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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng.

Gur-wÅL', a prov. in the N. of Hindostan, bordering on the Himalaya Mountains.

GÜSTROW, güsl-trov, a t. of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Lat. 53° 47' N., Lon. 12° 18' E. Pop. 8,400. (B.)

GUYANA or GUAYANA. See GUIANA.

GUYANDOTT,gi-an-dot', a r. in the W. part of Va., which flows into the Ohio.

Guz'-ER-AT', a prov. in the W. of Hindostan, bordering on the sea, and situated partly between the Gulf of Cambay and the Gulf of Cutch.

GWIN-NETT), a co. towards the N. part of Ga., bordering on the Chattahoochee r. Pop. 10,804. Co. t. Lawrenceville.

Gyula. See KARLSBURG,

merce.

HAARLEM, HAERLEM, or HARLEM, håår/-lem, a city of the Netherlands, cap. of North Holland, situated about 11 m. W. of Amsterdam, on the navigable river Spaaren (spåårl-en), which runs from the lake of Haarlem into the river Y. It is fortified in the old style, and was formerly considered a place of great strength. Haarlem was a flourishing manufacturing town in the middle of the 12th century, and acted an important part in the wars between the Dutch and Frieslanders. It attained its highest prosperity in the 17th century, since which time it has greatly declined. Its manufactures, once among the most celebrated in Europe, have fallen into decay. It is still renowned for its gardens, the flowers from which constitute an important object of com

Haarlem possesses a number of literary and scientific institutions, among which are an anatomical theatre, an academy of painting, sculpture, and architecture, a public library, and a fine botanic garden. Lat. 52° 23' N., Lon. 4° 38' E Pop, about 22,000. (B.)

HAARLEMMER MEER, håår!-lem-mer mair, or THE LAKE OF HAARLEM, situated between the town of Haarlem and Amsterdam, is about 18 m. long, and from 4 to 7 wide, but is said to be only 6 ft. deep.

HABANA. See Havana.

HAB-ER-SHẠM, a co. near the N. E. extremity of Ga. Pop. 7,961. Co. t. Clarksville.

Had'-DING-Tợn, the cap. of Haddingtonshire, situated about 17 m. E. of Edinburgh. Here the celebrated John Knox was born. Pop. 2,786.

HAD-DING-TON-SHIRE or East Lothian (lo'-the-ạn), a co. in the E. part of Scotland, S. of, and bordering on the Frith of Forth. Pop. 35,886.

Had-RA-MAUT', a prov. of Arabia, situated E. of Yemen, and bordering on the sea. HAERLEM. See HAARLEM.

Haff, håf, a name used on the German coast of the Baltic, for an expanse of water communicating with the sea, but nearly enclosed by land.

HA-GERS-TOWN, the cap. of Washington co., Md., 68 m. N. N. W. of Washington, situated at the termination of the Cumberland Valley

Fåte, får, fall, fåt; me, mit; plne or pine, pin; no, nôt; õó as in good : Railroad, by which it is connected with Harrisburg. Lat. 39° 37' N., Jon. 77° 35' W. Pop. 7,197; in 1830 it was only 3,371.

Hague, haig, (Dutch, S'Gravenhaag, s'grå-ven-hååg/,) a large and beautiful town in the Netherlands, the cap. of South Holland, is situated about 3 m. from the sea ; communicating, by means of canals, with all the principal places of the kingdom. It is not regularly fortified, but surrounded with a moat, with drawbridges over it. Many of the streets are planted with rows of trees, and paved with coloured bricks. Among the remarkable buildings may be mentioned, the king's palace, distinguished rather for its great dimensions than for the beauty of its architecture; and the palace of the Prince of Orange. The Hague contains a royal museum, with a gallery of paintings, a royal library, and various other literary and scientific institutions. This place, though traversed by a great number of canals, has but little commerce, and its manufactures are not numerous; its importance is chiefly owing to its having been the cap. of the Netherlands, and to its still being one of the residences of the king, and the seat of the supreme court of justice of the kingdom. S'Gravenhaag signifies literally “the count's wood,". and appears to have owed its origin to a hunting seat of the counts of Holland, situated in a wood. This, however, became a palace as early as 1250, and around it many other houses were soon erected. The Hague is about 32 m. S. W. of Amsterdam. Lat. 52° 5' N., Lon. 4° 16' E. Pop. above 55,000. (B.)

HAGUENAU, åg'-nõl, a t. in the N. E. part of France, in the dep. of Lower Rhine, 17 m. N. of Strasburg. Pop. about 8,000. (M.)

HAJAR or HADJAR. See LaHSA.

HAYnan, hi-nan', an important i. in the China Sea, near the S. extremity of the prov. of Canton (Quang-tong), to which it belongs, and from which it is divided by the channel of the Junks, which is only 15 or 16 m. wide. (P. C.) It lies between 18° 10' and 20° 6' N. Lat., and 108° 30' and 111° 5' E. Lon. Length about 180 m.; greatest breadth about 100 m. The area is estimated at above 16,000 sq. m. Khioong-tcheco (ke-oongl-cheoo'), the cap., situated on the N. coast, is said to contain 200,000 inhabitants. (P. C.) The interior is occupied by independent savages.

Hainault, a-no', (Flem. Henegonwen, hen-e-Houl-Wen,) a prov. in the S. of Belgium, bordering on France. The area is 1,438 sq. m. Pop. in 1830, 604,957. (P. C.)

HALBERSTADT, hảll-ber-stått', a t. of Germany, in the Prussian government of Magdeburg, cap. of a circle of the same name. number of institutions for education, and a superb cathedral, dedicated to St. Stephen. Lat. 51° 54' N., Lon. 11° 4' E. Pop. about 17,000. (B.)

HALEB. See ALEPPO.

Hall-1-FAX, a t. of England, in the W. Riding of Yorkshire, situated near the junction of the Rochdale Canal with the r. Calder, 22 m. N. E. of Manchester. It ranks next to Leeds and Bradford as a seat of the woollen and worsted manufactures. Pop. of the borough, including

It has a

ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. the township of Halifax, and parts of the townships of N. and S. Owram, 26,694.

Halifax, the cap. of Nova Scotin, situated on Chebucto Bay, with a harbour spacious, secure, and accessible at all seasons of the year. It is regularly built, with wide and straight streets, though the houses are mostly of wood. Among the public editices, the most remarkable is the Province Building, said to be the finest structure in British America. It contains chambers of meeting for the legislative bodies, the custom-house, the offices of the provincial government, and the superior law courts. Halifax contains a well-appointed naval arsenal, and a harbour sufficiently large for 1,000 vessels to ride in safety, which is the ordinary station of the navy in time of war. This town has a college and several other institutions for education. Lat. 44° 40' N., Lon. 63° 37' W. Pop, in 1833, exclusive of the military, about 18,000. (M.)

Halifax, a co. in the S. part of Va., bordering on N C. and the r. Staunton. Pop. 25,936. Seat of justice, Halifax c. h.

Halifax, a co. in the N. N. E. part of N. C., bordering on the Roanoke. Pop. 16,865. Co. t. Halifax.

Hall, a co. in the N. part of Ga., intersected by the Chattahoochee. Pop. 7,875. Co. t. Gainesville.

Hall, hall, a t. of Tyrol, with extensive salt-works. The rock-salt is brought from the Salzberg (sålts/-běrg), i. e. “Salt-mountain,” which is 10 m. distant, and above 5,000 ft. in height. Lat. 47° 18' N., Lon. 11° 31' E. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

Hall, Swabian, in the kingdom of Würtemberg, formerly a free imperial city, is situated about 34 m. N. E. of Stuttgart. It contains some valuable salt-works, and about 6,5 inhabitants. (B.)

HALLE, håll-lph, the principal t. in the government of Merseburg, in Prussian Saxony, remarkable for its salt-works and other manufactures, its commerce, and especially for its literary and scientific institutions, among which the University stands pre-eminent. This has above 40 professors; the number of students fluctuates between 800 and 900; at one time it amounted to 1,300. Of the numerous charitable establishments of Halle, the Orphan Asylum (Waisenhaus, wil-zen-house'), founded by Francke, deserves to be particularly mentioned. The workmen engaged in the salt-works are called Hal-ló/-ren (sing. Hallor), and are a peculiar race, distinguished by their physiognomy, costume, and customs, supposed to be descended from the aboriginal inhabitants. They enjoy many privileges and immunities. Lat. 51° 29' N., Lon. 11° 58' E. Pop. of Halle itself, about 17,000 (P. C.); including its immediate environs, 26,000. (B.)

HALLOWELL, holl-lo-well, a flourishing t. of Kennebeck co., Maine, on the r. Kennebeck, 2 m. below Augusta. Lat. 44° 17' N., Lon. 69° 50' W. Pop. of the township, 4,654.

Ham'-BURG (Ger. pron. håm/-bõõrg), the most important emporium, and, after Vienna and Berlin, the largest city of Germany, situated on the N. bank of the Elbe, at its confluence with the Alster (all-ster),

Fåte, får, fäll, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin ; no, nôt; õõ, as in good; about 75 m. from the German Ocean. The origin of this town is attributed to Charlemagne. It had attained to considerable commercial importance at the beginning of the 12th century. In the 13th, it concurred in the formation of the Hanseatic league. (See HANSE Towns.) It suffered extremely from its occupation by the French, during the early part of the present century, especially in 1813 and 1814; in consequence of which, its population was reduced to about 60,000, though it appears, at the present time, to have entirely recovered from the loss which it then sustained. Like most of the old towns of Germany, Hamburg is well fortified. The greater part of the city is irregularly built, and presents but a gloomy appearance, though, in the newer portion, there are several pleasant streets and fine buildings. The most remarkable edifice is, perhaps, the church of St. Michael; it is capable of accommodating 6,000 persons (M.); the steeple is said to be 456 ft. in height. This city contains a number of literary and scientific institutions, among which are two gymnasia, an anatomical institute, a fine botanic garden, and a public library, called the City Library, with nearly 200,000 vols., besides 3,000 manuscripts. Our limits will not permit us to mention even the principal among the multitude of charitable institutions which Hamburg possesses; suffice it to say, that they are on the most liberal plan, and managed in the most exemplary manner. The city of Hamburg, with its territory, constitutes a sovereign state, which is a member of the Germanic confederation. The government is republican. The territory, which contains about 150 sq. m., is bounded on the S. by the Elbe, on all other sides by the Danish possessions of Holstein and Lauenburg. The entire pop., in 1826, according to Balbi, was 148,000. The present pop. of the city is above 122,000. Lat. 55° 33' N., Lon. 9° 59' E.

HAMELN, hå-meln, a t. of Germany, in Hanover, on the Weiser, with a large house of correction. Lat. 52° 5' N., Lon. 9° 20E. Pop. 5,300. (B.)

HAMI-IL-TON, a manufacturing t. of Scotland, in Lanarkshire, on the Clyde, 10 m. S. E. of Glasgow. Pop. 8,876.

Hamilton, a co. in the N. E. part of N. Y., on the head waters of the Hudson. Pop. 1,907.

Hamilton, a co. in the N. part of Florida, bordering on Ga. and the Suwanee. Pop. 1,464. Co. t. Miccotown.

HAMILTON, a co. in the S. E. part of Tenn., bordering on the Tennessee r. Pop. 8,175. Seat of justice, Hamilton c. h.

HAMILTON, a co. forming the S. W. extremity of Ohio. Pop. 80,145. Co. t. Cincinnati.

Hamilton, a co. in the centre of Ind., intersected by the White r. Pop. 9,855. Co. t. Noblesville.

Hamilton, a co. in the S. E. part of Ill., near the Little Wabash r. Pop. 3,945. Co. t. McLeansboro.

Hamm, håmm, a t. of the Prussian states, on the Lippe. Lat. 51° 41' N., Lon. 7° 47' E. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

HAMI-MER-SMITH, a village of England, on the N. bank of the

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. Thames, near London, with a Catholic boarding-school for young ladies (nunnery), and a fine suspension bridge over the r. Thames. Pop. of the parish, 9,888.

Hampl-DỆN, a co. in the S. W. part of Mass., intersected by the Connecticut r. Pop. 37,366. Co. t. Springfield.

Hamp-SHỊRE (i.e. the county of Hants), called also SOUTHAMPTON, a co. in the S. of England, bordering on the English Channel; it includes the Isle of Wight. Pop. 355,004.

HAMPSHIRE, a co. in the W. part of Mass., intersected by the Connecticut r. Pop. 30,897. Co. t. Northampton. HAMPSHIRE, a co. in the N. part of Va., on the Potomac.

Pop. 12,295. Co. t. Romney.

Hanau, hál-noo, the first manufacturing t. in the electorate of HesseCassel, Germany, and the cap. of a prov. of the same name, is situated op the Kinzig (kint-sio), near its junction with the Main. It is a flourishing place, and has an extensive trade. Lat. 50° 9' N., Lon. 8° 52 E. Pop. estimated at above 13,000. (B.)

Han-cock, a co. in the S. E. part of Maine, bordering on the sea. Pop. 28,646. Co. t. Ellsworth.

Hancock, a co. in the N. E. central part of Ga., bordering on the Oconee r. Pop. 9,659. Co. t. Sparta.

HANCOCK, a co. in the S. part of Miss., bordering on Pearl r. and L. Borgne. Pop. 3,367. Co. seat, Shieldsborough.

Hancock, a co. in the N. W. part of Ky., E. of Green r. and bordering on the Ohio. Pop. 2,581. "Co. t. Hawesville.

HANCOCK, a co. in the N. W. part of Ohio, E. of the Miami Canal. Pop. 9,986. Co. t. Findlay.

HANCOCK, a co. in the E. central part of Ind., E. of Indianapolis. Pop. 7,538. Co. t. Greenfield.

HANCOCK, a co. in the W. part of II., bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 9,946. Co. t. Carthage.

HANG-TCHEOO (or -tcheou), a large commercial city of China, situated near the mouth of the r. Tsien-tang, with a harbour; it has fortifications, with a numerous garrison, and a population which is estimated at between 600,000 and 700,000. (B.) Lat. about 30° 10 N., Lon. 119° 12' E.

Hanl-o-VÆR, (Ger. Hannover, hån-nol-ver,) a kingdom in the N. W. of Germany, situated between 51° 18' and 53° 52' N. Lat., and 6° 48' and 11° 40' E. Lon.; bounded on the N. W. by the German Ocean, N. and N. E. by the Elbe (which separates it from the territories of Hamburg, Denmark, and Mecklenburg) and by Mecklenburg, E. and S. E. by Prussia and Brunswick, S. W. by Hesse-Cassel, Lippe, and the Prussian territory of Westphalia, and W. by Holland. It may be regarded as consisting principally of three portions, the two larger of which lie within nearly the same latitudes, and are almost, though not quite, divided from each other by the grand-duchy of Oldenburg; the third is much smaller, and is separated from the more easterly of the other two by the territory of Brunswick. The whole contains an area

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