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Fate, får, fäll, fåt; mė, met; plne or pine, pin; no, nôt; oo as in good; of 14,570 sq. m. Total pop. 1,662,500. (P. C.) The government is a limited monarchy.-Adj. and inhab. Han-o-ve-R-AN.
Hanover, the cap. of the above kingdom, and of the principality of Calenburg, is situated on the r. Leine (lil-neh), which is navigable from the town to its junction with the Weser. The city consists of three parts; the Old Town, the Ægidian New Town, and the New Town on the left bank of the river. The walls, with five gates, were partly levelled in 1780, and laid out in streets. Among the numerous scientific and literary institutions of Hanover, may be cited the Lyceum, and the City Library with 40,000 vols. Lat. 52° 22' N., Lon. 9° 431 E. Pop. above 28,000. (B.)
HANOVER, a t. of Grafton co., N. H., the seat of Dartmouth College, which was founded in 1770, and received its name from the Earl of Dartmouth, one of its principal patrons. It has a library of 16,500 vols.; number of students, 340. The New Hampshire Medical School, founded in 1797, is connected with the above.
HANOVER, a co. in the E. part of Va., N. of Richmond. Pop. 14,968. Seat of justice, Hanover c. h.
HANSE Towns, called also the HANSA and HANSEATIC LEAGUE, a celebrated commercial confederacy, which derives its name from the ancient German word Hanse, signifying an "association for mutual support.” In the middle ages, Hamburg, Lübeck, and afterwards Brunswick, Dantzic, Cologne, Bremen, and a great number of other towns, entered into an alliance, in order to defend their commerce against the numerous banditti and pirates, who then infested Germany and the neighbouring seas. This alliance was termed the Hanseatic League. The confederated or Hanse towns, were each bound to contribute towards maintaining ships and soldiers for their mutual protection, not only against pirates and robbers, but also against the encroachments, oppression, or rapacity of the neighbouring nobles and kings. The number of towns composing the league fluctuated; at one time it is said to have amounted to 85, arnong which were Bergen in Norway, Berlin, Königsberg, and Cracow. This powerful confederacy formed the first systematic plan of commerce known in the middle ages. The cities enjoyed in England the privilege of exporting goods duty free, and in Denmark, of importing them duty free. . Their alliance was coveted, and their hostility feared, by the greatest powers. Several kings were defeated, and one (Magnus of Sweden) was deposed by them. Lübeck was the place of assemblage, and was regarded as the capital of the league, and issued the summons for the regular assemblies of the deputies from all the cities, which were held once in three years; and also for the extraordinary assemblies generally held once in ten years. The epoch of the dissolution of the confederacy may be stated at 1630. However, Hamburg, Lübeck, and Bremen, still constitute an association of a similar character, and, with Frankfort on the Main, are called the free Hanseatic cities of the Germanic confederation.—Adj. HANSE and Han'-SE-AT-IC.
HANTA. See HAMPSHIRE.
ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. HAR'-DJ-MẠN, a co. in the S. W. part of Tenn., bordering on Miss. Pop. 14,563. Co. t. Bolivar.
HARI-DIN, a co. in the S. W. part of Tenn., intersected by the r. Tennessee, and bordering on Miss. and Ala. Pop. 8,245. Co. t. Savannah.
HARDIN, a co. in the N. or N. W. central part of Ky., S. of Louisville. Pop. 16,357. Co. t. Elizabethtown.
Hardin, a co. in the N. W. central part of Ohio, on the sources of the Sciota r. Pop. 4,598. Co. t. Kenton.
Hardin, a co. in the S. E. part of III., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 1,378.
HARD-WICK, a village and port of entry of Ga., in Bryan co., on the W. side of the Ogeechee r.
HAR/-vy, a co. in the N. part of Va., intersected by the S. branch of the Potomac. Pop. 7,622. Co. t. Moorfield.
HARFLEUR, har-flurl, a small t. of France, in the dep. of Lower Seine, about 4 m. E. of Havre de Grace, with which it is connected by a canal.
HAR'-FORD, a co. in the N. E. part of Md., W. of, and bordering on the Susquehanna and Chesapeake Bay. Pop. 17,120. Co. t. Bel-Air.
HARI-LẠN, a co. in the S. E. part of Ky., bordering on Va. Pop. 3,015. Co. t. Mt. Pleasant.
Harl-ris, a co. in the W. part of Ga., bordering on the Chattahoochee r. Pop. 13,933. Co. t. Hamilton.
HARI-RIS-BURG, the cap. of the state of Pa., and seat of justice of Dauphin co., is situated on the E. bank of the Susquehanna, about 94 m., in a straight line, nearly W. from Philadelphia. It stands on the Pennsylvania Canal, and, by means of various railroads, is connected with Chambersburg, Hagerstown, Lancaster, York, Baltimore, and Philadelphia. Lat. 40° 16' N., Lon. 76° 50' W. Pop. 5,980.
HARI-R.-SON, a co. in the N. W. part of Va., on the head waters of the Monongahela. Pop. 17,669. Co. t. Clarkesburg.
HARRISON, a co. in the N. N. E. part of Ky., intersected by the Licking r. Pop. 12,472. Co. t. Cynthiana.
HARRISON, a co. in the E. part of Ohio, a little W. of the Ohio r. Pop. 20,099. Co. t. Cadiz.
HARRISON, a co. in the S. part of Ind., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 12,459. Co. t. Corydon.
HAR/-ROW-GATE, a village of England, in the W. Riding of Yorkshire, celebrated for its mineral springs, situated about 20 m. nearly W. from York. This place is much resorted to, both on account of its sulphurous and its chaly beate springs. The former are regarded as the strongest sulphurous waters in England.
Hart, a co. in the S. W. central part of Ky., intersected by Green r. Pop. 7,031. Co. t. Munfordsville.
HART/-FORD, a co. in the N. part of Conn., intersected by the Connecticut r. Pop. 55,629. HARTFORD, the cap. of the above co., and one of the seats of govern
Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pine, pin; no, not; öð as in good; ment of the state of Conn., is situated on the Connecticut r., at the head of sloop navigation, in the midst of a beautiful and fertile country. Among the institutions of this city, we may mention a retreat for the insane, a deaf and dumb asylum (regarded as the first institution of the kind in the U. S.), and the Washington College, founded in 1824. The State House is in 41° 45' 59'' N. Lat., and 72° 40' 45' W. Lon. Pop. of the city and township, 12,793; of the city alone, 9,463.
HARVARD UNIVERSITY. See CAMBRIDGE.
Harwich, usually pronounced hårl-ridge, a seaport t. of England, in the co. of Essex, 66 m. E. N. E. of London, with a good harbour and a light-house. The name is derived from two Saxon words, here, signifying “army," and wic, a “fortification;" whence it is inferred that it was once the station of a Saxon army. At present the town appears to be on the decline. Pop., including an area of 3 sq. m., 3,829.
HASSELT, håslselt, a t. of Belgium, in the prov. of Limburg, 15 m. W.N. W. of Maestricht. Pop. 7,000. (B.)
HASTINGS, hastel-ings, an ancient seapori town of England, in the co. of Sussex; 54 m. S. S. E. from London. It is one of the Cinque Ports, in importance second only to Dover. In the neighbourhood of this place, Harold IT. was defeated by William the Conqueror, in the year 1066. Lat. 50° 52' N., Lon. 0° 31' E. Pop. 11,617.
Hav-an-A (Sp. pron. å-vål-nå), the cap. of Cuba, is situated on the N. coast of the island. Its harbour, which is very spacious and one of the most secure and commodious in the world, communicates with the sea by a channel rather more than half a mile in length, and from 300 to 350 yards wide, with a depth varying from 8 to 10 fathoms. This charinel is protected by two strong fortresses, and a series of fortifications along both shores. The barbour itself is surrounded by heights which shelter it from every wind. Seen from the entrance of the port, Havana presents a beautiful and charming spectacle, but the interior of the town is far from fulfilling the expectations excited in the traveller by the external view. The streets are narrow, crooked, and generally' unpaved; and, in the rainy season, they are full of mud. The town is defended by numerous fortifications, which, with the advantage of its natural position, render it one of the strongest fortresses in the world. Havana possesses a university, a botanic garden, and various other literary and scientific institutions. In one of the churches of this town are deposited the remains of Christopher Columbus. Lat. 23° 9' N., Lon. 82° 23' W. The pop., including that of the suburbs, was, in 1827, 112,023. (B.)
Havl-ER-FORD-WEST', chief t. of Pembrokeshire, Wales. Lat. 51° 47' N., Lon. 4° 56' W. Pop. 5,941.
HAVERHILL, commonly pronounced hål-ver-il, a flourishing and handsome t. of Mass., in Essex co., situated on the N. bank of the Merrimack, at the head of sloop navigation, about 28 m., in a straight line, N. of Boston, and on the railroad which runs from the Lowel Railroad to Portland, in Maine. Pop. of the township, 4,336.
HAVRE DE GRACE, hảv'r deh grås, or simply Le Havre, leh håv'r, a
ou, as in our; th, as in thin; Tì, as in this; n, nearly like ng. fortified sea port t., and, after Marseilles, the most important commercial c. of France (B.), is situated on the right bank of the Seine, at its mouth, in the dep. of Lower Seine, about 110 m. W. N. W. of Paris. Before the time of Louis XII., it was a mere fishing town, with a small chapel, dedicated to Notre Dame de Grace (our Gracious Lady), and was hence called Le Havre de Grace, or the “haven of grace.” Louis laid the foundation of the importance of the place, since which time it has been gradually advancing to its present distinguished rank among the towns of France. Le Havre is the principal port of Paris; it has regular communication by packets with Southampton, Hamburg, Lisbon, New York, Vera Cruz, and Bahia. Steamboats ply between Le Havre, Rouen, and Paris. This place contains a public library, a museum of natural history, and various other literary and scientific institutions. Lat. 49° 29' N., Lon. 0° 7' E. Pop. in 1836, 25,618. (P. C.)
HAVRE DE GRACE, hav'-er-de-grass', a small t. in Hartford co., Md., situated at the head of Chesa peake Bay, on the railroad between Philadelphia and Baltimore, about 34 m., in a straight line, E. N. E. of the latter city.
Hawaii, hả-wil-ee, also written OwHYHEE, the largest of the Sandwich islands, situated in the Pacific, between 18° 50' and 20° 20' N. Lat., and 154° 45' and 156° 10' W. Lon. Its length is about 100 m.; its greatest breadth, about 90 m. The pop. is estimated at 85,000. For the character and present condition of the inhabitants, see SANDWICH ISLANDS. --Adj. and inhab. HAWAIIAN, hå-wil-yạn.
Hawl-KINS, a co. in the N. E. part of Tenn., intersected by the Clinch and Holston rivers, and bordering on Va. Pop. 15,035. Co. t. Rogersville.
Hayti or Haiti, hal-te, (Fr. Haïti, å-e'-te!,) called also Sr. DoMINGO (do-mingl-go) and His-PAN-L-01-LẠ, next to Cuba the largest of the W. India Islands, is situated between 17° 41' and 19° 59' N. Lat. and 68° 25' and 74° 34' W. Lon. Its extreme length, from E. to W., is about 410 m.; its greatest breadth, from N. to s., is near 160 m. The area is computed at about 25,000 sq. m. The pop. in 1826 was, according to Balbi, 800,000, but some others estimate it considerably higher. Hayti is justly considered the most fertile island in the West Indies. There are several mountain ranges in the interior, the elevation of which has not been ascertained, but it is supposed the highest summits do not fall short of 8,000 feet. This island was discovered by Columbus, in his first voyage, and from him received the name of Hispañola (is-pån-yo'-là), i. e. "Little Spain." It was called, afterwards, St. Domingo, from the town of this name, which was one of the first settlements made on the island. The name of Haïti was given to it by Dessalines, after he had expelled the French in 1803. It is said to be the original Indian name of the island, and to signify “mountainous.” Hayti
, till recently, formed a republic, with a president chosen for life, and assisted by a legislature, consisting of two houses, a senate and a house of representatives. But on the expulsion of the late presidont Boyer, the eastern or Spanish portion of the island separated itself
Fte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin ; no, not; oo, as in good; from the former government, and now constitutes the independent republic of St. Domingo. Port au Prince is the capital of the old, and St. Domingo, of the new republic.-Adj. and inhab. Hal-T/-AN.
Hayl-wood, a co. in the W. part of N. C., bordering on Tenn. Pop. 4,975. Co. t. Waynesville.
HAYWOOD, a co. in the W. part of Tenn., near the Mississippi r. Pop. 13,870. Co. t. Brownsville.
HAZEBROUCK, đz'-brookl, a handsome t. of France, in the dep. of Nord, 135 m. almost due N. from Paris. Lat. 50° 43' N., Lon. 2° 32 E. Pop. 7,674. (P. C.)
Heard, hurd, a co. in the W. part of Ga., intersected by the Chattahoochee, and bordering on Ala. Pop. 5,329. Co. t. Franklin.
HEDRIDES, hebl-rid-'z, or the WESTERN ISLANDS, are scattered in the Atlantic, along the W. coast of Scotland, between 55° 35' and 59° N. Lat., and 5° and 8° W. Lon. Their whole number amounts to nearly 200, but more than one-half are so small or so sterile as not to be inhabited.-Adj. and inhab. IIEB-RID-E-ẠN (Scott).
HECHINGEN, heki-ing-çn, a small t. of Germany, cap. of HohenzuilernHechingen. Lat. 45° 21' N., Lon. 8° 59' E. Pop. about 3,000. (B.)
HECLA. See ICELAND.
Hedjaz, hej'-åz', sometimes written HEDSJAZ, a country of Arabia, extending along the Red Sea, from Mount Sinai to the frontier of Yemen.
HeIDELBERG, hil-del-biro', an ancient city in the grand-duchy of Baden, on the Neckar, in one of the most beautiful portions of Ger. many. Over the river there is a covered stone bridge, 702 it. long, and 30 ft. wide, which rests upon nine arches. This town has, among other institutions, a celebrated university, founded in 1386, the oldest in Germany, except that at Prague. Its library is said to contain 120,000 vols. The pop. of Heidelberg, though at present increasing, is much less than it was formerly. Lat. 49° 24' N., Lon. 8° 43' E. Number of inhabitants, about 12,000. (P. C.)
HEILBRONN, hile-bronn', a t. of Germany, in Würtemberg, said to have been founded by Charlemagne, and named by him Heilbronn or the "spring of health," from a medicinal spring in the vicinity. Lat. 49° 7' N., Lon. 9° 14' E. Pop. 8,000. (B.)
HEL-E'-NĄ, ST.,* an i. in the Atlantic Ocean, about 1,200 m. W. of the coast of Africa, chiefly interesting as the place of banishment of Napoleon, who was confined here from October, 1815, until his death, which occurred the 5th of May, 1821. James Town, the only town
• Some persons, aiming to be more accurate than ordinary speakers, place the accent on the first syllable-Hel'-e-na. This is unquestionably the correci accentuation of the name of St. Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great; and though it is perhaps probable that the island derived its appellation originally from her, the present pronunciation of its name is so thoroughly established that it would be idle to attempt to change it. It is perhaps scarcely necessary to corroborate, by other authority, what is so universally sanctioned by the practice of our best