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rises in about 6° 30' S. Lat., and 46° W. Lon., and, flowing north-easterly, falls into the Bay of San Jose, at the mouth of the r. Maranham, near 2°40 S. Lat., and 44° W. Lon. Length above 400 m. IT-A-w AM/-BA, a co. in the N. E. part of Miss., bordering on Åla. Pop. 5,375. Co. seat, Fulton. ITHAcA. See TheAki. ITH'-3-cy, a flourishing t. of N. Y., cap. of Tomkins co., situated near the S. extremity of the Cayuga Lake, at the termination of the Ithaca and Owego Railroad, about 34 m., in a straight line, S. of Auburn. During the summer season a steamboat plies daily between this place and the village of Cayuga, near the N. extremity of the lake. Pop. of the township, 5,650. Ivica, Iviza, or Ibiza, e-vees-sā or e-vee-thi, (Anc. Ebusus,) one of the Balearic Islands, situated about 46 m. S. W. of the nearest part of Majorca, between 38° 50' and 39° 7' N. Lat., and 1° 22' and 1° 46' E. Lon. It is about 25 m. long; its greatest breadth is near 14 m. Iviga, the cap., situated on the S. E. coast, is fortified, has a harbour, and contains a pop. of about 6,600. (P. C.) The two islands of Iviga and Formentera were anciently called Pityu'ste, a name supposed to be derived from the number of pine trees growing on them ; rotrus (pitus) in Greek signifying a “pine.”—Adj. and inhab. Ivigan, e-vee-san. Ivory Coast, a part of the coast of Guinea, extending from Apollonia, in about 2° 30' to about 7° 30' W. Lon. It owes its name to the great quantities of elephants' teeth brought here from the interior of the continent, to be sold to the European traders. Ivrea, e-vräs-à, (Anc. Epore'dia,) a t. of northern Italy, in the Sardinian dominions, the cap. of a prov. of the same name, is situated on the Dora-Baltea (do'-rá bil-ta/-ä), a branch of the Po, 30 m. N. by E. of Turin. Pop. about 8,000. (P. C.) Iz/-ARD, a co. in the N. part of Ark., bordering on Mo., and intersected by the White r. Pop. 2,244. Seat of justice, Izard c. h.
JAcA, Hà-kā, (Anc. Jac'ca,) a small t. of Spain, in Aragon, important on account of its fortifications. Lat. 42° 31' N., Lon. 0° 32' W. Pop. 3,000. (B.) Jacks-son, a co. in the N.W. part of Va., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 4,890. Seat of justice, Jackson c. h. Jackson, a co. in the N. E. part of Ga., on the head waters of the Oconee. Pop. 8,522. Co. t. Jefferson. Jackson, a co. in the N. part of Florida, W. of, and bordering on the Apalachicola. Pop. 4,681. Co. t. Mariana. Jackson, a co. forming the N. E. extremity of Ala. Pop. 15,715. Co. t. Bellefonte. Jackson, a co. forming the S. E. extremity of Miss. Pop. 1,965. Seat of justice, Jackson c. h. Jackson, a co, in the N. E. part of Ark., bordering on the White r. Pop. 1,540. Co. t. Litchfield.
JAckson, a co. in the N. part of Tenn., bordering on Ky., and intersected by the Cumberland r. Pop. 12,872. Co. t. Gainesborough. Jackson, a co. in the S. S. E. part of Ohio, a little E. of the Scioto r. Pop. 9,744. Co. t. Jackson. JAckson, a co. in the S. part of Mich., intersected by the Central Railroad. Pop. 13,130. Co. t. Jackson. JAckson, a co. in the S. part of Ind., on the E. fork of the White r. Pop. 8,961. Co. t. Brownstown. | JAckson, a co. in the S.W. part of Ill., bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 3,566. Co. t. Brownsville. Jackson, a co. on the western frontier of Mo., bordering on the Missouri r. Pop. 7,612. Co. t. Independence. Jackson, a co. in the E. part of Iowa, bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 1,411. Co. t. Bellevue. JAckson, the cap. of the state of Miss., is a small t. situated in Hinds co., on Pearl r. A railroad, 45 m. in length, connects it with Vicksburg. Lat. 32° 23' N., Lon. 90° 8' W. Jack'-son-ville, the cap. of Morgan co., Ill., situated about 17 m.W. of Springfield, with which town it is connected by a railroad. It is the seat of the Illinois College, founded in 1829. JAEN, Hà-en', a city of Spain, in Andalusia, the cap. of a prov. of the same name, is situated on the Jaen, a tributary of the Guadalquivir, 37 m. N. of Granada. Pop. 19,000. (B.) JAF'-FA, or, more properly, yāf-fa, (Anc. Jop/pa,) a seaport t of Palestine, 32 m. N. W. of Jerusalem. It is said to have been utterly destroyed by an earthquake in 1837. (B.) From the manner in which Joppa is spoken of in the Bible, it appears to have once been a place of considerable importance. Lat. 32° 3' N., Lon. 34° 46' E. Pop., previously to 1837, from 4,000 to 5,000. (B.) JAF-NA-PA-TAM/, a fortified t. on an island of the same name, which * at the N. extremity of Ceylon. Lat. 9° 36' N., Lon. 80° JAGo, St. See SANTIAgo. JAYK or YAYK. See URAL. JAMAICA, ja-mă/-ka, the largest and most valuable of the British W. India Islands, is situated between 17° 44' and 18° 30' N. Lat., and 76° 12' and 78° 25' W. Lon. Its length is about 150 m. ; its greatest breadth is near 50 m. The area is estimated variously, but is probably between 4,000 and 5,000 sq. m. As no complete census has ever been taken, the population is not accurately known. It is, however, estimated at near 400,000. In 1834 there were 297,186 negro slaves (P. C.), all of whom were set free on the 1st of August, 1838. Spanish Town is the capital. JAMEs' BAY. See HUDsoN's BAY. JAMEs City, a co. in the E. part of Va., between James and York rivers. Pop. 3,679. Co. t. Williamsburg. JAMEs River, a r. in Va., which rises in the Alleghany Mountains, and flowing easterly, falls into the Chesapeake Bay, a little S. of the
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37th parallel of N. Lat. Its whole length is estimated at near 600 m. It is navigable for sloops 120 m.; for boats, 230 m. farther. JAMEs, Sr., a parish in the S. E. part of La., N. of, and bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 8,548. Seat of justice, Bringiers. JAMEs'-Town, the oldest European settlement in the U. S., situated on . James r., in the co. of James City. It was founded in 1608, but is said to be now entirely deserted. JANINA, yā'-ne-nā," often written YANINA, formerly an important ti of European Turkey, the cap. of Albania, situated on the W. bank of the lake of the same name, 80 m. W. by N. from Larissa. Twentyfive years ago, under the administration of the able, though tyrannical Ali Pasha, its population amounted to 40,000 (B.), but it is said to be now reduced to about 12,000. Lat. 39° 47' N., Lon. 21° E. JAP-AN' (called Niph-on' by the Japanese; Yang-hoo, and Je-pen or Je-poon by the Chinesei), an empire in the E. part of Asia, consisting of three large and a great number of smaller islands. It is situated between the 30th and 48th parallels of N. Lat. and the 129th and 150th meridians of E. Lon. The three principal islands are Niphon or Nipon, Keooseoo (Kiousiou), and Sitkoks. Keooseoo, the most western, is perhaps 200 m. long, with an average breadth of about 80 m. It is separated by the channel of Boongo, from Sitkokf. This island is estimated to be about 150 m. in length, and 70 m. in its average breadth. Niphon is by far the largest and most important of the Japanese islands. It is situated between 33° 30' and 41° 20' N. Lat., and 131° 20' and 142° 30' E. Lon. Its form is somewhat curved, and has been compared to the jaw-bone of an animal. Its length, following the curve, is nearly 900 m., and its mean breadth is estimated at above 100 m. Among the dependencies of Japan is the large island of Yesso (Jesso), lying N. of Niphon, between 41° and 45° 30' N. Lat., and 140° and 147° E. Lon. It is above 250 m. in length, with a mean breadth of perhaps 100 m. Balbi estimates the area of the Japanese empire at about 240,000 sq. m., and the pop. at 25,000,000. All these islands are very imperfectly known: not even the coasts are laid down with any degree of correctness. This is owing partly to natural and partly to political causes. Nearly all the coasts are very difficult of access, being surrounded by numerous rocks and islands, and by a very shallow sea. On the other hand, the Japanese government and laws are less favourable to intercourse with foreigners than those of any other country on the globe, China not excepted. The Chinese and the Dutch are the only foreign nations with whom the Japanese have any commercial intercourse. Of the three principal islands which constitute Japan Proper, Niphon is the best known. It contains a regular mountain chain, of which the highest summit is said to rise more than 12,000 ft. above the level of the sea. The climate, in a country extending over so • “Unseen is YANINA, though not remote."—Childe Harold, Canto II. + Yang-hoo signifies the “workshop of the sun;" Je-poon, the “country of the rising run." (M. B.)
many parallels of latitude, must of course vary extremely. As a general remark, the weather in the Japanese islands inay be said to be exceedingly changeable; rains are abundant all the year round, but especially so in the months of June and July. Violent gales and thunder-storms are common, and water-spouts are stated to be of frequent occurrence in the adjoining seas... Earthquakes have at different times : destroyed a great part of the most populous towns. Only a few spots appear to be exempt from these terrible phenomena. Japan abounds in mineral wealth. Gold appears to be very plentiful in some of the provinces. Copper is extensively worked, and supplies the most important article of export. In no part of the world is agriculture carried to a higher degree of perfection than in Japan. The raising of rice is the principal object, but wheat, barley, and rye are also cultivated, though to a much sinaller extent. The orchards are stocked with the fruittrees of southern Europe, such as oranges, lemons, figs, chesnuts, pears, peaches, cherries, and grapes. Apples are not mentioned among the number of Japanese fruits. In their physical character, the people of Japan resemble the Chinese, belonging to the Mongolian race. Their complexion is yellowish; their hair is black, thick, and shining, and their eyes are small, oblong, and deeply sunk in the head. In point of capacity and industry, they appear to be inferior to none of the Asiatic nations. In education, especially in institutions for the instruction of the lower classes, they are perhaps equal to any people on the globe. Unlike the Chinese, whose unreasonable pride contemns all knowledge which has not originated with themselves, the Japanese adopt with willingness, and even avidity, the arts and sciences of Europe; but, unhappily, the government seems to do all in its power to check this tendency in the people. The higher classes appear generally to understand the Dutch language, and, through the newspapers of Holland, they become acquainted with the important occurrences as they transpire in Europe. The Japanese have adopted the European method in the projection and graduation of their maps and charts. They construct excellent clocks and watches; they also make telescopes and thermometers. Their lacker-ware is superior to that of every other country, and hence the name of “Japan,” by which this manufacture is so generally known. As an evidence of the superior civilization of the Japanese, we may adduce the great attention which is paid to female education, and the general respect shown to that sex—a respect which is without a parallel among the nations of Asia. In their moral charac. ter, the people of Japan are represented as manly, honest, and brave, and as entertaining a high sense of honour. The prevailing religion is Boodhism, variously modified by other superstitions. The government is despotic; but the emperor himself is considered as subject to the laws, which are of long standing and cannot be easily changed. Yeddo (Jeddo) on the island of Niphon, is the capital.—Adj. and inhab. JAP-AN-ESE'. JAPAN, SEA of, is situated between the Japanese islands and the E. coast of Asia, extending from about 34° to 52° N. Lat. (if we include
the Gulf of Tartary, at the N. extremity), and from 127° 20' to 1422 E. Lon. Its length is about 1,400 m.; greatest breadth above 500 m. JAPURA, Hà-poo'-rà, (sometimes written Hyapura and Yupura; called also, in the upper part of its course, the Caqueta, kā-kā/-tä,) a large r. of S. America, which rises in New Granada, and, flowing south-easterly into Brazil, empties itself into the Amazon, in about 3° 30' S. Lat., and 75° W. Lon. Its whole length may be estimated at 1,200 m. JARoslaw, yárs-o-slåv", a manufacturing and commercial t. of Austrian Galicia, situated on the San, a branch of the Vistula, 16 m. N. N. W. of Przemysl. Pop. 8,000. (B.) JARoslaw (Russia). See YARosLAF. JAs'-PER, a co, near the centre of Ga., bordering on the Ocmulgee. Pop. 11,111. Co. t. Monticello. JAsper, a co. in the S. E. central part of Miss. Pop. 3,958. Co. seat, Paulding. Jasper, a co. in the N. W. part of Ind., bordering on Ill. Pop. 1,267. Jasper, a co. in the S. E. part of Ill., N. W. of Vincennes. Pop. 1,472. Co. t. Newton. JAspen, a co, near the S. W. extremity of Mo., bordering on the Indian Territory. JAssy, yáss-se (Ger. Jasch, yāsh), a t. of European Turkey, cap. of Moldavia, situated about 12 m. W. of the Pruth, on a small stream which flows into that river. Before the late war, and the two conflagrations of 1827, its population was estimated at near 40,000 (B.); at present it is said to amount to scarcely half this number. Jassy possesses considerable trade: it is, moreover, the seat of a Greek archbishopric. Lat. 47°8' N., Lon. 27°30' E. JaszberéNY, yååss-bā-raisi, a t. of Hungary, about 40 m. E. of Pesth. Pop. 15,530. (M.) JAuER, you'-er, a t. of Prussian Silesia, the cap. of a circle of the same name. Lat. 51° 2' N., Lon. 16° 13' E. Pop. 5,400. (B.) JAvA, jà-va, a large and fertile i. of Malaisia, situated between 5° 50 and 8° 50' S. Lat., and 105° 10' and 114° 30' E. Lon. Its length is about 660 m.; its greatest breadth is above 130 m. The island of Madura (mà-doo'-ra), near the N. E. extremity of Java, is commonly included with the latter. It is about 90 m. long, and 30 m. wide, and is separated from Java by the Strait of Madura, which, in the narrowest part, is only 1 m. wide. The area of both is estimated at 50,000 sq. m. The pop. in 1815, amounted to about 4,620,000 (P. C.); at present, it probably exceeds 5,000,000. The greatest part of Java is in possession of the Dutch. Batavia is their capital. The S. coast and the adjacent countries are subject to two native princes, whose dominions occupy about one-fourth of the whole island. One of these sovereigns, called Soo-soo-hoo'nān, or emperor, has his residence at Soorakerta, a town containing about 105,000 inhabitants (P. C.); Yugyakerta (or, as some write it, Djokjo-kerta), the capital of the other ince, or sultan, stands near the southern coast, in about 110° 20' E. H. Pop. 90,000. The native Javanese belong to the Malay race;