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The area is estimated at 286,000 sq. m. Our knowledge of this island is limited, for the most part, to the shores. The climate, as far as it is known, is very hot and moist, and is particularly destructive to Europeans. Borneo is divided into a great number of small states. Some of these are subject to the sultan of the Tooloo Islands; others to the Dutch, who have possessions on the western, southern, and eastern coasts. Most of them, however, appear to be independent. The commercial intercourse of Borneo with China, is much more extensive than with Europe. Among European nations, the Dutch, who exercise authority over one-third of the coast, carry on the most active commerce, exporting pepper, gold, and other products. Borneo produces a great variety of vegetables and trees common to tropical countries. It also contains rich gold and diamond mines. Born'-Holm, an i. in the Baltic, belonging to Denmark, 90 m. E. of Zealand. It is about 26 m. long, and 12 wide. Area estimated at 216 sq. m. Bon-Noo', (Bornou,) a kingdom in the N. central part of Africa, between 10° and 15° N. Lat., and 12° and 18° E. Lon.—Adj. and inhab. Boro-Noo-ESE'. Bonodino, bor-o-deel-no, a village of Russia, about 70 m. W. of Moscow, the scene of a desperate battle between the French and Russians, in 1812. Lat. 55° 33' N., Lon. 35° 40' E. BosNA-SERAY, boss-nā-ser-i', or SERAJEvo, ser-i-yā'-vo, a manufacturing and cominercial city of European Turkey, on the Migliazza (meel-yāts-sà) or Miliaska, near its junction with the Bosna. It is considered the cap. of Bosnia, although the pasha has for the last few years resided at Trawnik. Lat. 43°54' N., Lon. 18°26' E. Pop. about 70,000. (B.) Boss-N1-A, (called Boss-nā by the Turks,) the most westerly eyalet or prov. of European Turkey, derives its name from the r. Bosna, an affluent of the Save, by which it is intersected. It is bounded on the N. W. and N. by Croatia and Slavonia, E. by Servia, and S. and W. by Albania and Dalmatia. Area variously estimated from 16,000 to 22,000 sq.m.—Adj. and inhab. Boss-NI-AN and Bos'-NI-Ak: the latter is more properly applied to that portion of the inhabitants of Bosnia who are descended from the orginal Slavonic nation that established itself here during the decline of the Roman empire. Bos'-Port-Us, commonly but incorrectly written Bosphorus, the strait between the Euxine and the Sea of Marmora, called also the Channel of Constantinople. It is about 1 m. or 14 m. wide, and 20 m. long. Bosn AH. See BAssoRA. Boss-toN, a port of entry, cap. of Mass., and the largest city in New England, is situated in Suffolk co., on a peninsula 2 m. long and about 1 m. wide, at the W. side of Massachusetts Bay. Its harbour is one of the best in the United States. It has always a sufficient depth of water for the largest vessels, and is accessible at all seasons of the year. The Middlesex canal, 30 m. in length, connects this harbour with the Merrimack. Besides the advantages which Boston possesses for ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; N, nearly like ng.

maritine trade, it communicates, by means of railroads, with all the principal places in Mass., and with most of the important towns in the adjoining states. It is the second commercial city of the United States. The tonnage of this port, in 1843, amounted to 210,324. The total value of the imports, for the same year, was $20,662,567, and of the exports, $7,365,712. It is probable that the amount of imports and exports, during the present year (1844), will be much greater. The number and excellence of her institutions for education, and the zeal and success with which literature and science are cultivated by her citizens, appear fully to justify the distinguished reputation which Boston enjoys, as a seat of learning. Among the numerous literary establishments of this city, may be mentioned the Athenaeum, with a library of 34,000 vols. Lat. of the State House, 42° 21' 22° N., Lon. 71°4' 9" W. Pop. 93.3-3.—Inhab. Bos-To'-NI-AN. Boston, a seaport t of England, in Lincolnshire, about 100 m. N. of London. Lat. 53° N., Lon. 0°2' W. Pop. of the town and parish, with an area of above 8 sq. m., 12,942." Bor-o-Nv BAY, situated on the E. coast of New Holland, was named by Cook, from the great quantity of plants found there. Near it is Sydney, the chief town of the colony of convicts from Great Britain. See SYDNEY. Botetourt, bot/-e-tort, a co. in the S. central part of Virginia, W. of the Blue Ridge. Pop. 11,679. Co. t. Fincastle. Boths-N1-A, a country in the N. of Europe, formerly divided into E. and W. Bothnia; but the prov. called E. Bothnia has been ceded to Russia, and now forms a part of the government of Uleåborg. S. Bothnia extends from about 6.3° 30' to 68° N. Lat. On the S. E. it borders on the Gulf of Bothnia.—Adj. Both'-NI-AN and Both'-Nic. Both NIA, Gulf of, the most northern part of the Baltic Sea, extends from 60° to near 66° N. Lat. Its whole length is perhaps 450 m. Borz'-EN, (It. Bolzano, bol-sà'-no,) a t. of Tyrol, 32 m. N. by E. of Trent. Pop. 8,000. (B.) Bouches du RhôNE. See Mouths of the Rhone. Boulogne, boo-lone',(Fr. pron. boo'-losis: Anc. Gesoriacum, afterwards Bono'nia or Bolo'nia,) a seaport t. of France, in the dep. of Pas de Calais, 138 m. N. by W. of Paris. It contains, among other institutions, a public library of above 22,000 vols. Lat. 50° 44' N., Lon. 1° 35' E. Pop. 26,000. (B.) Bourbon, boor'-bon, (Fr. pron. boor-b'N',) an i. belonging to France, situated in the Indian Ocean, E. of Madagascar. The t. of St. Denis, at the N. W. extremity, is in 20° 51° S. Lat., and 55° 30' E. Lon. This island is nearly 50 m. long, from S. E. to N.W., and about 35 m. wide. The soil is very fertile in the vicinity of the coast, but the interior is decidedly sterile. A large portion of the island is mountainous; one

* McCulloch gives the population of this town, without mentioning the area included.

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Bourges, bookzh, (Anc. Avarsicum, afterwards Bitur/iges,) an archiepiscopal t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Cher, 125 m. due S. from Paris. This city may vie, in antiquity and ancient importance, with almost any in France. It was, in the time of Caesar, the capital of the Bituriges, and one of the finest cities in Gaul. At present, it is chiefly remarkable as a seat of learning. Besides other institutions for educa tion, of less importance, it possesses an académie universitaire and a royal college. Lat. 47° 5' N., Lon. 2° 23' E. Pop. 20,000. (B.)

Bourgogne. See BURGUNdy.

Boyle, a co. in the E. central part of Ky., a little S. W. of Kentucky r.

ios, brå'-bant," (Dutch pron. brå/-bänt.) The duchy of this name was formerly one of the most important provinces in the Netherlands. It was divided into Dutch (now North) and Spanish or Austrian (South) Brabant. In the revolution of 1830, the S. portion joined in the revolt, and has since formed a part of the kingdom of Belgium; while N. Brabant still continues a province of Holland. Brussels is the capital of South, and Bois-le-Duc, of North Brabant.

BRAck'-EN, a co, in the N. part of Ky., bordering on the Ohio, and E. of Licking r. Pop. 7,053. Co. t. Augusta.

* We sometimes hear this name accentuated on the latter syllable, by respectable speakers; but the authority of the poets, as well as the native pronunciation, is against this practice.

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BRAD'-Fond, a co. in the N. part of Pa., bordering on N. Y., and intersected by the Susquehanna. Pop. 32,769. Co. t. Towanda. BRADroRD, a manufacturing t. of England, in the W. riding of Yorkshire, 10 m. nearly W. from Leeds. Pop. 34,560. BRADroRD, GREAT, a t. of Wiltshire, England, near the Kennet and Avon canal, about 90 m. W. of London. Total pop. of the parish, 10,563; that of the town is about one-third of the whole. BRAD'-Lev, a co. in the S. E. part of Ark., bordering on La. BRApley, a co. in the S. E. part of Tenn., bordering on Ga. Pop. 7,385. BRAGA, brås-gā, (the Braclara Augus/ta of the Romans,) a t. of Portugal, in the prov. of Minho, about 15 m. from the sea. Lat. 41° 33’N. Lon. 8° 23' W. Pop. above 14,000. (B.) BRAH'-MA-Poot'-RA, one of the largest rivers of Asia, rises in the mountains N. of the Birman empire, and E. of Assam, and, after having traversed the kingdom of Assam and eastern Bengal, and received several tributaries, among them a branch of the Ganges, it takes the name of Megna, and finally joins the Ganges a little below Luckipoor, in Lat. 22° 45' N., Lon. 90° 40' E. Yet, though their streams appear to unite, the great body of their waters continues separate, and forms two currents, even after they have reached the sea. The whole length of the Brahmapootra is estimated at 1,500 m. BRAN'-DEN-Burg, (Ger. pron. brán'-den-bóðRG",) a prov. of the kingdom of Prussia, extending from 51° 48' to 53° 37' N. Lat., and 10° 50' to 16°12' E. Lon. The area is about 15,330 sq. m. BRANCH, a co. in the S. part of Mich., bordering on Ind. Pop. 5,715. Co. t. Branch. BRAN'-dy-wine CREEK, a stream in the S. E. part of Pa., flowing into the Christiana, below Wilmington. A noted battle was fought on its banks, between the British and Americans, in 1777. BRAUNsberg, brouns/-b{RG, a t. of Prussia, 36 m. S. W. of Königsberg. It contains a college, a lyceum with the faculties of theology and philosophy, and several other institutions. Pop. 7,300. (B.) BRAx-ron, a co. in the N.W., or N. W. central part of Va., a little N. E. of the Kanawha r. Pop. 2,575. Seat of justice, Braxton c. h. Baazil, or braz-il', or brå-zeel', a vast empire in the E. part of S. America, extending from about 5° N. to 34° S. Lat., and from about 35° to 73° W. Lon.; bounded on the N. W. and N. by Ecuador, Venezuela, Guiana; N. E., E., and S. E. by the Atlantic, and S. W. and W. by Monte Video, La Plata, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. Its vast extent brings it in contact with all the countries of S. America, except Patagonia, Chili, and New Granada. The area has been estimated at 3,000,000 sq. m. Pop. 5,000,000. (B.) As might be supposed, the vegetable productions of a country of so great extent, lying within such latitudes, and, for the most part, plentifully supplied with water, are extremely abundant and various. Nor does animal life appear in less variety and luxuriance. Many of the Brazilian birds are remarkable for the brilliancy of their plumage; the insects, for their size and the

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beauty of their colours, especially the butterflies. The mineral wealth of this country is considerable, but limited to a few articles, of which the chief are gold, diamonds, topazes, iron, and salt. Brazil was formerly a colony belonging to the crown of Portugal. But, on the 12th of October, 1822, it was declared an independent state, and Pedro, the son of the king of Portugal, whom his father had appointed regent of Brazil, yielding to the torrent of public opinion, adopted the title of emperor, and, on the 1st of December, was crowned. Soon after, the Portuguese troops, who had been stationed in the towns of Bahia, Maranham and Para, were compelled to sail for Europe, and the independence of the new empire was established, with scarcely any loss of . blood. The government of Brazil is a limited monarchy. The cap. is Rio Janeiro.—Adj. and inhab. BRAZILIAN, brå-zil'-yun. BRAz'-os, a r. of Texas, which flows into the Gulf of Mexico, in about 28° 50' N. Lat., and 95° 20' W. Lon. The entire length, following its windings, is estimated at near 1,000 m. BRAzzA, bråts-sà, an i. in the Adriatic, belonging to Austria, intersected by the parallel of 43° 15' N. Lat., and the meridian of 16° 30 E. Lon. It is nearly 30 m. long, and from 6 to 9 broad. Pop. 15,000. E. G.) ( BREAthitt, breth'-it, a co. in the E. part of Ky., on the head waters of the Kentucky r. Pop. 2,195. BREchin, brek'-in, a t. of Scotland, in Forfarshire, about 34 m. S.W. of Aberdeen. Pop. 3,951. BREck'-EN-RIDGE, a co. in the N. N. W. part of Ky., bordering on the Ohio. Pop. 8,944. Co. t. Hardinsburg. BREC'-QN or BREck'-Nock-shing, an inland co. in the S. of Wales. Pop. 55,603. BREcon or BREcKNock, a t. of Wales; cap. of Brecknockshire, situated on the r. Usk, 167 m. W. N. W. of London. Pop. 5,701. BREDA, brå-dà', a fortified t. of Holland, in N. Brabant, on the Aa, with a royal military academy. Lat. 51° 35' N., Lon. 4° 47' E. Pop. about 9,000. (B.) BREisach, bris-zák, (Fr. Brisach, bre"-zák',) an ancient and important fortress of Germany, belonging at present to the grand-duchy of Baden, on the Rhine, 12 m. W. of Freiburg. Lat. 48° 2' N., Lon. 7° 35' E. Pop. above 3,000. (B.) BREM!-EN (Ger. pron. brås-men), THE FREE HANseatic state of, in the N.W. of Germany, intersected by the Weser, is situated between 53° 1' and 53°11' N. Lat., and 8° 35' and 9° E. Lon. Area about 67 sq.m. As an independent power it forms one of the 38 constituent members of the German confederation. Pop. in 1823, 55,453. (P. C.) The city of Bremen, the cap. of the above state, is situated on the Weser, and divided by it into two unequal parts, the larger, called the Old Town (Alt-stadt), is on the right; the other, called the New Town (Neustadt), on the left bank of the river. Its commerce is very extensive. Among the various literary and scientific institutions of Bremen, the observatory of Dr. Olbers, from which he discovered the two planets,

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