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“ Whitsuntide! alas !” * cried Trim, extending his right arm, and falling instantly into the same attitude in which he read the sermon, “ What is Whitsuntide, Jonathan,” (for that was the coachman's name,) or Shrovetide, or any tide or time past, to this ? Are we not here now?” * continued the corporal, (striking the end of his stick perpendicularly upon the floor, so as to give an idea of health and stability,) " and are we not ” (dropping his hat upon the ground) “ gone! in a moment!” — It was infinitely striking! Susannah burst into a flood of tears. We are not stocks and stones : – Jonathan, Obadiah, the cookmaid, all melted. — The foolish fat scullion herself, who was scouring a fishkettle upon her knees, was roused with it. - The whole kitchen crowded about the coporal.

" Are we not here now, - and gone in a moment ?" There was nothing in the sentence : - it was one of your self-evident truths we have the advantage of hearing every day; and if Trim had not trusted more to his hat than his head, he had made nothing at all of it.

Are we not here now?” continued the corporal, “and are we not” (dropping his hat plump upon the ground, — and pausing before he pronounced the word) “ gone! in a moment!” The descent of the hat was as if a heavy lump of clay had been kneaded into the crown of it. — Nothing could have expressed the sentiment of mortality, -* of which it was the type and forerunner, like it: his hand seemed to vanish from under it; it fell dead; the corporal's eye fixed upon it, as upon a corpse ; and Susannah burst into a flood of tears."

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Emphasis, fully defined for the purposes of elocution, is prominent expression,” embodied in an accented syllable. It bears the same relation to “expression," in its full sense, that “syllabic accent bears to “rhythmical accent." It may be restricted to a single word: "expression " applies, as in music, to the sequence of sounds, in connected and consecutive utterance, designed for the communication of feeling.

Expression,” however, while it contains the same elements with emphasis, comprises a few more. It includes the effects

* All intervening clauses and phrases of whatever length, are read in the style of parenthesis.

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arising from “ quality,” in all its forms, “pure," " aspirated," &c., and from the “ effusive,” “expulsive," and "explosive" modes of utterance; from force in all its gradations, from whispering to shouting; stress,'

" in its “ radical,” “median,” “vanishing," " compound,” and “ thorough” forms ; "tremor ;” “melody," "pitch," "slide,” and “ wave,” in all their forms; “ time,” in all its influence over movement, "" rhythm,” and metre. These modifications of voice have all been discussed and exemplified. But to all these, “expression” adds the effect of “ drift," as it has been termed by Dr. Rush, — or, in other words, the impression produced on the ear by the frequent or successive recurrence of any mode or element of “ expression."

Drift,” accordingly, is either an excellence or a fault, according to the circumstances in which it is adopted as a mode of effect. When a passage is so pervaded by one mood of feeling, and by one style of language and of structure, and even by one form of phrase, that a special unity of effect is obviously designed, as a result in audible expression, a frequent trait of declamatory eloquence and even of poetic emotion to which metre still farther contributes, — the “ drift,". or frequently recurring “quality,” force,“

melody,” pitch, "slide," "

wave, “ movement,” or “ rhythm," – for a "drift” may be constituted by the frequent recurrence of one, or of several, or of all of these accidents of voice, — has the effect of deepening the impression arising from the sentiment as a whole. Hence we may observe that the “drift,” of recurring “melody,” or what, in popular language, is termed a tone,is often a means of powerful and deep impression on the ear and on the external sympathies of an audience, when there is little of unity, force, or weight in the sentiment which the speaker utters.

The ear of discerning judgment and of true taste, however, is always offended, rather than pleased, by any perceptible drift not authorized by a predominating emotion associated with the language of a speaker, or the composition in the hands of a reader. Still, a gentle and chaste “ drift” is one of the natural secrets of effect, in elocution, and should be carefully observed and closely analyzed, by every student who is desirous of securing a master-key to the human heart.

It is unnecessary to dwell on this subject after the discussion and exemplification of emphasis. We will conclude with referring to two examples which will fully illustrate the effect of " drift.” Let the student read aloud, with well-marked“ pression, , the first example of “impassioned emphasis,”' (the reply of Coriolanus to the tribunes,) and watch the impression produced on the ear by the recurrence of those vehement and infuriated downward “slides,” which occur in the words marked by italics and capitals ; and he will obtain a clear idea of the


effect arising from the “ drift” of the “slide." Let the reader repeat the sentence, and observe the prodigiously increasing force and loudness of the same words, as they succeed each other, and he will perceive, at once, the effect of the “drift” of mere force, or “loud concrete.” Let the passage be read once more, with the attention fixed on the perpetually recurring and increasing " compound stress ;” and ihe ** drift” of “stress” will be sufficiently understood. The analysis might be pursued still farther ; but the suggestions now dropped will serve to indicate the mode of reading for the purpose of tracing a "drift."

The student may now return to page 241, and read aloud, for the sake of a wide contrast in "drift," the tender, pathetic, and "chromatic " lines illustrative of “ feminine grief and sorrow," in which will be found all the opposite “ drifts” of recurring “semitone,” “subdued” and softened force, gentle “ median stress,” and other prevailing properties of kindred character.

Exercises of this description may be performed on any of the examples contained in the book, which are of sufficient length to admit of recurrence of “expression,” and, consequently, of " drift.” No exercise can be more useful either for imparting a thorough knowledge of elocution, or securing its best effects; and none can be more useful for eradicating any false habits of “expression,” such as are popularly called tones, — in the style of an individual, or of professional bodies and classes of men.

The defective mode of instruction in elocution, which at present prevails in schools and higher places of learning, leaves much to be done by every student, not only by way of acquisition, but in the more arduous task of self-correction ; and in no department of elocution is this process of self-culture and self-advancement so important to all, or so sure to the diligent, as in that of analysis and practice for the detection of errors, and the correction of faults in the management of the voice, as regards "expression."

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” whether for distinctive enunciation or expression of feeling, than one redundant, like the English, in the number and force of its consonants. The racy energy of English enunciation is owing to the comparative force, spirit, and brilliancy of its accent, which strikes so instantaneously on the ear, with a bold “ radical movement” and absorbing power, that compel the attention to the determining syllable of every word. It bespeaks at once the practical and energetic character of the people with whom it originated. Other modern languages seem to distribute the accent among all the syllables of a word, and to leave the ear doubtful to which it is meant to apply, - unless in the case of long vowels, in which they greatly excel, as regards the uses of music and of expressive speech, or impassioned modes of voice.

In emphatic utterance, however, the firm grasp which our numerous hard consonants allow to the organs, in the act of articulation, gives a peculiar percussive force of explosion to the vowels that follow them in accented syllables ; and the comparatively short duration of our unaccented sounds, causes those which are accented, when they possess long "quantity,” to display it with powerful effect in the utterance of “ expressive emotion. Our poets sometimes, turn this capability of the language to great account; and none abounds more in examples than Milton, whose ear seems to have detected and explored every element of expressive effect which his native tongue could furnish.

Syllables have been classed, in prosody, as long or short, accented or unaccented ; and the prosodial characters, (long,) and * (short,) have been used to designate them to the eye. The same marks have been arbitrarily used to denote accented and unaccented syllables

The “rhythm" of verse, as measured by“ long” and “ short" or by," heavy,” (accented,) and " light,” (unaccented,) syllables, has the following metrical designations.

I. -" Iambic Metre."

This form of verse takes its name from the circumstance of its being constituted by the foot, or sequence of syllables, called an " iambus." The words “ foot” and “ feet are arbitrarily used in prosody, to express a group of syllables constituting a distinct and separable portion of verse. The " iambus” is a s foot” consisting of two syllables : the first, short, or unaccented, or both; the second, long, or accented, or both ; as in the word répēal. “ Iambic” metre is exemplified in “ epic

“ heroic” poetry, whether in the form of “ blank

so called from its not furnishing rhymes, and its consent blank effect on the ear, as in Milton's Paradise Lost, or of rhyming

couplets," called from the lines rhyming in couples, -as in Pope's transla


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tion of Homer. Each line, in “blank verse and the “heroic couplet,” contains five“ jambuses,” or ten syllables, alternating from short to long, or from unaccented to accented; as in the following examples.

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“Ădvanced | în việw, I they stānd, I å hör | rỉd front | Of drē id | lül leigth, ănd daz / zling arms, I in guise !


Heroic Couplet.“Like lēaves on trēes | the life of man | is found ; 1 (* 1.) Now grēen | in youth, (* 2.) now with | (* 3.) éring

on I thể ground; ] Ănoth | ěr rāce I ihě föl | (* 4.) lõwing spring | supplīes: Thěy fall | súccēs (* 5.) sive, and successive rise."

“Jambic” verse is exemplified, also, in octosyllabic lines, in rhyming "couplets,” and in quatrain, or four-line " stanzas.” The following are examples.

Octosyllabic Couplet.

“The wāy | was long, I thë wind | wăs cold ; | Thẽ min | stră1 wặs | infirm { ănd öld :

Quatrain Stanza: Octosyllabic Couplets.
“ 'Thě spā | cious fir i măměnt | on high /
With all | thë blūe i čihē | rëăl ský, |
Ănd sān | gled hē wens, I å shin | ing fiāme, I
Thěir greit | Orig | inál proclaim.” ī

Quatrain Stanza: Octosyllabic Lines, rhyming alternately.

hẽavens | declare | thỹ glô | rỹ, Lörd, 1 în ēv | ěrý stār | ihị uisī dóm shines; | Bắt whén | oũr ©yes | behold | thỸ würd,

Wě rēad | thị nāne | in fair | ěr līnes.” |

* Irregular feet used as sustitutes for the “iambus,” according to the “ license" of versification. These feet are called, (1. & 2.) the "spondee,”. two long syllables; (3.) the “ tribrach,” three short syllables; (4.) the "anapest," two short syllables, and one long ; (5.) the "pyrrhic,” two short syllables.

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