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1788.-Character of the Colonists.-Second Colony arrives July 2d.—Celebration of

4th of July in the Wilderness. First Clergyman, Daniel Story.-Governor St. Clair

and territorial Officers arrive.- Territorial Government organized.—“Washington

County" laid off.- Arrival of Emigrants.-Campus Martius.-Settlements formed at

Belpre and Newberry.-Emigration to Kentucky.--Miami Settlements.-Symmes's

Purchase on the Miami.-Settlement at Columbia.-Settlement at Cincinnati.-Fort

Washington commenced.-Its Form and Dimensions.—“County of Hamilton” organ-

ized.-Squire M.Millan.—Colerain Settlement.—Headquarters established at Fort

Washington.—“Knox County" organized.—“St. Clair County organized.—Popula-

tion of Settlements on Muskingum and Miami in 1790.-Indian Hostilities commence.

-Defensive Measures adopted.-Indians exasperated at the unsuccessful Expedi.

tion of General Harmar.—Destruction of Settlement of Big Bottom, January 20, 1791.

-Attack on Wolf Creek Settlement.-Attack on Colerain Station.—Nathaniel Mas-

sie settles Manchester, on the Ohio.-French Settlement at Gallipolis, March, 1791.

-Fraud of the “Scioto Company.”—General St. Clair also unsuccessful.-Indian

Audacity and Hostilities increase.-President Washington adopts more energ

Measures with the Indians.—Indian Outrages multiply in 1792.-Cincinnati in 1793.

-Its Importance as a military Dépôt.—First Presbyterian Pastor.—Indian Hostil-

ities in 1793.—Martial Law paramount.–First Newspaper in Northwestern Terri.

tory.—General Wayne takes Command of the Army.—Confidence restored to the

western People.—Troops concentrate in the Miami Country.--Advanced Posts es-

tablished.-Indians defeated and reduced to great Distress.-Settlements again ad-

vance

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Page 236

CHAPTER X.

66
EARLY SETTLEMENT AND INDIAN HOSTILITIES IN THE SOUTH-

WESTERN TERRITORY," UNTIL ITS ADMISSION INTO THE FEDERAL

UNION AS THE STATE OF TENNESSEE.-A.D. 1776 to 1796.

Argument.--Retrospect of the First Settlements of East Tennessee.-First Settle-

ments on Cumberland River.- Cherokee Hostilities in 1780.–North Carolina en-

courages Emigration to the Cumberland in 1783.—Military Land District erected.-

Chickasá Cession in 1784.-Increased Emigration to Holston and Cumberland in

1785.—Political Difficulties in Washington District. - Attempted Organization of the

“Republic of Frankland.”—Colonel John Sevier attainted for Treason, and restored

to his Rights.-Authority of North Carolina sustained.--Spanish Influence in the

Cumberland Settlements.- Population of Washington and Miro Districts in 1789.-

North Carolina cedes her Western Territory to the Federal Government.—“ South-

western Territory" organized in 1790.-Indian Hostilities commence.-Efforts of the

Federal Government to maintain Peace.-Rapid Increase of Emigration Westward

in 1791.- Indian Hostilities in 1791 to 1793.-Spanish Intrigue with the Indians.-

Colonel Sevier and General Robertson conduct Defenses.-Population of South-

western Territory in 1794.- Population of the Territory in 1795.—Second Grade of

Territorial Government assumed.-State Constitution adopted in 1796.—" State of

Tennessee" admitted into the Union.-Features of Constitution.—Progressive In-

crease of Population and Extension of Settlements to the Mississippi until 1840.-

Displacement of the Indian Tribes.-West Tennessee and Memphis.- Population

and Enterprise.—Colonies sent out from Tennessee

CHAPTER XI.

. 265

INDIAN WARS AND MILITARY OPERATIONS BY THE UNITED STATES

NORTH OF THE OHIO RIVER.-A.D. 1787 to 1795.

Argument.-Unsettled State of the Indian Tribes from 1784 to 1790.—Extent of Indian

Depredation and Murders up to 1790.-General Harmar prepares to invade the In-

dian Country: - Advances to the Maumee.—Is defeated in two Engagements.-Re.

treats to Fort Washington.—Indian Hostilities renewed.—General Scott marches an

Expedition against the Wabash Towns.—Colonel Wilkinson leads another against

the Towns on Eel River and Tippecanoe.-General St. Clair prepares to invade the

Maumee Country.—Marches toward the St. Mary's.-Meets with a disastrous Defeat.

--Terrible Onset of the Savages. Their Number and Allies.-

The Remnant of the

Army arrives at Fort Washington.-Colonel Wilkinson commands at Fort Wash-

ington.—He proceeds from Fort Jefferson to the Scene of the Defeat.-Overtures of

Peace tendered to the Indians in 1792.—The Federal Government authorize a strong

Force for the Humiliation of the Savages.-General Wayne Commander-in-chief.-

Indians continue their hostile Demonstrations.-Excited by British Emissaries.-

General Wayne concentrates his Forces at Fort Greenville.—The advanced Posts

harassed by Indians.--Plan of Encampment at Greenville.-Lord Dorchester.-Pres-

ident Washington's Views of Indian Tactics.-Fort Recovery built.—Is attacked by

Indians in 1793.—General Scott arrives with the mounted Riflemen.-General Wayne

takes up the Line of March for the Maumee.—“Fort Defiance" commenced.—“Fort

Deposit" at the Head of the Rapids.-Force concentrated at this Point.—Battle of

the Miami, August 20th, 1794.-Utter Defeat of the Savages.—The Army returns to

Fort Defiance, which is strongly fortified.- Army advances to Miami Villages.-Fort

Wayne erected.-Army retires to Winter-quarters at Greenville.—Indians sue for

Peace

Page 284

ADVANCE OF THE WHITE POPULATION INTO THE NORTHWESTERN

TERRITORY-ADMISSION OF THE STATE OF OH10" INTO THE

FEDERAL UNION.-A.D. 1795 to 1804.

Argument.-Security of the frontier Population after the Treaty of Greenville.-Am-

icable Intercourse with the Indians.-Emigrants advance upon the Muskingum, Sci.

oto, and Miami Rivers.- Population of Northwestern Territory in 1796.-Of Cincin-

nati in 1797.—Population advances into the Virginia Military District.-Nathaniel

Massie, Pioneer of Scioto Valley.-Chillicothe first Settled.—Tribute to Memory of

Massie.–First Mail-route opened from Wheeling to Limestone.- Population ad-

vances to the “Western Reserve."-" County of Wayne" organized.—Old French

Settlements near Detroit.- Traits of Character in French Population.—Retrospect

of Northwestern Territory in 1796.-Extension of Settlements up the Scioto and

Muskingum Valleys.—"Adams County" organized.—“Ross County" organized. -

Condition of Chillicothe in 1798.-Extreme Settlements north of Chillicothe.-Her.

man Blannerhasset emigrates to Ohio in 1798.-His Traits of Character.-Blanner.

hasset's Island. Steubenville laid off and settled.--Territorial Population in 1798.-

Second Grade of Government assumed.-First Territorial Legislature.- Public Sur.

veys.-Counties of Trumbull and Fairfield organized.-Belmont County organized.

Indiana Territory organized into a separate Government.-Congress authorizes a

Convention to form a State Constitution.--Convention assembles and adopts a Con-

stitation.--"State of Ohio" admitted into the Union.-State Government organized

March 1st, 1803.-Character and Merits of Governor St. Clair.—New Counties organ-

ized. ---Governors of Ohio. Subsequent Increase of Population and Extension of

Civil Government.- Population in 1840.—Character of Emigration to Ohio. 311

1813.

Argument.--Original Extent of the Mississippi Territory.-First Governor and Terri.

torial Judges.-Authority and Jurisdiction of the same — Arrival of the United States

Troops under General Wilkinson. - First Grade of Territorial Government organ-

ized in 1799.-Extent of the White Settlements and Indian Territory.-Adams and

Pickering Counties organized. - Population in 1799. -- Washington County organ.

ized on the Mobile River.- Second Grade of Territorial Government in 1800.-

The Federal Army in the Mississippi Territory.-Indian Treaties in 1801.—Treaty

of Fort Adams.- Treaty of Chickaså Bluffs.-Governor Claiborne enters upon his

Duties.—The Counties of Claiborne, Jefferson, and Wilkinson organized in 1802.-

First System of Jurisprudence.-First Newspapers in Mississippi.—"Articles of

Agreement and Cession" by Georgia.--Extent of Georgia Claim.-Adjudication of

Private Claims by Commissioners.-Land Offices.-Surveyor-general's Office organ.

ized.—Enlargement of Territorial Limits.—Indian Nations included.-Legislative

Care for the Encouragement of Education.---First College and first Academy charter-

ed.—The Robber Mason killed.—Emigration in 1803, in anticipation of the Occupa-

tion of Louisiana.—Governor Claiborne Commissioner.-Commissioners and Troops

advance toward New Orleans.---Protestant Religion introduced in Mississippi Ter-

ritory.-Washington County erected into a Judicial District.—Harry Toulmin, Judge.

-First Delegate to Congress.-Robert Williams, Governor.–First City Charter of

Natchez.-Spanish Exactions on the Mobile.–First Natchez Hospital.—Border Col.

lisions.-Abduction of the Kempers.-Indian Treaties in 1805 : with the Chickasâs ;

with the Cherokees; Creeks ; Choctàs. — First “ Choctâ Purchase."- Extent of

White Settlements in 1806.-Spanish Encroachments on the Sabine.—Militia Move.

ments in Mississippi.—Burr's Conspiracy in the West.-Burr prepares to descend

the Mississippi.-President's Proclamation.--General Wilkinson protects New Or.

leans.-Defensive Measures of Governor Mead in the Mississippi Territory.-Burr

appears before the Superior Court.-Patriotic Citizens of Wilkinson County:-Abor.

tive Attempt to arraign Burr.—He escapes from Custody.-- Is arrested near Fort

Stoddart.-Sent to Richmond, Virginia.-Emigration to Mississippi induced by Burr's

Plans.-Agriculture in the Territory in 1807.-Cotton the Staple Product.-Cotton

· Receipts negotiable by Law.–First Digest of Territorial Laws.—First Road across

to Tombigby.-Lands on the Upper Tombigby.-Condition of the Tombigby Settle-

ments.-Patriotism of the Inhabitants.--Governor Williams.-First Wbite Settle-

ments in “Madison County."-First Bank in the Territory in 1809.-- Population in

1810.-Revolution in District of Baton Rouge.--First Brigade of Militia in 1812.-

Tennessee Volunteers under General Jackson.--General Wilkinson occupies Fort

Charlotte.—Mobile District annexed to the Mississippi Territory . Page 339

“ ALABAMA” INTO THE FEDERAL UNION.-A.D. 1813 to 1819,

Argument.-British Policy of instigating savage Warfare.—Population and Settlements

in 1813.-Origin of Creek Hostilities.-Prosperous Condition of the Creeks in 1812.-

British Instigation from Canada.-Tecumseh stirs up a war Party in the Creek Nation.

— Tombigby Settlements menaced by hostile Creeks.-Deluded Security of Colonel

Hawkins and General Flournoy.-General Claiborne advances to the Tombigby -

Judge Toulmin's Opinion of the true State of the Indian Affairs.—Disposition of 'Troops

under General Claiborne.-Condition of Affairs on the Alabama in August.-General

Claiborne's Letter.—Major Beasly admonished of Danger.— Attack and Massacre of

Mims's Fort.-Number of Whites slain.---Loss of Indians.-Consternation produced

by the Disaster.—Wretched Condition of the Inhabitants.- Marauding Bands of In-

diavs ravage the Country.--Employment of the Choctas urged as indispensably nec.

essary.-General Claiborne secures the Co-operation of the Choctås under Mushula-

tubbe and Pushmataha.--Spanish Treachery detected.-British Supplies for Indians

sent to Pensacola. — The Army advances to Fort Claiborne.-- Advances to the Holy

Ground, and defeats Creeks under Weatherford.— The Georgia Troops under General

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Floyd invade eastern Part of the Creek Nation.—Tennessee Troops invade the north-

ern Part.-General Jackson advances to Fort Strother, on the Coosa.–Battle of Tal-

lushatches.-Battle of Talladega.-Creeks supplied for the War by British Agents.-

Battle of Emucksaw.-Battle of Enotochopco.-Battle of the Horse-shoe, or Tohope-

ka.—The Power of the Creeks humbled.— Invasion of the Hickory Grounds.--"Fort

Jackson" built.-Submission of the hostile Chiefs.-Surrender of Weatherford.

Treaty of Fort Jackson.-Its Conditions and Requirements.—Colonel Nichols in Flor-

ida.-General Jackson Commander-in-chief in 7th military District.—British Emis-

saries among the Florida Indians. Jackson advances to Mobile.-Defense of Fort

Bowyer against British Fleet.—Expels the British Forces from Pensacola.—Trib-

ute of Esteem to General Jackson.-- Advance of white Population into the Indian

Country: -Settlements north and south of Tennessee River; upon Sources of Tom-

bigby.—Monroe County organized.-Population of Madison County in 1815.—The

Creeks instigated by British Emissaries to reject the Treaty of Fort Jackson.-Pop-

ulation of the Territory in 1816.-Application for Authority to form a state Govern-

ment.--Indian Treaties in 1816.-Territory divided." State of Mississippi” admit-

ted into the Union.—Chocta Cession by Treaty of Doak’s Stand.-Ceded Territory

organized into Counties.- Permanent state Capital selected.—"City of Jackson."-

County of Monroe annexed.-Final Extension of the state Jurisdiction within the

entire Limits.-Summary of Indian Treaties within the Mississippi Territory.—Gov.

ernors of Mississippi.- Alabama Territory organized.—State of Alabama admitted

into the Union.-Subsequent increase of Population.

Page 391

CHAPTER XV.

THE “ TERRITORY OF ORLEANS" FROM ITS FIRST ORGANIZATION UN-

TIL AFTER ITS ADMISSION INTO THE UNION AS THE STATE OF

LOUISIANA."-A.D. 1804 to 1815.

Argument.-William C. C. Claiborne Governor-general of the Province of Louisiana.-

General James Wilkinson Commander-in-chief of the Army.—Emigrants from the

United States. - Governor Claiborne's judicions Administration.— Territorial Gov.

ernment provided for the “ Territory of Orleans.”—Plan of Government obnoxious

to the People.- Volunteer Companies patronized by the Governor.—Expressions of

popular Discontent by the French Population.—Territorial Government instituted.-

First Territorial Legislature.–First Bank created.— Territorial Legislature modi-

fied.-Discontent in Baton Rouge District.-Abduction of the Kempers.—Their Re-

lease.—Spanish Exactions on the Mobile River, and Aggressions West of the Mis-

sissippi in 1805.-Spanish Officers in New Orleans.—They contemplate the Missis,

sippi south of Red River as their eastern Boundary.-Re-enforcements in Texas and

Florida.-Policy of the Federal Government.-Advance of the Spanish Troops to Red

River.-Movements of United States Troops.-Spanish Troops on the Bayou Pierre

and Arroyo Hondo.-Remonstrances of Governor Claiborne.-General Wilkinson ad-

vances the Army to Natchitoches.--His Negotiation with General Herrera.-Span.

iards retire West of the Sabine.-Wilkinson proceeds to New Orleans to intercept

Burr's Operations.-His energetic Measures against the Conspirators.-Zealous co-

operation of Governor Claiborne.-His Proclamation. — Arrest of Dr. Bollman and

others.-Great popular Excitement.-Conflict of the civil and military Authorities.

-Affected Zeal of Judges Workman and Hall for the Supremacy of the civil Pow.

er.-Efforts made by Persons clothed with civil Authority to embarrass General

Wilkinson, and to protect the Conspirators.—Burr utterly circumvented in the Mis-

sissippi Territory.—Lieutenant Pike's exploring Party returns from Santa Fé.-Ob-

ject of his Exploration.—Wilkinson's Position relative to Burr's Enterprise not crim-

inal.-The Organization of the Territorial Government completed.-Great Mortality

of the Troops under General Wilkinson.-Revolt in District of Baton Rouge in

1810.-Spanish Authority expelled.-A Provisional Government established by the

People. - The Baton Rouge District annexed to the Territory of Orleans.-Revolt

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