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is adopted to the capacities of students in general, and calculated for the use of schools, it will be found a short and easy Guide to the attainment of a correct style, as well as a useful Compendium for the Practice of Elocution.

PART I.

GRAMMA R.

GRAMMAR is the art of speaking or writing any language with propriety. .

In the English Alphabet there are twenty-six letters; which are divided into vowels and consonants.

The Vowels are seven, namely, a, e, i, o, u, w, y, but w and y are consonants when they begin a word, or syllable.

Consonants are divided into mutes and semivowels. .

The Mutes cannot be sounded at all without a' vowel, and they all begin their sound with a consonant; as b, d, g, k, p, q, t, &c. hard, which are expressed be, de, te, &c.

The Semi-vowels have an imperfect sound of themselves, and all begin with a vowel; as l, m, n, r, f, s, &c. which are sounded ef, el, em, &c. .

Four

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Four of the Semi-vowels, namely, l, in, n, r, are also called liquids, from their readily uniting with other consonants, and flowing as it were into their sounds.

A Diphthong is the meeting of two vowels in the saine syllable; as ea in season.

A Tripthong is the meeting of three vowels in the same syllable; as eau in beauty.

A Syllable is any letter, or number of letters which make a perfect sound.

A Word of one Syllable is termed a Monosyllable; a word of two syllables, a Dissyllable; a word of three syllables, a Trisylløble; and a word of four or more syllables, a Polysyllable. · All Words are either primitive or derivative.

Primitive Words are those which cannot be reduced to any simpler words in the language; as, man, good, content.

Derivative Words are those which may be reduced to other words of greater simplicity; as manful, goodness, contentment.

PARTS OF SPEECH. In the English Language there are these ten parts of Speech; Article, Noun, Adjective, Pronoun,

Verb, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Conjunction, Preposition, and Interjection.

.: ARTICLES. AN ARTICLE is a word which is placed before common names, to point out, or limit their signification.

There are two Articles a and the ; a becomes an before a vowel, or a silent h; as, an acorn, un hour. But if the h be sounded, the a only is used; as, a hand, a heart.

A or an is called the indefinite article, because it points out a thing indeterminately; as “Give me a book ;" that is, any book. · The is called the definite article, because it determines what particular thing is meant; as, “ Give me the book ;” meaning some particular book.

NOUNS OR SUBSTANTIVES. A Noun or SUBSTANTIVE, is the name of any person, place, or thing; as John, London, Honor, Goodness.

Substantives are either proper or common. A proper name, is the name of any individual; as Mary, London, Tweed.

A Common Name, is the name of a whole kind; as, Man, Tree, &c.

Nouns

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Nouns are of two Numbers, the Singular and the Plural. The Singular Number speaks but of one object; as, a boy, a book; or a number of them collectively, as, a troop, an army. The Plural Number speaks of more objects than one; as, boys, books.

Some Nouns have no singular number, as, ashes, · bellows, bowels, &c. Others have no plural; as,. wheat, barley, learning, &c. Some are alike in both numbers ; as, deer, sheep, &c.

The Cases of Nouns signify their different terminations.

In English, Nouns have but two Cases, the Nominative and the Genitive. The Nominative Case simply expresses the name of a thing, as, man. The Genitive is formed by adding s with an Apostrophe (°) to the nominative; as, man's, and denotes property or possession; hence it is frequently called the Possessive Case. · To Nouns ending in s, and sometimes to Singular Nouns ending in ss, the Apostrophe is added without the other's; as, on Eagles' wings; for righteousness” sake.

English Substantives are declined thus : Singular. Nominative, man. Genitive, man's. Plural. Nominative, men. Genitive, men’s.

Singular

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