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move.

Defiance.

[Edmund, in Reply to Albany.] ("Orotund quality”: “Impassioned" force: “Thorough stress":

“ Middle pitch”: Downward“ fifths ": Deliberate
ment.")

" What in the world he is,
That names me traitor, villain-like he LIES :
Call by thy trumpet : he that dares approach,
On him, on vou, WHO NOT? I will maintain
My truth and honor firmly.

II. - Unimpassioned Emphasis.

Emphasis of Designation. [Description of a Bookseller's Literary Dinner.] " The host seemed to have adopted Addison's idea as to the literary precedence of his guests. - A popular * poet had the post of honor ; opposite to whom was a hot-pressed traveller in quarto, with plates. A grave-looking àntiquary, who had produced several sòlid works, that were much quoted and little réad, was treated with great respect, and seated next to a neat, dressy gentleman in black, who had written a thin, genteel, hot-pressed octavo on political economy, that was getting into fashion. Several three-volume-duodècimo men, of fair currency, were placed about the centre of the table ; while the lower end was taken up with small pòets, translators, and authors who had not as yet risen with much notoriety."

Emphasis of Comparison and Contrast in Equal and

Single Parts. “The high and the low, the rich and the poor, approach, in point of real enjoyment, much nearer to each other, than is commonly imagined. Providence never intended that any state here

* Usually, a downward slide of the second accompanies the “emphasis of designation."

† In the parallel or antithesis of equal and single parts, the slides exhibit the intervals of the upward and downward "third.

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rent usage of the Middle States, on the other hand, obscures the first o of the word, so as to reduce it nearly to a short u, and sinks the last o entirely. In this case, the word is pronounced primoshn.

Few exercises would prove more useful for the purposes of education, in schools, or more serviceable to adult students, than the practice of reading aloud, daily, from the columns of a dictionary. Words, when contemplated in this detached state, make a more distinct impression, both on the eye and the ear,

- as far as regards their component elements of letters and sounds, than when they are read in connexion in sentences, in which case the attention is always prone to slight the sound, and dwell upon the sense. Preparatory training, and remedial discipline, require, first, a thorough course of enunciation for the definite and exact execution of every sound and syllable, and, subsequently, a special series of exercises including the union of sound and sense, in connected and consecutive expression.

The exercises which were prescribed under the head of " quantity,” are so arranged as to admit of being converted into a systematic course of practice in accent, with a view to trace the constituent elements of syllables, in relation to accent, as always necessarily decided by the distinctions of "indefinite," on mutable,” and “ immutable.” It is unnecessary, therefore, to repeat the syllabic exercises in the pages of the book. The teacher and the student can accomplish the object of practice, by reverting to them, and repeating such as best exemplify the different species of accent, "radical,"

"" concrete," and "temporal.”

II. — Rhythmical" Accent. The subject of accent is now to be considered in connexion not with single words, but the sequence of phrases, in the utterance of successive sentences, and as constituting an important part of the study of "time" applied to the current of the voice, in the continuous exercises of speech, reading, or recitation.

The first or lowest degree of musical accent, is called "rhythm;" the term, by its derivation, implying a comparison between the continuous flow of the voice in speech, and the motion of a stream, as contrasted with the still water of a lake. The voice, in the enunciation of a single sound or word, is comparatively stationary: in the utterance of successive sounds, it has something like progressive motion. This motion may be varied and irregular; or it

may

be uniform and measured ; as the stream, when flowing over an uneven and rocky bed, may exhibit all varieties of motion, but when gliding along a smooth channel, may keep a regular rate of time, that may be exactly defined.

The “movement” of the voice in conversation, on light or ordinary subjects, is variable and irregular; on subjects of greater moment, it is more even and sedate ; and, in the expression of deep and energetic sentiment, it becomes still more regular and, perhaps, to a certain degree, measured, in its rate of “movement." Reading is a mode of voice yet more distinctly marked in“ movement,” by its partial uniformity of utterance; and declamation advances another degree, still, in " rhythm,” by its deliberate and formal succession of sound. The reading or recitation of poetry, carries the “movement” to its highest degree of fixed and well marked " rhythm,” as determined by the structure of verse, which derives its pleasing effect to the ear from the exact observance of a continued uniform, or correspondent “ rhythm.' The word " metre," or measure,'

,” has accordingly its appropriate application to this species of " movement."

As “ time” includes the duration of pauses as well as of “quantities,” and of “movement,” it necessarily comprehends under “rhythm” the exact proportion of pauses to sound, in the rate of utterance, when regulated by “rhythmical” accent. A part of the effect of " rhythm on the ear, must arise, therefore, from the “ time” of regularly recurring and exactly proportioned pauses. The full definition of "rhythm ” would, accordingly, be, the effect of " time,” in regularly returning “quantity,” accent, and pause, in the successive sounds of the voice.

In the usual forms of familiar prose writing, little regard is paid to the placing of words, as respects the effect of accent. Words, in plain, unpretending composition, follow each other, with but slight reference to the result in mere sound. Some writers, however, are distinguished by a style which is more or less measured and rhythmical to the ear. The stately and formal style of oratorical declamation, sometimes assumes this shape, as does also the language of sublime, pathetic, and beautiful description. Some writers, by high excellence of natural or of cultivated ear, succeed in imparting an exquisite but unobtrusive melody to their sentences, which forms one of the principal attractions of their style. We have instances of these various effects of the selection and arrangement of words, in the majestic and measured declamation of Chatham, in the lofty and magnificent strains of Scripture. The cadences of Ossian exemplify, sometimes, the power and beauty of metrical arrangement, and, sometimes, the cloying effect of its too frequent and uniform recurrence. Every cultivated ear is familiar with the chaste and pleasing turn of the sentences of Addison, the easy flow of Goldsmith's, the ambitious swell of those of Johnson, the broken and capricious phrases of Sterne, the noble harmony of Burke, the abruptness of Swift, and the graceful smoothness of Irving.

The characteristic melody of each of these authors, is owing,

as we find, on analysis, to more or less attention paid to the effect of “ rhythmical” accent: it is, in fact, a species even of “metre" itself, or, at least, à close approach to it. Examined in detail, it will usually be found to consist in a skilful avoiding of " abrupt elements," in securing the coincidence of emphasis with “ mutable” and “ indefinite quantities,” but, more particularly an exact timing of the recurrence of accents at the end of clauses, and in the cadence of sentences; as these places are peculiarly adapted to sounds intended for effect on the ear, whether the design of the writer is to render them prominent and striking, or subdued and quiet. Such results tell, with equal power, on the hearer, whether they are studied or unconscious, on the part of the writer; and they demand equal attention on the part of the reader.

“Rhythm,” then, the lowest gradation of "metrical movement,” exists in prose as well as poetry; and good reading preserves it distinctly to the ear.

It is a useful exercise, therefore, to study the styles of different authors, with reference to this point, and to read aloud, from characteristic passages, so as to become familiar with their peculiarities of “rhythm," and to gain the power of giving these a distinct and perceptible existence in the voice, without carrying the effect so far that sense is in danger of being merged in sound, or the thought, of being lost in the language. Everything mechanical, in reading, is an offence to sound judgment and true taste.

The following examples of the notation of “rhythmical ” accent will serve to suggest to the student the exercise of marking with a pencil the “rhythm," in passages of his own selection, The teacher may prescribe exercises of this sort to his pupils, by the use of the black board. The system of notation needs attention to the following explanatory statement.

The notation of " rhythm” is founded on the theory of Steele, that utterance, in speech and in reading, may, like music, be divided into regular portions by accent, and indicated by “ bars," as in music, when written or printed; each“ bar" commencing with an accented syllable, or an equivalent pause.

“ Rhythm,” however, it must be remembered, in the practice of all such exercises as the following, is like every other requisite of elocution, - an aid and an ornament, within due limits of effect, but a deformity when rendered prominent and obtrusive. The wavering and unsteady voice of juvenile readers, and the unsatisfactory current of utterance in the style of some professional speakers, is owing to the want of a firmly marked “rhythm, - a fault which necessarily produces to the ear of the hearer a wandering uncertainty of effect.“ Time,” to which“ rhythm,” is subordinate, demands precision and exactness, when applied as a measure of speech. Some readers, however, err on the extreme of marking time too prominently, and with a jerking ac" Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace ; to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed : not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all, (as it is written, 'I have made thee a father of many nations,') before him whom he believed, even God, who quickeneth the dead, and calleth those things which be not, as though they were."

“ For as many as have sinned without law, shall also perish without law; and as many as have sinned in the law, shall be judged by the law, (for not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified; for when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves : which show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts, the meanwhile, accusing, or else excusing one another ;) in the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel."

[Zanga, relating the origin of his hatred of Alonzo.]

66'Tis twice three years since that great man, (Great let me call him, for he conquered me,) Made me the captive of his arm in fight.

“One day, (may that returning day be night,
The stain,

the
curse,

of each succeeding year!)
For something, or for nothing, in his pride
He struck me. (While I tell it do I live ?)
He smote me on the cheek.”

[Corporal Trim's eloquence.] “ My young master in London is dead,” said Obadiah. “ Here is sad news, Trim,”. * cried Susannah, wiping her eyes as Trim stepped into the kitchen, “master Bobby is dead.”

“I lament for him from my heart and my soul," * said Trim, fetching a sigh,—“Poor creature ! - poor boy!.

poor gentleman!"

“ He was alive last Whitsuntide,” said the coachman.

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* Phrases occurring between two dashes, are sometimes equivalent to a parenthesis in effect.

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