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Hard, herd, hir'd, board, lord, gourd, bar'd, barr'd.
Earn, learn, scorn, thorn, burn, turn, worn, shorn, earn'd, scorn'd, burn'd, turn'd.
Hearse, verse, force, horse, dar'st, burst, first, worst, hears'd, vers'd forc'd, hors'd.
Bars, bears, hears, wears, pairs, tares, snares, repairs.
Carve, curve, serve, starve, carv'd, curv'd, serv'd, starv'd.
Sm, s'n, sp, st, ss'd, ks, ct, k'd, ft, f'd, pt, p'd, p'n, k'n, d'n, v'n, t'n.
Chasm, schism, prism, criticism, witticism, patriotism. * Reas'n, seas'n, ris'n, chos'n.
Asp, clasp, grasp, wasp, lisp, crisp.
Vast, mast, lest, dost, must, lost, mist; pass'd, bless'd, gloss'd, miss'd.
Makes, quakes, likes, looks, streaks, rocks, crooks. Act, fact, respect, reject; wak'd, lik'd, look'd, rock'd. Waft, oft, left, sift, quaff'd, scoff'd, laugh'd.
Apt, wept, crept; sipp'd, supp'd, slop'd, pip'd, popp'd. Op'n, rip'n, weap'n, happ'n.
Tak'n, wak'n, weak'n, tok'n, drunk'n.
Sadd'n, gladd'n, lad'n, burd'n, hard'n, gard'n.
Lst, mst, nst, rst, dst, rdst, rmdst, rndst.
* O and E should never be heard, in these and similar words, unless in singing, and then only when a verse demands the syllable as a requisite to
Heard'st, guard'st, reward'st, discard'st.
Ble, ple, dle, rl, bl'd, dl'd, pl'd, rld. Able, feeble, bible, double; troubl'd, babbl'd, bubbl'd, doubl❜d.
Ample, steeple, triple, topple; tripl'd, toppl'd, dappl❜d, crippl'd.
Cradle, saddle, idle, bridle; cradl'd, saddl'd, idl'd, swaddl'd.
Marl, hurl, whirl; world, hurl'd, whirl'd, furl'd.
Ngs, ngst, ng’d, ngdst.
Rings, wrongs, hangs, songs; hang'st, sing'st, wrong'st, bring'st; wrong'd, hang'd, clang'd; wrong'dst, throng'dst.
V. Exercise in transition from one class of Elements to another.
The design of this exercise is to impress vividly on the mind the distinctive quality of each species of sound, and the effect of each on the organic action. The columns are to be read across the page.
VI. Exercise in transition from one class of Organic Actions to another.
VII. Exercise in difficult Combinations of Elements.
1. U, as in Use.
Lucubration Institution Accumulate
2. Words of many syllables.
Hail! heavenly harmony.
Up the high hill he heaved a huge round stone.
Heaven's first star alike ye see.
Let it wave proudly o'er the good and brave,
The supply lasts still.
And gleaming and streaming and steaming and beaming,
The deed was done in broad day.
None now was left to tell the mournful tale.
Can no one be found faithful enough to warn him of his danger? No one dared do it.
A good deal of disturbance ensued.
He gave him good advice which he did not take.
A dark cloud spread over the heavens.
Had he but heeded the counsel of his friend, he might have been saved.
He came at last too late to be of any service.
It is a fact familiar in the experience of most teachers, that, after the utmost care in the systematic cultivation of the utterance of young readers, by regular analytic exercises, such as the preceding, the influence of colloquial negligence in habit, is so powerful, that the same individual who has just articulated, with perfect exactness, the elements on a column, while he is kept mechanically on his guard against error, by express attention to details, will, immediately on beginning to read a page of continuous expression of thought, relapse into his wonted errors of enunciation. To correct this tendency, no resort is so effectual as that of studying analytically a few lines, previous to commencing the usual practice of a reading lesson. The attention must first be turned to the words as such, -as forms of articulation, then to their sounds in connexion with their sense.
The following will be found useful modes of practising such exercises as are now suggested. Begin at the end of a line, sentence, or paragraph, so as to prevent the possibility of reading negligently: then, 1st, articulate every element in every word, separately and very distinctly, throughout the line or sentence; 2d, enunciate every syllable of each word, throughout the line or sentence, clearly and exactly; 3d, pronounce every word, in the same style; 4th, read the line or sentence, from the beginning, forward, with strict attention to the manner of pronouncing every word; 5th, read the whole line or sentence with an easy fluent enunciation, paying strict attention to the expression of the meaning, but without losing correctness in the style of pronunciation.
This is, apparently a merely mechanical drill; but its effects are strikingly beneficial, in a very short time. The habits of classes of young readers have thus been, in some instances, effectually changed, within a very few weeks,