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were carried and collected into one of the squares of the meeting-house in the charge of their friends, until they should pass through the strange phenomena of their conversion.*

Those who have witnessed these scenes can recall the picture faintly in their minds, but it is impossible to impart the conception to those who have never been present to witness for themselves. It is impossible to revive the thrilling sensations produced by the solemn melody reverberating through the sounding forest and echoed from the surrounding hills, bearing aloft the swelling anthems of thousands, rolling like the sound of many waters, wave after wave, and in sweet, melodious harmony, rising up to heaven.

" The groves were God's first temples : ere man learn'd

To hew the shaft or lay the architrave.
And spread the roof above them; ere he framed
The lofty vault to gather and roll back
The sound of anthems, in the shady grove,
Amid the tow'ring oaks, he raised his voice,
And offer'd to the Mightiest solemn praise

And supplication." The ministers who led the way in these exciting revivals were William and John M Ghee, the Rev. Messrs. Gready, Hoge, and Rankin, of the Presbyterian Church, and William M.Kendree, William Burke, John Sale, and Benjamin Lakin, of the Methodist Church.t

* The feelings and mental exercises on these occasions are contagious, and often spread like an epidemic through the congregation. I have myself witnessed them with mingled sensations of admiration and surprise ; but it is no feigned condition, for many are involuntarily smitten down.

The most common affection is an ecstasy, or mental revery, attended with a sudden deprivation of muscular power and consciousness of external relations and objects, similar to a protracted catalepsy. Yet the mind appears wholly abstracted and absorbed in delightful contemplations, which often light up the countenance with a heavenly radiance scarcely less than angelic. This condition continues for several hours, and often for one or two days, during which time all the animal and voluntary functions appear to be entirely suspended.

One of the most singular and alarming affections which sometimes occurs in times of great excitements and revivals, is a spasmodic affection attended with the most violent and alarming convulsions. These affections are common to both sexes, but most fre. quent in vigorous, athletic men. The contortions of body, and the violent, rapid, and irregular flexion and extension of the limbs, trunk, spine, and neck, are such as apparently to threaten instant and universal dislocation of the joints. The muscular contrac. tions are supernatural and violent, requiring the strength of several men to control them and to prevent serious bodily injury. The flexions and vibratory motion in the neck and spine have been seen so strong and violent as to cause the disheveled hair of ladies to lash and crack like a whip, perfectly audible at the distance of twenty feet.

Whether these things can be accounted for on the principles of Mesmerism, we pretend not to decide ; but there appears to be a similar disturbance in the equal and nat. ural distribution of the nervous influence and power.

+ See Bangs's History of Methodism, vol. ii., p. 110-112.

ܪ

CHAPTER II.

INDIAN WARFARE, AND ITS EFFECTS UPON THE FRONTIER PEOPLE.

- EMINENT PIONEERS OF KENTUCKY.-A.D. 1775 to 1794. Argument.—Man in his natural Condition the Creature of Circumstances, in Habits,

Feeling, and Character.—The hostile Attitude and Jealousy of the Six Nations.Their Neutrality secured by “ Treaty of German Flats," in 1776.—Indians paid to violate treaty Stipulations by the British Commissioners at Oswego in 1777, and take up Arms against the frontier People. The frontier People become daring and vin. dictive.-Influence of Indian Warfare upon Manners and Usages of the Whites.Compelled to adopt the Indian Revenge.—Volunteer Defense of the West. Person. al Characteristics of frontier Soldiers. — Athletic Form and Strength.—Patience of Toil and Privation.-Recuperative Powers of the System.--State of Feeling on the Frontiers.—Exterminating Policy of Indians.-Cruelty of British Tories.-Spirit of Revenge in the People.—Their domestic Enjoyments.- Indian scalping Parties on the Frontier.—Their cautious and destructive Movements.-Renegade white Men

associated with Indians. Indian Implements of War.—The Rifle.-The Scalping-knife.—Tomahawk--Battle

ax.-War-club.—Declaration of War.- Torture.-Running the Gantlet.-Torture at

the Stake by Fire. Eminent Pioneers of Kentucky.-1. Daniel Boone.-His Nativity and early Habits.

Personal Traits of Character.-His first Acquaintance with Kentucky in 1769 and 1771.--At Watauga in 1775.-Opens a Road from Holston to Kentucky River.Captain at Boonesborough until 1778.—Captured by Indians at Blue Licks. His Captivity and Escape.-An active Defender of Kentucky until 1783.- Abandons Kentucky in 1800.-Settles in Missouri.-His Remains and those of his Wife removed to Kentucky in 1845.—2. Simon Kenton.—His Character as a fearless Pioneer.—Nativity and Early Habits.—Youthful Indiscretion and subsequent Hardships. -A Hunter in Kentucky.—A Hunter in Western Virginia.- Attached to Dunmore's Army.-Becomes “a Hunter of Kentucky.”—His personal Appearance at the Age of twenty-one Years.—His benevolent Disposition.-Attached to Kentucky Stations. -Accompanies Colonel Clark to Kaskaskia.—Returns to Harrod's Station.–Visits the Paint Creek Towns.-Captured by Indians.-Wild Horse Torture.—Divers Tortyres and Punishments suffered during his Captivity.-Sold in Detroit.—Escapes to Kentucky.-Serves under Colonel Clark in 1780 and 1782.-An active partisan War. rior until 1792.-Encounters Tecumseh.-Serves in Wayne's Army.- Abandons Ken. tucky in 1802.-Removes to Ohio.-Serves under Colonel Shelby in 1813.—Died in 1836.—3. Robert Patterson.—Nativity, early Life, and Habits.-Serves in Dunmore's Army.-A prominent Pioneer of Kentucky in 1776.-Erects a Station on the Site of Lexington in 1779.-Active Defender of Kentucky during the Indian War.–4. Ma. jor George Rogers Clark.–His early frontier Services.-His Character and Military Genius.--Superintends the Defense of Kentucky from 1776 to 1782.-Reduction of British Posts in 1778, 1779.

[A.D. 1775.] Man is the creature of the moral and physical circumstances with which he is surrounded. As these vary, or as any peculiar circumstances predominate, so will be the physical development, and the moral and social character. Labor, toil, and constant exposure to hardships and dangers, give strength and firmness to the muscles, and develop the full stature of the body. Men accustomed from youth to brave

every danger from man and beast, exposed to the constant inroads and assaults of the savages, compelled to be on the alert at all times and places, in order to prevent surprise and death, and often driven by necessity and imminent danger to engage in fearful encounters with the wily Indian in defense of their families or friends, of necessity became bold, fearless, and implacable, eager only for vengeance or victory, whether gained by open war or stratagem.

Contending with civilized foes, man becomes imbued with all the feelings and principles of enlightened warfare, as practiced by civilized nations; but contending with the naked savage in his native forests and mountain defiles, he necessarily becomes assimilated in feelings, habits, and customs, and is compelled to meet all the savage wiles and artifices with similar caution and circumspection; he is likewise compelled to adopt their policy of extermination toward their enemies.

As a beautiful writer has observed, “ The success of the early adventurers to the West is almost a miracle in colonization. Nation has heretofore precipitated itself upon nation, conquered the occupants of the soil, and seized upon their possessions ; but in this case isolated emigrants, without the benefit of military or civil organization, relying upon their own bravery and skill, and with such assistance from men equally daring as accident might furnish, seized and held an extensive country, and laid the foundation of powerful states. The waste of life by incessant war was more than supplied by a constant stream of new-comers, until the aboriginal race, weakened and discouraged by contending with enemies whom no disaster or defeat appeared to diminish or dishearten, gave up in despair, and attempted by peace to save themselves from extermination."*

The Indians, at the close of Lord Dunmore's war, had been compelled to yield to the demands of the whites, and to acknowledge the Ohio River as the western boundary of the white settlements. The hostilities which had terminated with the treaty of Camp Charlotte had served only to renew the feelings of mutual enmity between the white man and the savage. These feelings of mutual enmity and jealousy were but imperfectly satisfied on either side by that treaty, for the royal governor had an eye to future events which were likely to transpire between the mother country and the colonies. Thus,

* Kendall's Life of Jackson, p. 80.

in 1776, there existed between the frontier people and the savages a feeling of mutual jealousy and mutual suspicion, which was only restrained for a time by the proclamation of the governor.

Many permanent settlements had been established on the banks of the Ohio, above Wheeling, and on many of the tributaries of the Kenhawa and Kentucky Rivers. The Indians looked upon all these advances with a jealous eye, but their remonstrances were disregarded ; and when they found, year after year, that these settlements continued to increase, and that with every increase came additional claims for lands still further west, the jealousy of the savage ripened into settled revenge, and a fixed determination to arrest the white man's ad

vance.

The wars which had raged from 1755 to 1764 had roused up the whole northwestern tribes to the importance of protecting, their country from the white man's grasp. After a delusive calm of ten years, the advances under Lord Dunmore's administration had roused the Indians again to a general war, and their hostility to the whites was only quieted by another delusive peace, which had been entered into by the royal governor in view of ulterior arrangements, in case the colonial disturbances should result in open war.

(A.D. 1776.] Such was the state of Indian feeling at the opening of the Revolutionary war; the Indians were content to remain quiet and see the mother country destroy her own colonies, which had been so annoying to their peace and security. Yet the active part taken by the colonists in the war under Lord Dunmore was such as to leave no good will for them in the breast of the Indian, and they could scarcely desire the colonists to be triumphant. The colonists, however, in contending with the mother country, desired no contest with the Indian ; yet, having rendered themselves obnoxious to the Indian resentment by their former efforts in favor of Great Britain for the occupancy of the West, it was deemed expedient by Congress to conciliate the Six Nations, and secure their neutrality by formal treaty.

To this end, provision had been made for a treaty early in the summer of 1776, and General Schuyler, duly authorized and provided, repaired to the “German Flats," where, early in June, the chiefs, warriors, and sachems of the Six Nations

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were assembled in council. After due negotiation, a treaty
was formed and signed on the 14th of June, 1776, in which the
Indians stipulated to observe a strict neutrality in the war
which had been commenced by England. Such was the rela-
tion existing between the Six Nations and the United States
in the early part of the Revolutionary war.
city, intolerance, and barbarism could not tolerate such a state
of neutrality.

[A.D. 1777.] “ About one year afterward, a messenger
from the British commissioners arrived among the Indian tribes,
requesting all the Indians to attend a grand council to be held
soon at Oswego, on Lake Ontario. The council convened, and
the British commissioners informed the chiefs that the object
in calling a council of the Six Nations was to engage
sistance in subduing the rebels, the people of the States, who
had risen up against the good king, their master, and were
about to rob him of a great part of his possessions. The com-
missioners added, that they would amply reward the Indians
for all their services.*

“ The chiefs then informed the commissioners of the nature and extent of the treaty into which they had entered with the people of the States the year before ; informing them, also, that they should not violate it now by taking up the hatchet against them. The commissioners continued their entreaties without success until they addressed their avarice and their appetites, They told the Indians that the people of the States were few in number, and easily subdued ; and that, on account of their disobedience to the king, they justly merited all the punishment which white men and Indians could possibly inflict upon them. They added, that the king was rich and powerful, both in subjects and money; that his rum was as plenty as the water in Lake Ontario; that his men were as numerous as the sands on the lake shore ; that if the Indians would assist in the war until the close, as the friends of the king, they should never want for money or goods." “Upon such persuasion, the chiefs at length concluded a treaty with the British commissioners, in which, for certain considerations stipulated, they agreed to take up arms against the rebels, and continue in his majesty's service until they were subdued.”

See Narrative of the White Woman, and quoted by Mr. Buckingham, the English traveler, as unquestionable historical truth.— Travels in America, vol. ii., p. 179–183.

VOL. II.-C

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