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| whoso- | ever | liveth, and be- | lieveth in | me, I shall | never | die. 170191

I know that my Re- deemer | liveth, 17 and that he shall | stand at the latter | day upon the earth, | 1919 and though I worms de- stroy this / body, yet in my | Aesh shall I | see | God." 190 1991

3. Sentiment, in Didactic Style. [Goldsmith.] “ Writers of | every | age | have en- deavored to show that pleasure is in us, and not in the objects

| offered for our a- | musement. I 11 If the soul be happily dis- | posed, 190 | everything 1 be- | comes | capable

of af- fording | entertainment; and dis- | tress 19 will almost | want a | name. 198 199 | Every oc- | currence | 19 | passes in re- | view like the figures of a pro- | ces

| some may be | awkward, 1909 others lill | dressed; but I none but a | fool 9 is for this, en | raged | with the | master of the ceremonies. I 1991

sion ; |

4. — Splendor and Pathos.

[Burke's Description of Marie Antoinette.] “ It is | now, | sixteen or | seventeen | years since I saw the Queen of France, then the Dauphiness, at Versailles: 01991 and I surely | never | lighted on this | orb, 19 which she | hardly | seemed to | touch, 1a| more de- | lightful | vision. 19 190 191 | saw her | just a- | bove the ho- | rizon, decorating and cheering the elevated sphere she I just be- / gan to move in : 19 glittering, like the morning star; 179 full of life, and splendor, and joy. 1991991

Oh! | what a | revo- | lution ! 1891 and | what a heart 1 must I have, 1 to con- | template | with- | out e- | motion, I that ele- | vation and I that I fall." IGGIESI

5.

Oratorical Declamation.

[Lord Chatham.]

“I cannot, my | Lords, 19 I will not, I join in con| gratu- | lation on mis- | fortune and dis-Igrace. 19199 | This my | lords, 71 is a I perilous 19 and tre-l mendous moment; | it is not a | time for | adu- | lation : 1 the smoothness of | flattery | cannot | save us in this rugged and awful | crisis. 1919 It is now | necessary 1 to in- struct the throne in the I language of truth. 17

il We must, if | possible, dis- | pel the de- | lusion and | darkness which en- | velope it ; / and dis- | play, in its | full | danger and I genuine | colors, the ruin which is brought to our | doors.” |

6. Sentiment, in Didactic Style. [Addison.] “I know but | one | way of forti- | fying my | soul | a-l gainst | gloomy | presages and | terrors of mind; 199 and that is, by se- curing to my- | self the friendship | and pro- | tection of that | Being who dis- | poses of e-| vents and governs fu- | turity. | Gö He sees | at | one | view, the whole | thread of my ex- | istence, ,

not | only | that | part of it, which I have al- | ready | passed | through, but | that which runs | forward | into | all the | depths of e-| ternity. 1999 When I | lay me | down to | sleep, I recom- | mend myself to his care ; 198 19 when I a- | wake, I give myself | up to his di- | rection. 19 11 Amidst | all the evils that | threaten me, | I will look | up to him for help; 101 and I question not but he will | either a- | vert them, or I turn them to my ad- | vantage. 190 1991 Though I know I neither the time nor the | manner of the death | I am to die, I am not at | all so- | licitous a- | bout it; 100be- | cause I am sure that | he knows them both, 1991 and that he will not | fail to | comfort and sup- | port me | under them.”

|

7. Sentiment in Didactic Style. [Johnson.] “ Kindness is pre- | served by a constant | recipro- cation of benefits or interchange of pleasures ; | 99 but such | benefits | only I can be be- | stowed, as others are | capable of receiving, and such pleasures im- parted, 1 as | others are qualified to en- - 1 joy. 1991

By | this de- | scent from the / pinnacles of | art |no| honor | will be lost; 1991 for the conde- / scensions of learning are always over- | paid by Igratitude. 191991

1 An | elevated | genius Gem- | ployed in | little I things, ap- | pears, to use the / simile of Lon- | ginus, 1 like the sun in his | evening | decli- | nation : 191 he re- | mits his! splendor, but re- tains his , magnitude ; | -1 and pleases | more, I though he | dazzles | less."' ||

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The difference of effect in “ rhythmical accent," it will be perceived, on closely examining the style of the preceding passages, is greatly dependent on the number of syllables included within each “bar,” and, not less, on the pauses, which are also included in the “ rhythm," and therefore enclosed within the bars; since the “ time" of the voice necessarily includes its rests and intermissions as well as its sounds. · Rhythm depends farther on the position of the accented syllable which takes on the emphasis of a phrase, as well as on the different species of accent, as radical,”

concrete,” or “ temporal.” Compare, particularly, the contents of the “ bars” in the last few lines of the last two examples. They will be found to imbody the expressive genius of each author, and clothe his thought in fitting sound.” The meek and quiet spirit of Addison, breathes in the plain, conversational, and comparatively uniform style of “rhythm,” in the close of the paragraph quoted from him ; and the noble soul, but mechanical ear, of Johnson, are equally expressed in the sweeping “rhythm " of " quantity

and pause, and measured antiphony, in the cadence of the last sentence extracted from the Rambler. The limits of an elementary work like the present, will not admit the details of analysis by which the peculiar character of each of the authors quoted might be verified by his peculiar “ zhythm.” But in the statemenis already made on quantity,

movement, accent,” and “ rhythm,” the implements of analysis have been furnished ; and the exercise of applying them may be left to the teacher and the student.

pause," "

III. — Prosodial Accent or Metre.

66

The term “ metre,” or “ measure,” is applied, in prosody and in elocution, to that exact gauge of " rhythm,” which is furnished in the process of prosodial analysis termed "scanning,' by which a verse,'

,” or line of poetry, is resolved into its constituent “ quantities” and “ accents.”

Metre, as a branch of prosody, comprehends, in our language, both “quantity accent.'

9. The ancient languages, and those of modern Europe, generally, are less favorable than ours, to this union. The Greek and the Latin seem to have leaned chiefly on “quantity"; and we discern a similar tendency, though in an inferior degree, in the European continental languages, — particularly those of the South. . A language abounding in long “ quantities” of various sound, needs less aid from

and i

accent,” whether for distinctive enunciation or expression of feeling, than one redundant, like the English, in the number and force of its consonants. The racy energy of English enunciation is owing to the comparative force, spirit, and brilliancy of its accent, which strikes so instantaneously on the ear, with a bold “ radical movement” and absorbing power, that compel the attention to the determining syllable of every word. It bespeaks at once the practical and energetic character of the people with whom it originated. — Other modern languages seem to distribute the accent among all the syllables of a word, and to leave the ear doubtful to which it is meant to apply, — unless in the case of long. vowels, in which they greatly excel, as regards the uses of music and of 66 expressive speech, or impassioned modes of voice.

In emphatic utterance, however, the firm grasp which our numerous hard consonants allow to the organs, in the act of articulation, gives a peculiar percussive force of explosion to the vowels that follow them in accented syllables ; and the comparatively short duration of our unaccented sounds, causes those which are accented, when they possess long "quantity,” to display it with powerful effect in the utterance of " expressive emotion. Our poets sometimes, turn this capability of the language to great account; and none abounds more in examples than Milton, whose ear seems to have detected and explored every element of expressive effect which his native tongue could furnish.

Syllables have been classed, in prosody, as long or short, accented or unaccented; and the prosodial characters, (long) and ° (short,) have been used to designate them to the eye. The same marks have been arbitrarily used to denote accented and unaccented syllables

The " of verse, as measured by“ long” and “ short" or by “ heavy,” (accented,) and “ light,” (unaccented,) syllables, has the following metrical designations.

I. -" Iambic Metre.

This form of verse takes its name from the circumstance of its being constituted by the foot, or sequence of syllables, called an " iambus.' The words “ foot” and “ feet are arbitrarily used in prosody, to express a group of syllables constituting a distinct and separable portion of verse. The 6 iambus" is a 's foot” consisting of two syllables : the first, short, or unaccented, or both; the second, long, or accented, or both; as in the word repēal. “ Iambic” metre is exemplified in “ epic

- heroic” poetry, whether in the form of “ blank verse, 80 called from its not furnishing rhymes, and its consequent blank effect on the ear, as in Milton's Paradise Lost, or of rhyming "couplets, called from the lines rhyming in couples, -as in Pope's transla

or

-SO

tion of Homer. Each line, in “blank verse and the “heroic couplet,” contains five “iambuses,” or ten syllables, alternating from short to long, or from unaccented to accented; as in the fol lowing examples.

" BlankVerse.

"Ādvanced | in việw, I thěy stānd, I å hör | rid front | Of vār / riðrs old, I with or | děred spēar | ănd shield.

" Heroic Couplet."

“Like leaves on trees | thě life of mān is found ; 1 (* 1.) Now giēen | in youth, [(* 2.) now with | (* 3.) éring

on thě ground; | Anoth | ēr jāce | ihě fol | (* 4.) lõwing spring | supplies : T'hěy fall | súccés | (* 5.) sive, and I succēs | sỉve rise.”

“ Jambic”

verse is exemplified, also, in octosyllabic lines, in rhyming “ couplets,” and in quatrain, or four-line " stanzas.” The following are examples.

Octosyllabic Couplet. “The wāy | was lõng, | thế wind | wăs cold; | Thě min sirèl wăs | infirm 1 ånd old : "

Quatrain Stanza: Octosyllabic Couplets.
“ 'The spa | ciặus fir | măment | ăn high |
With all | ihě blūe i čihē | real ský, |
And spār | glěd hē wens, l å shin | ing frāme, 1
Their greit | Orig | inal | prócāim.” ī

Quatrain Stanza : Octosyllabic Lines, rhyming alternately. • Thể hẽavens | declare | thỹ glô | rỹ, Lörd, 1

în ēv | ěrý stār | ihỹ wis dõm shines; | Bắt when | oũr eyes | bếtöld | tỷ wörd,

Wě rēıd' | thì nā.ne . in fáir | ěr līnes." !

* Irregular feet used as sustitutes for the “iambus,” according to the “license" of versification. These feet are called, (1. & 2.) the "spondee,”. - two long syllables; *3.) the "tribrach," three short syllables; (4.) the “anapest," two shori syllables, and one long; (5.) the “pyrrhic,” two shori syllables.

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