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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng ; G, like j. road. It was formerly a favourite residence of the French kings. The forest of St. Germain, in the vicinity, is still a frequent resort of the royal family, with their hunting parties. To distinguish it from other places of this name, the town is often called St. Germain en laye (án la), i. e. “in the lane or passage,” probably referring to its position on one of the roads leading to the forest. Pop. in 1831, 10,67i. (P. C.)
GERMAN OCEAN. See North SEA.
GER-MA-NY (Lat. Germa'nia; Ger. Deutschland, doich/-lånt; Fr. Allemagne, all'-måñ'); an extensive country of Europe, situated between 45° 30' and 55° 50' N. Lat., and 4° 45' and 22° 54' E. Lon. These limits have reference to all the territories comprised in the Germanic confederation, including some districts which do not belong to Germany Proper; e.g. Luxemburg, and Friuli. According to the more strict application of the name, Germany is bounded on the N. by the Baltic, E. by Poland, Galicia, and Hungary, S. by Croatia, Illyria, Italy, and Switzerland, and W. by France, Belgium, and Holland. Its length, from the Netherlands to the E. part of Prussia, is upwards of 700 m.; its breadth is very unequal; measuring from N. to S., from the Baltic to the southern limit of Tyrol, it amounts to near 600 m. The area is stated at 284,000 sq. m. Before the French Revolution, the German empire was divided into nine circles; namely, those of Austria, Bavaria, and Suabia, in the S.; Franconia, Upper Rhine, and Lower Rhine, in the middle; and Westphalia, Upper Saxony, and Lower Saxony, in the N. Other countries, however, were considered as forming parts of the empire, of which the principal were Bohemia, Silesia, Moravia, and Lusatia. The present Germanic confederation, as established by an act of the Congress of Vienna, on the 8th of June, 1815, consists of thirty-eight independent states. The central point and organ of the confederation is the Federative Diet, which sits at Frankfort on the Main. It exercises its authority in a double form: lst, as a general assembly, termed Plenum; and, 2dly, as a minor council, called the Federative Diet Ordinary. The Plenum meets only when an affair relating to all the confederation is to be decided. It has seventy votes, of which four belong to Austria, and as many to each of the five German kingdoms; the other states, according to their respective importance, have three, two or one vote each. The Federative Diet Ordinary possesses in all seventeen votes, out of which eleven principal states have each a single vote, and the remaining twenty-seven only six joint votes. Austria presides in both assemblies, and decides in case of equality. The objects of the Germanic confederation are mutual defence against a common enemy, and the preservation of internal security and peace among the confederated states, which have no right to declare war on each other, but must submit their differences to the decision of the Diet. The following is a list of the states, with the number of votes which each possesses in the general assembly. I. States having each four votes : 1. Austria,
4. Saxony, 2. Prussia,
5. Hanover, 3. Bavaria,
Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; nd, nðt; oo, as in good;
II. States having each three votes: 7. Baden,
10. Holstein and Lauenburg, 8. The electorate of Hesse,
11. Luxemburg. 9. The grand-duchy of Hesse,
JII. States having each two votes : 12. Brunswick,
14. Nassau, 13. Mecklenburg-Schwerin,
IV. States having each one vote : 15. Saxe-Weimar,
27. Lichtenstein, 16. Saxe-Coburg,
28. Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, 17. Saxe-Meiningen,
29. Waldeck, 18. Saxe-Hildburghausen,
30. Reuss, elder branch, 19. Mecklenburg-Strelitz,
31. Reuss, younger branch, 20. Holstein-Oldenburg,
32. Lippe-Schauenburg, 21. Anhalt-Dessau,
33. Lippe-Detmold, 22. Anhalt-Bernburg,
34. Hesse-Homburg, 23. Anhalt-Cathen,
35. Lübeck, 24. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, 36. Frankfort, 25. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, 37. Bremen, 26. Hohenzollern-Hechingen, 38. Hamburg.
The following is a list of the Austrian, Prussian, Dutch, and Danish possessions comprised in the Germanic confederation :
AUSTRIAN.—The archduchy of Austria, the duchies of Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Austrian Friuli, the territory of Trieste, the county of Tyrol, with Vorarlberg, the kingdom of Bohemia, the margraviate of Moravia, and Austrian Silesia.
Prussian.—The provinces of Brandenburg, Pomerania, Silesia, Prussian Saxony, Westphalia, and the provinces of the Rhine.
DUTCH.--The grand-duchy of Luxemburg.
Nothing is known of the early history of Germany, except what we derive from the Romans. In the time of Julius Cæsar, the Germans (Germani) were regarded as the most formidable and warlike of all the European barbarians. To this character they appear to have been indebted for the appellation by which they were known among the surrounding nations. Wehrman, i.e. “war-man,” was changed by the Romans into German, as they probably had no other mode in which they could indicate more nearly the sound of the barbarian name.* In the early part of the third century the Alemanni or Allemanni appear as one of the most conspicuous and powerful of the German na
• It is curious to observe how often w, in a Teutonic language, is changed to gin a Romanic. Among many other instances, we may cite the following : Ger. wehr, Sp. guerra, Fr. guerre; Eng. ward, Sp. guarda, Fr. garde; Eng. wasle, Sp guastar, Fr. gûter (originally gaster); Eng. wager, Fr. gager; Eng. warrant, Fr garantir. (See note to CORNWALL, page 169; also, Int. XXVII., 10.)
ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; Th, as in this; n, nearly like ng; G, like j. tions, if they were not rather a union of various nations, as their name (Allemannen, all men, or all sorts of men), would seem to imply. Though often defeated, the Allemanni harassed almost continually the Roman frontier on the side of Germany, during the decline of the Western empire. But having, in a sanguinary battle, been utterly routed by the Franks, under Clodwig, in 496, they were afterwards united to the Suevi, and with them consolidated into a dukedom, called the Duchy of Allemannia. From the Allemanni the French and Spanish names of Gerinany, Allemagne and Alemania, are derived. The Germanic empire dates from the time of Charlemagne, by whom it was founded, in the latter part of the 8th century. Conrad, the first duke of Franconia, was elected emperor about the year 911, from which time the crown of Germany remained elective till 1806, when Francis II. abdicated the imperial crown of Germany, and declared the dissolution of the Germanic empire. After the dethronement of Napoleon, in 1815, the new system of general government, called the Germanic confederation, was established, as already explained.--Adj. GERI-MẠN and GER MAN-IC; inhab. GERMAN.
GERONA, na-rol-nå, a t. of Spain, in Catalonia, the cap. of a dist. of the same name, and formerly important on account of its fortifications. Lat. 42° 2' N., Lon. 2° 47' E. Pop. 6,000. (B.)
GERS, zhare, a dep. in the S. of France, intersected by a small r. of the same name, which flows into the Garonne. Pop. 312,882. (B.) Capital, Auch.
Gex, zhex, a small t. of France. near the frontiers of Switzerland, 11 m. N. by W. from Geneva, in a dist. of the same name, which forms a part of the dep. of Ain.
Guadam is, ghå-dål-mịs, or ghạ-dåms', a commercial t. of N. Africa, in an oasis of the same name, which is tributary to Tripoli. It is a rendezvous for caravans travelling from Tripoli to Timbuctoo. Lat. about 29° 50' N., Lon. near 11° E.
GHAUTS, Mountains of Hindostan, which are usually divided into the Western and the Eastern Ghauts. The Western Ghauts extend along the W. coast of Hindostan, from the r. Tapty, on which Surat stands, to about 11° N. Lat., and form the boundary of the table land of the Dekkan on the side towards the Indian Ocean. The Eastern Ghauts, which separate the table land of the Dekkan from the low and level country along the Bay of Bengal, extend from about 12° to 18° N. Lat. To another mountain ridge, which bounds the table land of the Dekkan on the S., and which has only been explored within the last twenty-five years, the name of Southern Ghauts has recently been applied. The word Ghaut literally signifies a "mountain pass."
GHEEL. See GEEL.
GHEE-ZĘH (Gizeh or Jizeh), a small t. of Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile, chieħy remarkable for its vicinity to the pyramids. Lat. 30° 2' N., Lon. 31° 15' E.
GHENT, (Flem. Gent or Gend, hent; Fr. Gand, gån,) a city of Belgium, cap. of E. Flanders, situated at the confluence of the Lys with the
Fate, får, fall, fåt; mè, mét; pine or pine, pin; nd, nôt; oo as in good. Scheldt, 31 m. W. S. W. from Antwerp, and 30 m. N. W. from Brus sels. It is intersected by a great number of navigable canals, through which it communicates with most of the important towns of the Low Countries. The Sas-van-Ghent Canal (first opened for use in 1828), which runs towards the N. into Zealand, connects Ghent with the W. Scheldt, and allows vessels from the sea, drawing 18 ft. of water, to enter the city. In the centre of the town a magnificent basin has lately been excavaled, which is connected with the above canal, and is capable of containing 400 vessels, of 900 tons each. Ghent is a handsome and well-built city, and is surrounded by walls with seven gates. This town appears to have existed as early as the 5th century. It was formerly much more populous than at present. During the reign of the emperor Charles V., who was born here, Ghent contained 175,000 inhabitants (P. C.) Towards the end of the 13th century, it is said to have exceeded the capital of France, in extent and population. Besides the University and the College, Ghent possesses a royal academy of drawing, sculpture, and architecture; a royal society of agriculture and botany; and various other establishments for the promotion of literature, science, and the arts. Lat. 51° 3' N., Lon. 3° 44' E. Pop. 84,000. (B.)
GHOOL-GHOO'-LẠ, a valley in Afghanistan, 30 or 40 m. N. W. of Cabool, remarkable for two rude colossal statues, one of a male, about 120 ft. in height; the other of a female, about 70 ft.
Gibraltar, je-braull-ter, (Sp. pron. He-brål-tar!: Anc. Cal/pe,) a fortified rock in the S. extremity of Spain, which is connected with the continent by an isthmus of low sand, and almost surrounded by the waters of the Mediterranean, forming a promontory, 3 m. in length, from N. to S., and from 1,200 to 1,400 ft. in height. Towards the S., it terminates in what is called Europa Point. In the early part of the 8th century, an army of Saracens, under the command of Tarif, landed here, and erected a castle on the shoulder of the rock, which was called by the invaders Gibel-Tarif (i. e. the “ mountain of Tarif”), whence, in all probability, the present name is derived. The ruins of the Moorish castle are still to be seen. At present, Gibraltar is perhaps the strongest and most remarkable fortress in the world. Besides other fortifications, of extraordinary strength, there are two excavations, called galleries, wrought in the solid rock, which are sufficiently capacious to contain the wholé garrison in time of siege. They are narrow, and extend from two to three miles in length. Along these galleries, at intervals of every twelve yards, are port-holes, bearing on the isthmus and bay. Gibraltar is a free port, and forms a convenient entrepôt for merchandise destined for the neighbouring provinces of Spain and Africa. The Bay of Gibraltar, lying W. of the promontory, is commodious, and secure from all the more dangerous winds. It is near 8 m. in length; its greatest breadth is about 5 m.; its depth, in the centre, exceeds 100 fathoms. The town of Gibraltar is situated near the foot of the hill, at its N. W. side. Lat. 36° 6' 30" N., Lon. 5° 19' W. Pop. estimated at about 16,000. (P. C.)
ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng ; G like j.
GIBRALTAR, Strait of, situated between Spain and Africa, and connecting the Mediterranean with the Atlantic Ocean. In the narrowest place, its breadth does not exceed 12 m. Its length, from Cape Trafalgar to Europa Point, is near 40 m.
Gib'-son, a co. in the W. part of Tenn., a little E. of the Mississippi r. Pop. 13,689. Co. l. Trenton.
Gibson, a co. in the S. W. part of Ind., bordering on the Wabash and White rivers. Pop. 8,977. Co. t. Princeton.
Giessex, ghees-son, a t. of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Hesse, about 33 m. N. of Frankfort on the Main. It has a university, attended by about 400 students. Lat. 50° 34' N., Lon. 8° 34' E. Pop. 7,000. (B.)
GIHON or JIHON. See Oxus.
GIJON, He-Hone', a small t. of Spain, on the coast of Asturia, remarkable for its college or high-school, called the Instituto Asturiano Lat. 43° 35' N., Lon. 5° 45' W.
Gila, heel-lå, a r. of Mexico, which flows into the Colorado.
Giles, a co. in the S. W. part of Va., intersected by New River Pop. 5,307. Co. t. Parisburg.
Giles, a co. in the S. part of Tenn., bordering on Ala. Pop. 21,494. Co. t. Pulaski.
GIL'-MER, a co. in the N. part of Ga., bordering on Tenn. Pop. 2,536. Co. t. Ellejay.
Gilolo, je-lol-lo, the largest of the Molucca islands, between 1° S. and 2° 10' N. Lat., and 127° and 129° E. Lon. In shape, it somewhat resembles a bird's foot; consisting of four lobes, of which the northern is considerably the largest. Its length, from N. to. S., is about 220 m.; the greatest breadth of the northern lobe is near 50 in. Like the other Moluccas, it is dependent on the Dutch. (See Moluccas.)
Girgen, jéér/-jeh (written by the French, Djird jeh), a considerable t., formerly the cap. of Upper Egypt, situated on the left bank of the Nile. Lat. 26° 22 N., Lon. 31° 55' E. Pop. 7,000. (B.)
GIRGENTI, jéér-jen/-te (Anc. Agrigen'tum), a t. of Sicily, the cap. of a prov. of the same name, situated near the S. W. coast, about a mile from the ruins of the ancient Agrigentum. Lat. 37° 19' N., Lon. 13° 34' E. Pop. about 15,000. (B.) On the site of the ancient town, called, by the present inhabitants, Girgenti Vecchio (vek/-ke-o) or Old Girgenti, are to be seen a great number of interesting ruins; the temple of Concord, having been converted into a Christian church, is still alınost entire.
GIRONDE, je-rond!, (Fr. pron. zhe'-rond'), a r. or estnary of France, formed by the union of the Garonne and Dordogne, flowing into the Bay of Biscay. Its length is about 45 m.; its breadth varies from about 2 to 7 m.
GIRONDE, a dep. in the S. W. part of France, lying on both sides of the r. Gironde, and bordering on the Bay of Biscay. Pop. 555,809. (B.) Capital, Bordeaux.
GIZEH. See GHEEZEH.