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Defiance.

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[Edmund, in Reply to Albany.] ("Orotund quality”: “Impassioned" force: “Thorough stress":

“Middle pitch”: Downward " fifths”: Deliberate
ment.")

" What in the world he is,
That names me traitor, villain-like he LIES :
Call by thy trumpet : he that dares approach,
On him, on you, WHO NOT? I will maintain
My truth and honor firmly.

II. - Unimpassioned Emphasis.

Emphasis of Designation. [Description of a Bookseller's Literary Dinner.] “ The host seemed to have adopted Addison's idea as to the literary precedence of his guests. - A popular * poet had the post of honor ; opposite to whom was a hot-pressed traveller in quarto, with plates. A grave-looking àntiquary, who had produced several sòlid works, that were much quòted and little réad, was treated with great respect, and seated next to a neat, dressy gentleman in black, who had written a thin, genteel, hot-pressed octavo on political economy, that was getting into fashion. Several three-volume-duodècimo men, of fair currency, were placed about the centre of the table ; while the lower end was taken up with small poets, translàtors, and authors who had not as yet risen with much notoriety.

Emphasis of Comparison and Contrast in Equal and

Single Parts. “The high and the low, the rich and the poor, approach, in point of real enjoyment, much nearer to each other, than is commonly imagined. Providence never intended that any state here

* Usually, a downward slide of the second accompanies the "emphasis of designation."

† In the parallel or antithesis of equal and single parts, the slides exhibit the intervals of the upward and downward " third.

should be either completely happy, or entirely miserable. If the feelings of pléasure are more numerous and more lively in the higher departments of life, such also are those of puin. If greatness flatters our vánity, it multiplies our dàngers. If opulence increases our gratifications, it increases, in the same proportion, our desires and demànds. If the poor are confined to a more nár. row circle, yet within that circle lie most of those natural satisfàctions, which, after all the refinements of art, are found to be the most genuine and true.

[Comparison and Contrast in Equal and Double Parts.]

“ In * Hòmer, we discern all the Greek vivacity; in Virgil, all the Roman stàteliness. Hòmer's imagination is by much the most rich and cópious; Virgil's the most chaste and correct. The strength of the fòrmer lies, in his power of warming the fancy ; that of the látter, in his power of touching the heart. Hòmer's style is more simple and ánimated ; Virgil's more elegant and uniform. The fi'rst has, on many occasions, a sublàmity to which the latter never attáins ; but the làtter, in return, never sinks below a certain degree of epic dàgnity, which cannot so clearly be pronounced of the fòrmer.

[Comparison and Contrast in Unequal Parts.]

“ Better be
Where the extinguished Spartans still are free,
In their proud charnel of † ThermòPYLÆ,
Than stagnate in our marsh."

[Phrases of Successive Emphatic Words. “ The British army, traversing the Carnatic, after the desolation effected by Hyder Ali, beheld I not òne living thùng, nòt óne màn, nòt óne wòman, not one child, nòt one four-footed béast, of any description whatever."

* In contrasts of double parts, the primary members have the "slide" of the "third”; but the inferior ones that of the “ second.”

+ The preponderant member has the downward, – the weaker, the upward "slide.”

# In emphatic phrases, every word takes a distinct and opposite "slide.”

$ The subjects of "slide," (" inflection,") " rhetorical pause, emphasis, and the other grammatical and sentential parts of elocution, are diss time,

66

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's time,'

III. — “ Arbitrary Emphasis.The form of utterance to which this designation may be applied, is that " expression” or significance, whether of loudness, pitch, "

melody,” or other property of vocal effect, in consequence of which the sense, or the connexion and structure, of the parts of a sentence, may be rendered apparent by modification of voice, applied extemporaneously, during the moment of reading, at the discretion and by the will of the reader, rather than in compliance with any general rule of feeling or of elocution. This i arbitrary emphasis is greatly aided in its effect by a corresponding abatement or depression of effect, in clauses which precede or follow the word or phrase of “ arbitrary emphasis,” or which occur between two such words or phrases. This “discharging” of “expression,” as it may be termed, - in reference to the analogous process of discharging ink or color from the surface of an object, — will, of course, take place by a reduction, abatement, or depression, of one or all the elements of vocal effect. The “ arbitrary emphasis may, at the pleasure of the reader, heighten the “ expression" arising from " quality,” force, pitch, slide, “ melodial phrase,

quantity, to movement,” &c. so may the reductionof emphasis, diminish or subdue, or destroy any or all of these.

“Arbitrary emphasis," and "reduction," may be employed where but a single parenthetic word intervenes to break the current of language; as in the sentence, “ The sprout was carefully protected by a stratum, or layer, of leaves." The words “ stratum” and “leaves" are, in this instance, pronounced with a slight additional force, an enlarged interval of " slide ” and prolonged “ quantity ; while the words " or layer" are reduced in force, shortened in “ quantity,” and leveled into “ monotone,” in the manner of parenthesis.

The following example will exhibit the same effects more distinctly; as poetic language is naturally more expressive than prose.

" On the other side,
Incensed with indignation, Satan stood
Unterrified, and like a còmet (* būrned,)
That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge,

In the arctic sky.”
The arrangement of the words, in this sentence, throws the

cussed at greater length in the "Elocutionist.” The present work is designed as a manual of elementary practice in orthophony, and is limited, chiefly, to examples and exercises.

* The crotchets of parenthesis are introduced here, not as belonging to the text, but as an ocular aid, with a view to suggest the proper style of reading, to the ear.

" whi

word “burned into a parenthetic situation, in consequence of the grammatical connection between the words “ comet'i and “that.To atone to the ear for this verbal dislocation, the word “ comettakes on an additional force, a lower "slide," a longer “quantity” in its accented syllable, and a more descriptive swell of stress," than it would otherwise have. The line,

1. That fires,&c. is also read with a resuming force of expression, borrowed, as it were, from the style of voice in the word " comet; the word “burned,” (which, as being a descriptive verb, must possess a degree of accent,) is rendered parenthetic in effect, by being thrown into “monotone," instead of a downward " slide," and by being somewhat reduced in force, and raised in pitch ; while its descriptive power is retained by prolonged “ quantity? and “median swell."

The following examples will illustrate the effect of “arbitrary emphasis ” and “ reduction ” where a clause is to be partially parenthesized, so as to preserve the connection of sense, on each side of it.

Say first, for Heaven, (hides nothing from thy view,)
Nor the deep tract of hell.
“ Thus while he spake, each passion (dimmed his face
Thrice charged with pale,) ire, envy, and despair :"
" There was a Brutus once that would have brooked
(The eternal Devil to keep his state in Rome)

As easily | as a king.” The student may analyze for himself the effect of the “ arbitrary emphasis” and “ reduced expression,” as indicated by the italics and the parenthesis.

The slight, level, and rapid " expression, which takes place on clauses such as that included within crotchets, Dr. Rush has termed the “flight” of the voice, and the emphatic connecting

expression,” the “emphatic tie.'

The effect of these modifications of voice will be rendered still more apparent by longer examples.

“He stood, and called
His legions, angel forms, who lay entranced
Thick as autumnal leaves (that strow the brooks
In Vallambrosa, where the Etrurian shades,
High over-arched, embower ;) or scattered sedge
Afloat, when with fierce winds Orion armed

Hath vexed the Red-sea coast." The same mode of reading applies to all actual parentheses, or similar qualifying phrases, and their context; as in the following instances.

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“ Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace; to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed : not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all, (as it is written, 'I have made thee a father of many nations,') before him whom he believed, even God, who quickeneth the dead, and calleth those things which be not, as though they were."

“For as many as have sinned without law, shall also perish without law; and as many as have sinned in the law, shall be judged by the law, (for not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified; for when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves : which show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts, the meanwhile, accusing, or else excusing one another ;) in the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel.”

[Zanga, relating the origin of his hatred of Alonzo.]

66'Tis twice three years since that great man, (Great let me call him, for he conquered me,) Made me the captive of his arm in fight.

"One day, (may that returning day be night,
The stain, the curse,

of each succeeding year!)
For something, or for nothing, in his pride
He struck me.

(While I tell it do I live?)
He smote me on the cheek."

[Corporal Trim's eloquence.] My young master in London is dead,” said Obadiah. “ Here is sad news, Trim,”. — *cried Susannah, wiping her eyes as Trim stepped into the kitchen, master Bobby is dead.” “ I lament for him from my heart and my soul,”

said Trim, fetching a sigh, “Poor creature ! – poor boy!

-poor gentleman!"

“ He was alive last Whitsuntide,” said the coachman.

* Phrases occurring between two dashes, are sometimes equivalent to a parenthesis in effect.

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