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ral literary and scientific institutions; among which is a university, founded in 1672, afterwards abolished, and finally re-established in 1826. Lat. 47° 16' N., Lon. 11°24' E. Pop. about 11,000. (B.) IN-ver-As-Ry, a seaport t of Scotland, cap. of Argyleshire, situated near the head of Loch Fyne, on the W. coast, 25 m. N. W. of Glasgow. Pop. 1,233. INverkeithing, in -ver-kees-Thing, a seaport t of Scotland, in Fifeshire, situated on the N. bank of the Frith of Forth, 10 m. N. W. of Edinburgh. Pop. 1,674. IN'-ver-Ness', a seaport t. of Scotland, cap. of Inverness-shire, on the r. Ness, about a mile above its influx into Moray Frith. It is the principal town, as regards manufactures and commerce, in the N. of Scotland. By means of the Caledonian canal, which connects the North Sea with the Atlantic, Inverness has an almost direct communication with the latter. Lat. 57°28' N., Lon. 4°12' W. Pop. 9,100. IN'-vKR-NEss'-shur E, the largest co. of Scotland, extends across the island, from the Atlantic to Moray Frith. It also includes the islands of Skye, Harris, N. and S. Uist, &c. Pop. 97,799. IN'-vo-Rus-RY, a t. of Scotland, in Aberdeenshire, at the confluence of the Don and Ury, 16 m. N. W. of Aberdeen, with which town it communicates by means of the Aberdeenshire Canal. Pop. 1,619. IonA, e-o'-na, or Ico-olM-Kill', (the native name is I, pronounced like ee, and signifying “island,”) one of the Hebrides, situated near the W. extremity of the island of Mull, intersected by the parallel of 56° 22' N. Lat., and the meridian of 6° 26' W. Lon. Length about 3 m. It is chiefly interesting on account of its ruins and historical remembrances. While western Europe lay buried in ignorance and barbarity, this island was remarkable as the seat of learning and of the Christian religion, which was introduced near the middle of the 6th century, by St. Columba, a native of Ireland. The name Icolmkill is a contraction of I-Columb-kill, i. e. the “island of Columba's cell or monastery," kill or kil signifying any religious residence. I-o'-N1-A, a co, in the S. W. central part of Mich., intersected.by Grand r. Pop. 1,923. Co. t. Ionia. I-o'-NI-AN Islands, situated along the S.W. coast of Greece, and consisting of the seven principal islands of Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Theaki, Cerigo, and Paxo, form what is termed the Ionian Republic, or the Republic of Seven Islands. The total area is 1,097 sq.m.; the entire pop. in 1836 was 204,266. This republic is under the protection of Great Britain represented by a lord high commissioner, who resides at Corfu, and, with the president of the senate (who represents the executive power of the republic), directs the most important affairs of the state. Corfu is the seat of government. I-os-co (Kanotin), a co. in the E. part of Mich., bordering on Saginaw Bay. Il-o-wa, lately a territory of the U. S., but raised to the rank of a sovereign state by an act passed during the recent session of Congress (1845–6). The boundary of the state of Iowa, which is far less

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extensive than the former territory, is as follows:–Beginning in the middle of the Mississippi, at the mouth of Des Moines r, it extends up the latter to the N. boundary of Mo., thence westwardly along this line to the middle of Missouri r, thence up the middle of the same to the mouth of Big Sioux r., according to Nicollet's map, thenge up the Big Sioux till it is intersected by the parallel of 43° 38' N. Lat., thence eastward along said parallel to the middle of the Mississi pi, thence down the middle of this river to the place of beginning. With these limits Iowa extends from about 40°34 to 43° 38' N. Lat., and from 90° 20' to about 97° W. Lon. Length from E. to W. about 300 m. ; breadth from N. to S. about 210 m. Iowa is divided into 31 counties.” Pop. of the territory, in 1840, 43,112. Iowa, a co. in Wisconsin, bordering on Illinois. Pop. 3,978. IPs'-wich, a t. of England, cap. of the co. of Suffolk, on the Orwell, a branch of the Stour, 63 m. N. E. of London. Pop. of the borough, with an area of nearly 11 sq. m., 25,384. Ipswich, a t. and port of entry of Mass., in Essex co., on a r. of its own name, and on the railroad connecting Boston with Portsmouth, 24 m. in a straight line N. E. of the former city. Lat. 42° 41' N, Lon. 70° 46' W. Pop. of the township, 3,000. IRAK AdueMI, e-rák' àj-eh-me, an extensive prov. in the N. W. central part of Persia, nearly corresponding to the Great Media of the ancients. With the Arabians, Irak signifies Babylonia; Adjemi is their name for the Persians; the appellation of the prov., therefore, signifies “Persian Babylonia.” (M.B.) IRE'-DELL, a co. in the W. part of N. C., E. of, and bordering on the Catawba r. Pop. 15,685. Co. t. Statesville. IRE'-LAND (Gr. Isewn; Lat. Hibernia; Irish, El-rin), a large i. in the N. Atlantic, lying W. of Great Britain, from which it is separated by the North Channel at the N., by the Irish Sea in the middle, and by St. George's Channel at the S. It is situated between 51° 25' and 55° 23' N. Lat., and 5° 27' and 10° 30' W. Lon. Its length, from N. N. E. to S. S.W., is near 300 m.; its greatest breadth, from E. N. E. to W. N.W., 185 m. The area is estimated at 28,800 sq. m. The pop, according to the census of 1831, was 7,767,401 (P. C.); in 1841, it amounted to 8,175,273. (American Almanack.) Formerly, Ireland had a parliament of its own, which was subordinate to that of Great Britain; but, in 1800, the two were united, and afterwards received the title of the Imperial Parliament of Great B and Ireland, while the two countries, thus represented in one legislative assembly, were styled the United Kingdom. Ireland is divided into four provinces, viz.: Ulster in the N., Leinster in the E., Munster in the S., and Connaught in the W. These are subdivided into counties, of which Ulster contains 9,

* Appanoose, Benton, Blackhawk, Buchanan, Cedar, Clayton, Clinton, Davis, Deaware, Des Moines, Dubuque, Fayette, Henry, Iowa, Jackson, Jefferson, Johnson, Jones, Keokuk, Kishkeekosh, Lee, Linn, Louisa, Mahaska, Muscatine, Poweshiek, Scott, Tama, Van Buren, Wapello, Washington.

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Leinster 12, Munster 6, and Connaught 5, amounting in all to 32. The administration of the government is vested chiefly in the lord-lieutenant and privy council, who are appointed by the crown. Dublin is the capital.—Adj. I'-Rish, and Hi-BER/-NI-AN (poetical): inhab. I/-Rish-MAN and Hiben NIAN. IR-koorsk' (Irkutsk), a city of Asiatic Russia, cap. of a government of the same name, and of E. Siberia, on the Angara, which at this lace is about 1,000 ft. wide. The houses are built chiefly of wood. rkootsk contains a number of institutions for education; it also possesses some important manufacturing establishments and an extensive trade, being the great entrepôt for the commerce of the N. E. of Asia. Lat. 52° 16' N., Lon. 104° 20' E. Balbi estimates the pop. at not less than 25,000. IR-o-quois', a co. in the E. part of Ill., bordering on Ind. Pop. 1,695. Co. t. Montgomery. IR'-RA-w Ros-Dy (or Irrawadi) i. e. the “great river,” a large r. of Asia, which is supposed to have its source in Thibet, near the E. extremity of the Himalaya Mountains. Its general course is S., and after traversing the whole length of the Birman empire, it empties itself into the Gulf of Martaban, by several mouths. The entire length is estimated at 1,200 m. It may be ascended at all seasons of the year, by vessels of 200 tons, as far as Ava, near 22° N. Lat. and 96° E. Lon., a distance of perhaps 450 m., and, during the rainy season, several hundred miles further. From the apex of the Delta to some distance above Ava, the breadth of the Irrawaddy is seldom less than 1 m., and is sometimes 4 m. IR-Tyshl or IRtish (Russ, pron. ÉéR-tish'), a r. in the N. W. part of Asia, which rises in the Chinese empire, and flowing through the lake Saisan or Dzaisan, falls into the Oby, in the Russian government of Tobolsk. Its whole length is perhaps 1,500 m. IR/-vine, a seaport t of Scotland, in Ayrshire, situated on a r. of the same name, the estuary of which forms its harbour. It is about 23 m. S.W. of Glasgow. Pop. of the parish, 5,214. IR/-well, a r. of Lancashire, in the N.W. of England, which flows into the Mersey. IR/-win, a co. in the S. part of Ga., bordering on the Ocmulgeer. Pop. 2,038. Co. t. Irwinsville. IS-A-BEL/-LA, a co. near the centre of Mich. IschiA, is/-ke-à, (Anc. AEn Inar'ime, and Pithecussae,) a fertile and beautiful i. in the Mediterranean, belonging to the kingdom of Naples, situated scarcely 8 m. from the promontory of Misenum. It is about 7 m. long, and has an area of 21 sq. m. Pop, about 24,000. Ischia, the principal town, stands on the eastern part of the island, in Lat. 40° 43' N., Lon. 13° 56' E, and contains about 3,000 inhabitants. (M.) Iser or Is AR, eel-zer, a r. of Bavaria, which rises on the borders of Tyrol, and, flowing north-easterly, falls into the Danube. Its whole length is perhaps 150 m.

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Isère, e-zare', a small r. which rises in Savoy, and, flowing through the French dep. of its own name, falls into the Rhone. Isère, a dep. in the S. E. part of France, bordering on the Rhone and the duchy of Savoy. Pop. 573,643, (B.) Capital, Grenoble. Iserlohn, ee-zer-lône', a t. of Westphalia, about 45 m. N. E. of Cologne. In its vicinity are rich mines of calamine, which furnish the material for several of its numerous manufactures. Pop. 6,000. (B.) Isis. See THAMEs. Iskenderoon. See Alexandrett A. IslamAbAD, is-lām-a-bād', a t. of British India, cap. of the dist of Chittagong, situated near the E. coast of the Bay of Bengal. Lat. 22° 20 N., Lon. 91° 45' E. Pop. 12,000. (M.) Isla, 1'-la, or Islay, is-l'A, the most southern of the Hebrides. It is about 26 m. long, and 20 m. broad. This island, together with those of Jura and Colonsay, belong to Argyleshire, and form the dist. of Isla, the pop. of which amounts to 18,071. Isle of FRANCE. See FRANCE, Isle of, and MAURItius. Isle of Wight, a co, in the S. E. part of Va., bordering on James r., near its mouth. Pop. 9,972. Co. t. Smithfield. Isle of Wight. See Wight, Isle of. Iss-LING-Ton, formerly a village of Middlesex co., England, near London. It is now entirely united with the metropolis. IsMAIL, is-mâ-eels, an important fortress of Russia, in Bessarabia, situated on the Kilian arm of the Danube, about 43 m. from the Black Sea. It was taken from the Turks by Suwarrow, in 1790. Lat. 45° 21° N., Lon. 28° 50' E. Pop. 9,000. (P. C.) IsPAHAN, is-pa-hăn', or Isfah AN, (commonly pronounced by the inhabitants spá-hôón',) a celebrated city, formerly the cap. of Persia, situated on the Zenderood, which is said to be about 600 ft. broad at this place, but which is afterwards lost in the sands of the desert. Though still a large city, Ispahan has greatly declined since the time of Abbas the Great, in the 17th century, when its population is said to have amounted to 700,000. At present, however, it appears to be rising slowly from its decay. Balbi estimates the number of its inhabitants at about 200,000, though many others rate it considerably lower. It is still considered as the first manufacturing and commercial town in Persia. Among the interesting structures of Ispahan, we may briefly notice, the royal palace, which contains within itself several other remarkable edifices; and the numerous noble bridges built over the Zenderood, some of which are fallen into stately ruins, while others are still almost entire. This city is the seat of several colleges, among which, that of the Royal Mosque, which may be styled a Mahometan university, is especially distinguished. Lat. 32°24' N., Lon. 51°50' E. Issoire, is -swärt', a small t. of France, in the dep. of Puy de Dôme, 19 m. S. S. E. of Clermont. Pop. 5,741. (M.) Issoudun, is-soo-dun', the most important t in the French dep, of Indre, 19 m. N. E. of Châteauroux. É. 11,654. (P. C.)

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Iso-TRI-3, a peninsula of the Austrian empire, in Illyria, formed by the Gulfs of Trieste and Fiume, bounded on the N. by Carniola. Its-A-LY (Lat. Ital/ia; It pron. c-ta/-le-ä); a fertile and beautiful country of Europe, remarkable as the seat of the ancient Roman empire, and as the nursery of learning and the arts in the middle ages, is principally formed of a peninsula between the Mediterranean and the Adriatic, which extends from 37° 56' to about 45° N. Lat., and from about 9° to 18° 30' E. Lon. In figure it resembles a boot, of which the heel forms the S. E., and the top the N. W. extremity. Its length is about 600 m.; its greatest breadth (measuring from Ancona to the little point of land S.W. of the mouth of the river Albegna, Albane'-yā), is about 150 m. Besides the above peninsula, Italy includes a considerable territory N. of it, extending as far as 46° 40' N. Lat. Considered according to its natural limits, the northern part of Italy comprehends all the southern declivity of the Alps, from the branch called the Cottian to that called the Julian Alps. But these national limits have been modified by political boundaries; so that at present this country is considered to extend from the Gulf of Trieste on the E. to the Rhone on the W. The boundary, however, does not follow this river farther S. than about 45° 38' N. Lat. Italy then, in the most extensive application of the name, will reach from 37° 56' to 46°40' N. Lat., and from about 5° 40' to 18° 30' E. Lon. The greatest breadth of the northern part, measuring nearly from E. to W., is about 380 m. The total area is estimated at about 100,000 sq. m. The population may be stated in round numbers at 20,500,000. Italy, with its dependent islands, is distributed, according to Balbi, into 13 political divisions; viz., Austrian Italy, Swiss Italy, the kingdom of Sardinia, the principality of Monaco, the duchies of Parma, Modena, and Lucca, the grand-duchy of Tuscany, the republic of San Marino, the Papal State, the kingdom of the two Sicilies, French Italy (the island of Corsica), and English Italy (the islands of Malta, Gozzo, &c.) These will be treated of under their respective names.—Adj. and inhab. ITALIAN, e-tal/-yun. ITALY, Austrian, comprehends the N. E. portion of this country, and includes what is termed the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, and, according to some geographers, the gov. of Trieste; but the latter more so belongs to Illyria, of which kingdom it forms a part. Austrian taly, in its strictest signification, extends from about 44° 48' to 46° 40' N. Lat., and from 8° 32' to Jo 44' E. Lon., being bounded on the N.W. and N. by Switzerland, Tyrol, and Illyria, E. by Illyria and the Adriatic, S., S. W., and W. by the Papal State, Parma, Modena, and the Sardinian territories. Length near 250 m.; greatest breadth above 120 m. The area is 18,063 sq. m. Pop. about 4,700,000. (M.) Milan is the seat of government. ITALY, Swiss, comprehends that part of Switzerland in which the Italian is the prevailing language; namely, the canton of Tessin or Ticino, and some portions of Grisons and Valais. ItAPICURu, e-tá-pe-koo-roo', a r. in the N. E. part of Brazil, which

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