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this kingdom, on the right bank of the Danube, and connected with Pesth, on the opposite side of the river, by a bridge of boats, 3,800 ft. in length. It is said to derive its name from Buda, a brother of Attila, who made this town his residence, and much enlarged it. The trade of Buda consists principally in the wines produced by the vineyards of the neighbouring country. The Royal Observatory, situated 516 ft. above the level of the Mediterranean, and 300 ft. above the waters of the Danube, at this place, is in 47°29' 12" N. Lat., and 19° 3' E. Lon. Pop. above 33,000. (B.) BUDukhsh AN, budo-uk-shān', (Badakhshan,) one of the principalities into which Toorkistan is divided, between 36° and 38° N. Lat., and 69° and 73° E. Lon. The ruby mines, so often alluded to by the Persian poets, are in this country, at a place called Gharan (gå-rán'). The inhabitants of Budukhshan speak the Persian language. Their religion is Mahometanism. Budweis, boods-wice, a manufacturing and commercial t of Bohemia; the cap. of a circle of the same name, situated on the Moldau, and connected by a railway with Linz, in Upper Austria. Lat. 48° 59' N., Lon. 14° 58' E. Pop. about 7,000. (B. Buenos AYREs, commonly pronounced bo'-nos A'-riz (Sp. pron. byā'noce-is-rés,) a city of S. America; cap. of the republic of La Plata, on the S. bank of the estuary of the r. La Plata. It is one of the most important commercial towns, as well as one of the principal seats of civilization and learning on the American continent. (B.) It is, in general, regularly and handsomely built, and is defended by a castle, the walls of which are mounted with cannon. The literary and scientific institutions of Buenos Ayres are numerous and respectable; the University, in particular, enjoys a distinguished reputation, both on account of its plan of instruction, and the number and talent of its professors. It has a library of 20,000 vols. This place was founded by the Spaniards, in 1535. The name Buenos Ayres (good air), was given by its founder, Mendoza, and is justified by the healthiness of the climate. Lat. 34° 36' S., Lon. 58° 10' W. Pop. estimated at S0,000. (B.) Burl-FA-Lo', a city and port of entry of N. Y.; cap. of Erie co., situated at the E. end of L. Erie, near the commencement of the Niagara r., and at the mouth of Buffalo Creek. The growth of this town has been very rapid. In 1810 the pop. was only 1,508; in 1840 it amounted to 18,213. This increase may be attributed chiefly to its position. Situated at the termination of the Erie Canal, and of the Albany and Buffalo Railroad, it has, necessarily, become the great entrepôt for the merchandise of the east, and the agricultural productions of the west. Buffalo is the port whence persons going to the northern part of the western states ordinarily embark upon the lakes. Lat. 42°53'N, Lon. 78° 55' W. Bug, boog, a small r. of Poland, flowing into the Vistula. BUL.GARIA, būāl-gas-re-a, a large prov. of European Turkey, bounded on the N. by Wallachia, E. by the Black Sea, S. by Rumelia, and W by Servia. Length above 300 m.; greatest breadth perhaps 100m

ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this; N, nearly like ng.

The Bulgarians are descended from a Slavonic horde who established themselves here in the 7th century. The present race have laid aside the military character of their ancestors, and are represented as hospitable and benevolent: the woman are said to be handsome, industrious, and neatly dressed.—Adj. and inhab. Bulgarian, būol-gas-re-an. Bullitt, bool'-it, a co. in the N. part of Ky., S. of Louisville. Pop. 6,334. Co. t. Shepherdsville. Bullock, bools-luk, a co, in the E. part of Ga., bordering on the r. Ogeechee. Pop. 3,102. Co. t. Statesborough. BuNgombe, bunk'-um, a co, in the W. part of N. C., bordering on Tenn. Pop. 10,084. Co. t. Ashville. BUNKER {i,j}. a hill in Charlestown, a suburb of Boston, famous for the battle fought in its vicinity, June 17, 1775. A magnificent monument has recently been erected here in commemoration of that event. It consists of an obelisk of granite, 30 ft. square at the base, and 221 ft. in height. From its summit is obtained one of the finest and most extensive views in the United States. BURD -w RNs, a t. of Bengal; cap. of a dist. of the same name. Lat. 23° 15' N., Lon. 87°57' E. Pop. 54,000. (B.) BUREAU, bus-ro, a co. in the N. part of Ill., bordering on Illinois r. Pop. 3,067. BURG, bočRG, a manufacturing t. of Prussian Saxony, surrounded by a wall, with five gates, about 65 m. S. W. of i. Pop. above 12,000. (B.) BURqos, book'-goce, an ancient archiepiscopal city of Spain, situated 136 m. N. of Madrid. It is nominally the cap. of Old Castile, but since the seat of royalty was transferred to Madrid, by Charles W., in the beginning of the 16th century, its prosperity has greatly declined, and the pop. has dwindled to less than one-third of its former number. Lat. 42° 21' N, Lon. 3° 43' W. Pop. 12,000. (B.) BUR/-GUN-Dv, (Fr. Bourgogne, book'-goń',) an old prov. of France, now principally divided among the departments of Saône and Loire, Côte d'Or, and Yonne.—Inhab. Bur-GUN'-D1-AN. Burke, a co. in the W. part of N. C., lying on both sides of the Catawba. Pop. 15,799. Co. t. Morgantown. Burke, a co. in the E. part of Ga., between the rivers Ogeechee and Savannah. Pop. 13,176. Co. t. Waynesborough. BURLINGtoN (England). See BRIDLINGto.N. BUR-LING-Ton, a port of entry, the most commercial t. of Vt., cap. of Chittenden co., on L. Champlain, a few miles S. of the mouth of the Onion r. It is the seat of the University of Vermont, founded in 1791. Lat. 44° 27' N., Lon. 73° 10' W. Pop. of the township, 4,271. Bua/-LING-Ton, a co. of N. J., stretching across the state, from the Delaware to the Atlantic. Pop. 32,831. Co. t. Mount Holly. BurLINGtoN, a t. of N. J., in the above co., situated on the left bank of the Delaware, 12 m. below Trenton. Lat. 40° 5' N., Lon. 74° 52' W. Pop. about 2,600. BURMA. See BIRMA.

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BURN'-LEy, a t. of Lancashire, England, 40 m. E. N. E. of Liverpool. Pop. 10,699. BURRAMPooter. See BRAHMAPoork A. Bursa, boor'-sà, or BRusA, broos-sà, (Anc. Pru'sa,) a flourishing manufacturing and commercial t. of Asiatic Turkey, once the cap. of Bithynia, beautifully situated at the foot of Mount Olympus, in Asia Minor. It is abundantly supplied with the purest water, so that every house has its own fountain. Most of the streets are very clean, and well §: The most remarkable edifices in the place, are the thermal ths; the mineral waters which supply them, range in temperature from 167° to 190° Fahrenheit. Bursa is the residence of a Greek metropolitan and an Armenian archbishop. Lat. 40° 11° N., Lon. 29°12' E. Pop. 100,000. (B.) Burscheid, books-shite, (Fr. Boro-cettes,) a t. of the Prussian states, in the immediate vicinity of Aix-la-Chapelle, remarkable for its warm springs and baths. Pop. 5,000. (B.) Burs'-LEM, a t. of Staffordshire, England, 24 m. N. N. E. of Newcastle, with extensive potteries. Pop. of the township, 12,631. BURY, bor'-re, a manufacturing t. of England, in Lancashire, 9 m. N. N. W. of Manchester. Pop. of the township, including an area of near 4 sq. m., 20,710. Bury Sr. EDMUND's, a t. of England, in the co. of Suffolk, 62 m N. E. by N. from London. The name is derived from Edmund, king of East Anglia, who was, in 870, cruelly put to death by the Danes, then gans. His remains were deposited in the monastery of this place. op. of the borough, including an area of near 5 sq. m., 12,538. Bushin E. See Abooshehr. BuTE, an i. of Scotland, in the Frith of Clyde, 16 m. long and 5 wide. Bute'-shire, a co. in the S. W. part of Scotland, consisting of the islands of Bute, Arran, Inchmarnock, and the Cumbraes. Pop. 15,740. Burl-LER, a co. in the W. part of Pa., N. of Pittsburg. Pop. 22,378. Co. t. Butler. BUTLER, a co. in the S. part of Ala. Pop. 8,685. Co. t. Greenville. BUTLER, a co. in the W. part of Ky., intersected by Green r. Pop. 3,898. Co. t. Morgantown. BuTLER, a co. in the S. W. part of Ohio, intersected by the Great Miami r., and bordering on Ind. Pop. 28,173. Co. t. Hamilton. BUT'-TER-MERE, a beautiful lake of England, in the co. of Cumberland, about 14 m. long, and 4 m. broad. BUTTs, a co. in the central part of Ga., W. of and bordering on the Ocmulgee r. Pop. 5,308. Co. t. Jackson. Bux-ton, a small t. of Derbyshire, England, 20 m. S. of Manchester, celebrated for its warm mineral springs and baths. It is visited by from 12,000 to 14,000 persons annually. (P. C.) Buz-zARD's BAY, on the S. coast of Mass., is situated between the countries of Bristol and Barnstable. Byzantium, biz-an/-she-um, (Gr. Bušavrov or Bucavrwov.) an ancient ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this; N, nearly like ng.

city on the site of the modern Constantinople. (See Constantinople.) —Adj. and inhab. Byz-AN'-TiNE, and ByzantiAN, biz-an/-she-an."

CA-BAR'-RAs, a co. in the S. W. part of N. C., between the rivers Catawba and Yadkin. Pop. 9,259. Co. t. Concord. CAB-ELL, a co, in the W. part of Va., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 8,163. Seat of justice, Cabell c. h. CAB-ool/,t (Cabul or Caubul), an important city of Asia, the cap. of Afghanistan, situated on the Cabool r., in a large, well-watered lain, and surrounded with beautiful gardens. The town, though not arge, is handsome and compact; the houses are mostly built of wood, to avoid the consequences of the frequent earthquakes. It is surrounded with walls, and strongly fortified. Lat. 34° 26' N., Lon. 69° 5' E. Pop. formerly estimated at 80,000, but it does not probably at present amount to more than 60,000. (B.) CABool or CABUL, a r. of Afghanistan, flowing into the Indus. CAcEREs, kā'-thä-rés, (Lat. Castra Caecilia,) an ancient t. of Spain, in Estremadura. Lat. 39°25' N., Lon. 6° 15' W. Pop. 10,000. (B.) CAchor:IRA. See CAxoeirA. CAD/-do, a parish forming the N. W. extremity of La. Pop. 5,282. CAdiz, ch/-diz, (Sp. pron. kā'-dith,) the principal commercial city of Spain, situated in the prov. of Andalusia, on the S.W. coast. It stands on a tongue of land, projecting from the island of Leon. This town was founded by the Phoenicians, many centuries before the Christian era; the exact time is not known. It was called by them Gadir or Gadeira, which was afterwards changed to Gades by the Romans, under whom it became a municipium, or free town, and one of the richest provin. cial cities in the empire. Nature and art have combined to render this place one of the strongest fortresses in Europe. Lat. 36° 31' N., Lon.

* These are sometimes employed to designate an inhabitant of the modern Turkish capital. The eastern Roman empire, the seat of which was at Constantinople, is frequently called the Byzantine empire.

+ The French write this name Caboul, while the Germans, Italians, Spaniards, and Portuguese, write it Cabul, but pronounce the latter syllable bool. Neverthe; less, we are assured, on the best authority, that the native inhabitants write and

ronounce it without any vowel between the b and l, which might be represented

in English thus—Kabl. The European pronunciation, however, seems unalternbly fixed; and we ought, perhaps, to acquiesce the more willingly because the original name could not be restored without some loss of to

Moore writes the name Caubul, but accentuates the last syllable.

— “Pomegranates full
Of melting sweetness, and the pears
And sunniest apples that CAUBUL
In all its thousand gardens bears.”—Lalla Rookh.

Rogers adopts the same accentuation.
“From Alexandria southward to Sennaar,
And eastward through Damascus, and CAmul,

And Samarcand, to thy great wall, Cathay."
Italy, Part Second, X

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6° 17' W. Pop. estimated at 53,000. (B.)—Inhab. GAD-I-TA-NJ-yN. (Borrow.) CAEN, kāN, a t. of France; cap. of the dep. of Calvados, situated on the Orne, 127 m. W. by N. of Paris. Among its numerous scientific and literary institutions, we may mention the Académie Universitaire, the Royal College, and the Public Library, containing 40,000 vols. Lat. 49° 11 N., Lon. 0° 22' W. Pop. 39,000. (B.) CAERMARTHEN, ker-mar'-then, a t. of Wales, cap. of Caermarthenshire, is about 190 m. nearly W. from London. There is here a Presbyterian college, for the education of young men for the ministry. aermarthen forms a little co. of itself, of which the entire pop. is 9,526. Lat. 51° 51° N., Lon. 4° 19 W. CAERMARTHENshire, ker-mar'-then-shir, a co. of S. Wales, on a bay of the same name. Pop. 106,326. CAER-NAR'-voN, a t. of Wales; the cap. of Caernarvonshire. Lat. 53° 9° N., Lon. 4° 14' W. CAER-NAR/-voN-shing, a co. in the N. W. part of Wales, bordering on the sea, and the Menai Strait. Pop. 81,093. CAF-FRA/-R1-A or CAF'-FRE-LAND, a name given by Europeans, to a country in the S. E. part of Africa, extending about 600 m. along the coast, from the Great Key r. to Lagoa Bay. The name is derived from the Arabic word Kafir, which signifies “unbeliever.” This country is occupied by four principal nations, originally of one stock. One of these, the Zoolas or Vatvahs, are a fine athletic race, and very warlike, and have overpowered, dispersed, or destroyed all the surrounding tribes, from King George's r. to Port Natal, a tract of above 300 m. in length, from N. to S. The Caffres acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being, but have no form of worship. Some tribes are industrious, and cultivate millet, beans, pumpkins, sweet potatoes or yams, maize and tobacco. The complexion of the Caffres varies from a copper hue to a deep black. Their nose is arched; they have thick lips and curly hair, but less woolly than the negroes. The Caffre women are considered to be among the handsomest in Africa.-Adj. and inhab. CAF'-FRE. CAGLIAR1, kāl!-yā-re, (Anc. Callaris), a fortified archiepiscopal city, the chief port of Sardinia, and cap. of the vice-royalty of Sardinia, is situated in the S. part of the island, on a bay of the same name. It has a fine harbour, and an extensive commerce: also a university, with the four faculties of theology, law, medicine, philosophy and belleslettres. Lat. 39° 13' N, Lon. 9° 7' E. Pop. in 1825, 27,300. (P. C.) CA-HAw/-BA, a r. of Ala., which flows into the Alabama r. At its influx is situated the town of Cahawba, the former cap. of the state. CAHIR or CAHER, Kah'-her or kare, a t. of Ireland, in the co. of Tipperary, on the Suir, 40 m. N. E. of Cork. Pop. in 1831, 3,408. (P. C.) CAhors, kā’-or', (Divona Cadurcorum,) a city of France; cap. of the dep. of Lot, on the right bank of the r. Lot. This town is very ancient; it was the cap. of the Cadurci, under the Romans, and after. wards of the prov. of Querci, which name, as well as Cahors, is derived

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