conare called by princes for the regulation of na- trary, the latter were styled canons, and the tional ecclesiastical affairs. These councils were former distinguished as capita or decreta.—The frequent in France under the first 2 lines of Roman Catholic church recognizes 19 general French kings. · More than 100 bishops were as- councils : that of Jerusalem, held by the apossembled by Napoleon in Paris in 1811, to con- tles, about A. D. 50; the 1st of Nice, in Bithysider the right claimed by him of nominating nia, convened in 325; the 1st of Constantinobishops and cardinals. As, however, they sup- ple, in 381; the 1st of Ephesus, in 431; that ported the resistance made by Pope Pius VII. of Chalcedon, in 451; the 2d of Constantinople, to the imperial designs, they were dismissed be- in 553; the 3d of Constantinople, in 680; the fore they had passed any decision. Among the 2d of Nice, in 787; the 4th of Constantinople, latest national councils are that of Presburg, in in 869; the 4 councils of Lateran, at Rome, in Hungary, in 1822, and that of Würtzburg, in 1123, 1139, 1179, and 1215; the 1st and 2d of Bavaria, in 1849. --The general councils, called Lyons, in 1245 and 1274; that of Vienne, in Daualso ecumenical (from Gr. Olkovjevn, the habita- phiny, in 1311; that of Constance, in 1414; that ble earth), are summoned by the pope, are com- of Basel, in 1481 (till its dissolution by the pope); posed of all the bishops of Ohristendom, and are and that of Trent, in 1545. The council of Pisa designed to adjudge questions of schism and her- in 1409, that of Florence in 1439, and the 5th of esy, belief and discipline, which affect the univer- Lateran in 1512, are also regarded by some as sal church. Though the first 8 general councils ecumenical. The conference of 192 prelates at were convoked by the Christian emperors, as Rome in 1854, which proclaimed the dogma of Constantine, Theodosius, and Justinian, it was be- the immaculate conception, was not a council. cause the church did not then extend beyond the The Greek church receives as authoritative the limits of the empire, and therefore the Roman decisions of only the first 7 general councils. emperor bad the same right to call a general The Protestant churches generally admit the full council which after the division of the empire authority of none of them, and esteem as æcubelonged to the emperor of Germany, and the menical only the 6 which directly followed the kings of France, Spain, and England, to call na- apostolic council of Jerusalem. The synodical tional councils. It is moreover maintained by assemblies of the Protestant churches, as the Roman Catholic writers that the first general councils of La Rochelle and of Dort near the councils were summoned by the emperors at period of the reformation, the general synods the request or with the consent of the popes. of the Evangelical church of Germany, and Bishops and their representatives alone have a the convocations of the Anglican church at the

judicative right in councils, thongh the privi- present time, cannot in their nature be æcumenlege has often been extended to abbots and the ical.—The most complete collections of the acts generals of monastic orders. The lower orders of councils are those of Fathers Labbe and Cosof the clergy and the doctors of the church may sart (Paris, 1671 et seq., 18 vols.), with supplebe invited, and may participate in the delibera- ments by St. Baluzius (Paris, 1683 et seq.); Hartions of the assembly, but have only a consulta- douin (Paris, 1715, 12 vols.); Coleti (Venice, tive voice. The cases in which priests and dea- 1728 et seq., 23 vols.); Mansi (Florence, 1759–98,

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