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Flea on account of its insignificance.-Flies scales and fins;-Clean fowls not formally for their swarms,-the Gnat for its proverbial described, but the unclean excepted by name; smallness-Grasshoppers, for their vast num-creeping things, clean in part, described and bers, and individual smallness,-the Hornet named, as the locust, beetle, grasshopper, etc., for the severity of its sting, and as an unclean in part described and named, as the instrument of Divine judgment,- Lice one lizard, etc. of the plagues of Egypt-the Moth for its silent destructiveness--the Spider for its frail web; illustrative of the hope of wicked men,


ANIMALS USED FOR LABOUR, The ass for riding and work, persons of rank riding on white asses, wild asses regarded as untameable-the camel used on long desert journeys, the swift dromedary,-the horse which Israel was forbidden to multiply, used especially by warriors in early times, and in draw. ing the chariots of the great,-The war steed, characterized by strength, fleetness, and courage,-Mules employed in riding, horses of various colours, with their riders and chariots, used as prophetic symbols in Zechariah.


Animal food given to Noah, etc., blood for-
bidden, and fat, animals unclean which had
been killed by beasts, or died a natural death;
christian law, and conscience, require abstinence
from what may be doubtful to ourselves, or
offensive to weak brethren.


Cattle an important description of wealth in ancient times, the calf often fatted and killed as a luxury;-Bulls, fierce, bulls of Bashan,— the Ox used for agricultural labour, unaccustomed to the yoke, an image of impenitent men under divine chastisement; statu'es appointed enforcing equity and mercy, pasture ground very extensive,-dairy produce, Milk, Butter, and Cheese, killing cattle for food frequently exemplified, and very often referred to in Scripture-the Horn frequently employed as an emblem of power, pride, protection, and as a prophetic symbol.


Sheep-a common element of ancient wealth, kept for their wool and flesh, prone to wander, are illustrative of mankind going astray from of a scattered people. and of Christ's followers God; symbols of innocence and helplessness, under persecution-Tending the flock performed by the sheepmaster and household, similitude of the rulers and teachers of a nation and of Christ the Shepherd of souls;-Multiplication of the flock, a token of the Divine blessingWild goats, inhabitants of inaccessible rocks and mountains,-the domesticated led in flocks by a he-goat-the milk and flesh valuable for food, and the hair employed in manufactures;

ANIMALS CLEAN AND UNCLEAN IN THEMSELVES, Quadrupeds clean which parted the hoof, and chewed the cud, unclean which did not part the hoof or chew the cud;-Fishes clean which had scales and fins, unclean which had not-emblem of the wicked; symbol of Macedon.



Tents, used in part at least by the Antediluvians, by the Patriarchs, and by Israel in the wilderness,-Materials composing them, cords, curtains and stakes; figuratively applied to the earth, with the curtains of heaven above, and also to the body of man.


Caves resorted to, for shelter, and in seasons of danger; caves mentioned in Scripture, Makkedah, Adullam, Engedi, etc.

employed, bricks, stones, timber,-Erection was executed by carpenters, masons, etc.; used as a symbol of the increase of families, and of spiritual edification.


Walls so built as very much to seclude the building,-Courts uncovered, open spaces;Roof required by the Mosaic law to be flat, and fenced with battlements, usually communicated with the house, and was often resorted to for the purpose of observation, for making public proclamation, and for retirement and prayer,-Peter on housetop,-Pillars employed for strength and ornament, symbolically ap plied to eminent men,-Door, porch, gate, the Houses of various forms, palaces, castles and passage for entering and departing,-Windows cottages; Foundation metaphorically applied for light,-the Dial for determining the hour, to the mountains, and to the world at large, the various apartments constructed so as to illustrative of strength; a name given to suit the various objects for which they are Christ and his Apostles;-Materials usually designed.



-names given to them from that of the In unwalled villages held on the same principle builder, from the object of the erection, or is in ordinary inheritance,- Houses in wal- from some circumstance connected with the ed cities limited in respect to their redemp-fied, namely, Royal, Treasure, Commercial, erection. Different kinds of cities speci. tion and restoration; dedication attended by certain ceremonies and privileges, the thir

tieth Psalm.


Beds sometimes richly ornamented, but ordinarily couches ranged round the walls of the rooms; used as an emblem of the grave; bottles made of leather or the skins of animals; instanced in Hannah, the Gibeonites, etc., The pitcher used for carrying water, exemplified in the woman of Samaria,-The table used for meals and often used figuratively for the food itself as "providing a table." Seats (domestic) often formed simply of the sleeping couches folded up;-other household stut consisted of pots, baskets, etc.


Fires for cooking, and during the winter months for warmth; instanced in the hall o: the high priest during the trial of Jesus; forbidden to be lighted on the Sabbath day,Fuel of wood, thorns, dried grass, etc,-The Candle or lamp of oil usually kept burning during the night, and often employed as an emblem of domestic prosperity, but "lamp pu out," the symbol of domestic adversity; leprosy in houses and law about it.

Chariot, Fenced Cities, the walls of great strength, and provided at intervals with watch-towers and battlements; gaics sometimes constructed of brass, iron, etc., being places of concourse, spaces around them used for merchandise, and for judicial proceedings, often alluded to as the resort of the idle,Streets and thoroughfares usually narrow in the east,-Watchmen employed to guard during the night; elders of the people appointed by Moses to act as magistrates; instanced in the history of Ruth.


Jerusalem, often called the holy city, so named from being specially the place of God's presence, the scene of his worship, and the convocations of his people Israel


Erected by good men to mark special manifes tations of God's favour, as by Jacob at Beth-el, Moses at Sinai, Joshua at Gilgal, etc.


As the result of God's displeasure; often the subjects of prophecy, and often described as in the case of Babylon, Damascus, Nineveh, etc. Rebuilding of a city once in ruins is illus Erected for security, for convenience in mer-trated in the case of Jerusalem after the Babychandise, and often from personal ambition, Ionish captivity.


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captains of fifties, captains of the host, cap- they heard the evil report of the spies,-by tains of the guard, centurions, etc.

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Moab when they saw the numbers of Israel,— by the kings of the Amorites when they heard of the wonders which God had wrought for the tribes, by the Roman guards at the sepulchre of Jesus, promise made to Israel fore them, which was often fulfilled in their that their enemies would be panic struck be



Usually worn by soldiers in battle, used sym-
bolically to denote the weapons by which
the Christian may meet and successfully repel
his spiritual foes, the defensive consisting of
the helmet, for the head, the shield fastened
on the left arm, and used in parrying off the
strokes of enemies, the symbol of divine
protection, the coat of mail fitted to the
body to protect it
greaves, fitted round
the legs to protect them, the offensive
consisting of the bow and arrow, the character-
istic weapons of the Jews and foreign nations;
image of terrible evil inflicted by man, as also
of divine judgments,- the dagger, darts, or
javelin, the spear, the sling, used by shepherds
in defending their flocks, as well as in war,-
illustrative of casting or expelling a people out
of their own land, and the sword the most
deadly of all the ancient weapons; the sym-
bol of divine punishment and of human

Evinced by Israel in the wilderness, when persecution.



Formed out of the dust-fearfully and wonderfully made-symbol of the Church, in its sympathetic unity; has an interest in Christ's salvation; grows in stature, and possesses senses, appetites, and organs.



Hair its natural covering, often standing for the person or life itself, a natural symbol of chief or governor-bowed in token of reverence to God and respect to man-covered with dust a mark of mourning-hoary, a mark of age and venerable appearance-baldness a token of contempt, anointed for refreshment, token of disease, grief, and reproach-tossed in one hair not falling to the ground denoting perfect safety. Beard usually worn among the Jews,-Forehead, a spot on it marking public or official rank-Face bowed down in obeisance-falling on it the result of sudden noting steady purpose-cheek, to smite on it an or overpowering sensation-To set the face deact of haughty contempt-ear the organ of hearing, to give ear denoting attention-bad characteristics of the ear denoted by the epithets, uncircumcised, stopped, not inclined-earrings, a common ornament. Eye the organ of sight, and the source of tears; sometimes Are often alluded to and frequently employed dimmed by age or sorrow; occasionally painted by the inspired writers. by women, exemplified in Jezebel, an evil eye

Flesh the name often given to the whole corporeal person, or to corrupted human nature, used to signify what is external, denotes humanity generally. Bone, name and index of blood relationship, often alluded to as the seat of pain, often applied to the dead body, as bones of Joseph. Joints said to be loosened in fear. Skin black, expressive of severe disease, bones cleaving to it denoting emaciation sinews hardened, a symbol of obstinacy-blood often used to express murder as "the pollution of blood." Flesh and blood an expression for humanity.


power of; to give the hand the mark of amity; hands also used in a variety of idioms, to "clap them" expressive of sudden feeling-to "lay them on,' to take hold of, or to impart healing, spiritual office, or gift-to lift or spread them the posture of prayer-to lift those of another to comfort him- to lift them against one to rebel-to join them a sign of combination; left hand used with the right, in idio

handed persons noted for dexterity and precision of aim-right hand the symbol of power, and the place of honour. Bosom the seat of emotions, as joy, sorrow, etc., breast, smiting it, expressive of intense grief. Back, turning it the sign of forsaking-bowing it of servitude

a mark of mean disposition-winking with the eye a sign of evil intent, lighting up the eye denoting begun or renewed attention; used as the symbol of intellect, reason. or opinion. Nose the means of breathing and the organ of smell, breathing of the nostrils metaphorically descriptive of divine wrath. Mouth used in speaking-opening it the sign of commencing a discourse-laying the hand on it a token of reverence-smiting on it an act of contemptu-matical expressions, denoting both sides-left ous anger. Lips used with a variety of epithets to express shades of character, as uncircumcised, flattering, lying, joyful, burning, unclean,etc., used in Proverbs, especially to point out vices and virtues of character. Teeth, the organs of mastication, gnashing them a sign of agony, gnashing with them a sign of rage-the principal instrument of speech, like lips used with a variety of epithets denoting great diversity of character. Throat as the means of utterance compared in wicked men to a sepulchre-neck adorned with ornaments of needlework, chains of gold, etc., the seat of yoke, and the symbol of subordination-clasped in joy and grief, hard or stiff denoting obstinacy. Shoulder the seat of burden, badges of honour borne on it, as exemplified in Christ, on whose shoulder "the government shall be." Arm the natural symbol of strength-of flesh denoting weakness-hand used in a variety of idioms, as,at hand, near in time or space, "by the hand," -by means of, "into," or " in the hand," into or in the power of, "from the hand," from the

loins bound, and strengthened by the girdle, expressive of lineage or descent. Heart the seat of emotion-to harden it, to persist in disobedience, to apply it, to devote oneself to study. Liver called glory in the Hebrew Scriptures; reins or kidneys, figuratively, the seat of feeling-bowels, used in many places of Scripture, where in modern language, heart would be employed. Thigh, putting the hand under it a form of oath. Knee, kneeling, token of obeisance to God or man-leg, foot, instruments of motion, therefore the symbol of personal action, purpose, etc.,-Feet used idiomatically in various ways; "under feet," token of subjection, "at the feet" close attendance on, or implied inferiority, "falling at another's" feet an act of homage.



As defined by Moses, extending to Egypt, the great (Mediterranean) Sea, the desert and the river (Euphrates); as defined by Ezekiel in vision, more limited and more nearly coincides with the territory generally possessed by the tribes,-noted for its hills and valleys, fountains and springs,- its wheat, barley, vines, figtrees, and pomegranates, and for its richness represented as flowing with milk and honey, etc.


Repeatedly given to Abraham and the Patriarchs, to Moses, Joshua, etc., subsequent allusions to the same subject made by David, by the captives from Babylon, and by Stephen and Paul,-conditions of continued possession that the tribes should obey God and abstain from idolatry.


Given to Moses and renewed to Joshua,the aborigines to be expelled, gigantic in stature, given up to idolatry with other kindred sins, and falling under the judgment of

God, the expulsion accomplished by Israel under Moses and Joshua, acting under the Captain of the Lord's host,-prosecuted little by little, the original inhabitants who were spared being in the meantime placed under tribute, the chosen people entering on the possession of cities which they had not built, and vineyards and oliveyards which they ad not planted.


Canaan proper, having the wilderness of Sin, etc., on the south, the great sea on the west, Lebanon on the north, and the Jordan on the east; the territory on the other side Jordan, having the Arnon on the south, the wilderness on the east, Hermon and Bashan on the north, and the Jordan on the west;the territory east of the Jordan conquered under Moses, and allocated to two and a half of the tribes, the rest by Joshua, and given to the remaining nine tribes and a half.


Allocated to the several tribes and families for the most part or altogether by lot, and

to Joshua and Caleb in pursuance of special | by Nebuchadnezzar who destroyed it, and promise. carried the people captive to Babylon.

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Between God and man, between man and man, ratified by oath and sacrifice, and Sometimes written and sealed,-instanced in Abraham, and in the princes, levites, priests, and people of Israel, after the return from the captivity.


with Isaac and Jacob and with similar the promise of Canaan;-with Levi anent the promises; with Israel in the wilderness, and priesthood.

being established forever in the mediatorial reignof Messiah.

and with David-his throne


Evinced by his faithfulness, his mercy, his covenant an everlasting covenant.


Manifest from the kindness displayed in them, the danger of violating them seen in the threatenings, and in the judgments he has often inflicted, instanced very frequently

Salt an emblem of incorruptibility, and per- in the history of the chosen people. petuity.


Flowed from the sacrifices which were slain in ratification,-illustrated by Moses at the national covenant made by Israel in the wilderness, and by Christ in the covenant of redemption.


Often mentioned in scripture, and entered into
with great solemnity-instanced in those of
Abraham with Abimelech, Laban with
Jacob, Joshua with the tribes, Jonathan with
David, etc.

COVENANTS OF GOD WITH MEN, Graciously revealed to successive saints with their respective and appropriate promises, twice with Noah in reference to the flood:with Abraham, conveying the gift of the land of Canaan, and the promise of the seed,


Mentioned especially in seasons of special solemnity, of providential judgments and of religious revival, instanced in Israel in view of the approaching death of Moses, in view of the death of Joshua, and in the days of Josiah.


Made in Christ with believers, so called to distinguish it from the old covenant of Sinai,spiritual and is founded on the better promises.


Wonderful, made by God for his people, with the beasts of the field, the fowls of the air, and with the stones of the ground, ruinous those which godless men make in their vain imagination with death and hell; unlawful, those which Israel made with heathen nations.

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