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3. The Indefinite are those which express their subjects in an indefinite or general manner; as, some, other, any, one, all, such, &c.

DECLENSION OF PRONOUNS. PRONOUNS admit of Case, Gender, Number, and Person.

The following Pronouns have three Cases in each number; the Nominative, the Genitive, and the Accusative or Objective Case.

· Singular. Plural.
Nominative, I,
Genitive, Mine,

Accusative, Me;

Nominative, Thou,

Ye or You
Genitive, Thine,

Accusative, Thee;
Nominative, He,

Genitive, His,

Accusative, Him;

Nominative, She,
Genitive, Her's, ? Theirs,
Accusative, Her;
Nominative, It,

Genitive, Its,

Accusative, It;






Singular and Plural.
Nominative, Who,


Pronouns have three persons in each number; as,

Ist Person, I,


Ye or You.
He, she, or it; They.



A VERB is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer; as, I am, I rule, I am ruled.

Verbs are of three kinds; Active, Passive, and. Neuter. They are also divided into regular, irregular, and defective.

A Verb Active denotes the doing of an action, and therefore supposes an agent, or person who acts, and an object acted upon; as, he eats bread. He is the agent, eats the verb active, and bread the object.

An Active Verb is also called transitive, because the action of the noun passes over to the object. · A Verb Passive expresses something suffered or sustained by the object; as, I am loved.

A Verb Neuter expresses neither action nor pas, sion, but merely being; as, I am, I sleep, I sita


To Verbs belong Mood, Tense, Number, and Person.

Mood, or Mode, is a particular form of the Verb, shewing the manner in which the being, action, or passion is expressed or represented:

There are five Moods, the Indicative, the Imperative, the Potential, the Subjunctive, and the Infinitive.

The Indicative Mood simply indicates or affirms; as, I teach ; or it asks a question; as, Does he teach? The Signs of the Indicative Mood are, am, do, have, was, did, had, shall, and will.

The Imperative Mood commands, entreats, or permits; as, Come to me; let us stay; go in peace. !

The Potential Mood implies power, will, or duty, and is known by the words may, cun, might, would, or could joined to the verb; as, he may come, you can goy she would ride, they should mind.

The Subjunctive Mood: expresses a condition, motive, wish, supposition, &c. and takes if, though, or some other Conjunction before it, expressed or understood; as, If I were to choose ; though he dislike it. · The Infinitive Mood expresses a thing in a general, unlimited manner, without any reference to nums ber or person; and is known by the sign to expressed or understood; as, to eat, to walk, to be loved.


- The Infinitive Mood is the radical form of the Verb, or the root from which the other parts are taken.

TENSE, which signifies time, appears to admit only of past, present, and future; but to distinguishi it more accurately, it is made to consist of six variations, viz. the Present, the Imperfect, the Perfect, the Pluperfect, the First. Future, and the Second Future Tenses.

The Present Tense confines the meaning of the Verb to the present time; as, I teach; I am teaching. - The Imperfect Tense is so called, because it imperfectly partakes both of the present and past, and shews that something was doné, mentioned, or allud ed to; as, I read, or did read, or was reading, while. you was at play:

The Perfect Tense represents the action as com pletely finished; as, I have written my letter. .

The Pluperfect Tense, represents the action not only as past, but also as prior to some other point of time to which we allude; as, I had written my letter before you came. . . . .

The First Future Tense represents the action as yet to come, either with or without respect to the precise time when; as, the Sun will rise to-morrow.

The Second Future intimates that the action will


be fully accomplished, at or before the time of ano. ther future action; as, I shall have dined at (or before) one o'clock.

Verbs have two Numbers like unto Nouns; and three persons in each number.

Singular. Plural.
Ist Person, I love, We love,
2d Thou lovest, · Ye or you love.
3d He loves, They love.


The Conjugation of a Verb is the regular combination and arrangement of its several numbers, persons, moods, and tenses.

The Conjugation of an Active Verb is styled the Active Voice; and that of a Passive Verb, the Passive Voice. .

The Auxiliary and Active Verb To Have is conjugated in the following manner :

· Indicative Mood,

Present Tense.

Plural. 1. I have.

1. We have. 2. Thou hast.

2. Ye or you have. 3. He,she,or it,hath or has. 3. They have.


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