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in civilization, they are much superior to all other nations of Malaisia. In some kinds of manufacture, and especially in agriculture, they possess considerable skill, though they are inferior, in these respects, to the Chinese, and perhaps to the Hindoos. Their religion is a mixture of Mahometism and Boodhism. Java is extremely well adapted for an extensive commerce. The island itself not only abounds in the various productions common to the tropics, but the northern coasts, which lie opposite to the richest countries of Asia, are accessible to vessels all the year round. Besides this, the Dutch government has made it the centre of all the trade which Holland carries on with its extensive settlements in the Indian Archipelago. Favoured by these circumstances, the commerce of Java has increased astonishingly within the last few years. From 1828 to 1837, inclusive, the amount of almost every important article exported, augmented regularly and rapidly; that of nutmegs and rice was more than doubled, that of coffee trebled, while there was more than 30 times as much indigo, and about 26 times as much sugar exported in 1837 as in 1828–Adj. and inhab. JAvo-AN-ESE'. JAy, a co. in the E. part of Ind., bordering on Ohio. Pop. 3,863. Co. t. Portland. JEAN D'ANGELY, SAINT, såN zhāN dāNzh'-le', (Lat. Angeriacum,) an ancient t. of France, in the dep. of Lower Charente. It was, during the decline of the western Roman empire, the residence of the dukes of Aquitaine. Lat. 45° 57° N., Lon. 0° 31' W. Pop. 5,342. (M.) Jedburgh, jed-bur-reh, a t. of Scotland, cap. of the co. of Roxburgh, on the r. Jed, 2 m. above its junction with the Teviot, and 40 m. S. E. of Edinburgh. Pop. of the parish, 5,116. JEDDo. See YEDDo. Jefl-FER-son, a co. in the N. part of N.Y., bordering on L. Ontario and the St. Lawrence. Pop. 60,984. Co. t. Watertown. JEFFERson, a co. in the N. W. part of Pa., a little E. of the Alleghany r. Pop. 7,253. , Co. t. Brookville. Jefferson, a co. in the N. E. part of Va., bordering on the Potomac. Pop. 14,0S2. Co. t. Charleston. JEFFERson, a co. in the E. part of Ga., intersected by the Ogeechee. Pop. 7,254. Co. t. Louisville. Jefferson, a co. in the N. part of Florida, bordering on the state of Ga. and the sea. Pop. 5,713. Co. t. Monticello. JEFFERson, a co. in the N. central part of Ala., on the Black Warrior r. Pop. 7,131. Co. t. Elyton. JEFFERson, a co. in the S. W. part of Miss., bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 11,650. Co. seat, Fayette. JEFFERson, a parish in the S. E. part of La., extending from L. Pontson to the Gulf of Mexico. Pop. 10,470. Seat of justice, Laayette. JEFFERson, a co. in the S. E. central part of Ark., intersected by the Arkansas r. Pop. 2,566. Co. t. Pinebluff. JEFFERson, a co. in the E. part of Tenn., on the Holston and French Broad rivers. Pop. 12,076. Co. t. Dandridge.
ou, as in our; th, as in thin; the as in this; N, nearly like ng. JEFFERson, a co. in the N. part of Ky., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 36,346. Co. t. Louisville. JEFFERson, a co. in the E. part of Ohio, bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 25,030. Co. t. Steubenville. JEFFERson, a co. in the S. E. part of Ind., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 16,614. Co. t. Madison. Jefferson, a co. in the S. part of Ill., S. of Vandalia. Pop. 5,762. Co. t. Mt. Vernon. Jefferson, a co. in the E. part of Mo., bordering on the Mississippi r. P} 4,296. Co. t. Herculaneum. Efferson, a co. in the S. E. part of Wisconsin. Pop. 914. JEFFERson, a co. in the S. E. part of Iowa. Pop. 2,773. Co. t. Fairfield. JeffeRson City, the cap. of the state of Mo., and seat of justice of Cole co., is a small town situated on the r. Missouri. Lat. 38° 36' N., Lon. 92° 8' W. JEN'-3 (Ger. pron. yo/-nā) a t. of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Saxe-Weimar, with a celebrated university. It was in the neighbourhood of this town that the great battle was fought in 1806, between the French and Prussians, which proved so fatal to the latter. Lat. 50° 56° N., Lon. 11° 37' E. Pop. about 5,000. (B.) JEN'-NINGs, a co. in the S. E. part of Ind., intersected by the railroad which runs from Madison to Columbus. Pop. 8,829. Co. t. Vernon. JER/-sev, an i. in the English Channel, belonging to Great Britain, situated about 13 m. W. of the coast of France. It is above 12 m. long, and has an area of about 62 sq. m., with a pop. of 47,544. Jensey, a co, in the W. part of Ill., bordering on Illinois r. Pop. 4,535. Co. t. Jerseyville. JE-RU'-s'A-LEM (also Kadushah in Heb.; Gr. Kaëvrt; and "I spoooowola ; Lat. Cady'tis and Hierosol'yma; Arab. El-Kāds); a celebrated city of Palestine, remarkable as the ancient capital of Judea, and as the cradle of the Christian religion; and in modern times as the second sanctuary of Mahqmetanism, and as the object and principal theatre of the crusades, which have exercised so extraordinary an influence over the character and destinies of Europe, is situated on a hill, 128 m. S. S. W. of Damascus. It is surrounded by walls of hewn stone, flanked with towers. The edifices and localities within are chiefly interesting for their historical associations; our narrow limits will not o us to notice them in detail. Lat. 31° 48' N., Lon. about 35° 20' Pop. estimated at 30,000. (B.) Jesi, yā/-se, (Anc. AE'sis) a walled t. of Central Italy, 16m. W. S.W. of Ancona. Pop. about 6,000. (M.) Jes'-sy-MINE, a co. in the N. E. central part of Ky., bordering on the Kentucky r. Pop. 9,396. Co. t. Nicholasville. Jesso or YEsso. See JAPAN. Jeypoor, ji'-poor', also written JyePoor, a walled city of Hindostan, the cap. of a principality of the same name, and one of the most regularly built and handsome towns in all India, is situated in a barren
valley about 150 m. S. W. of Delhi. Lat. 26° 55' N., Lon. 75° 50 E. Pop. estimated at 60,000. (M.) }. or DJind A, the port of Mecca, and one of the chief entrepôts for foreign commerce, as well as one of the handsomest towns in Arabia, is situated in the prov. of Hedjaz, on the coast of the Red Sea, about 55 m. W. of Mecca. The pop. is estimated by Rüppell at 40,000 (B.); but it is said to vary greatly at different seasons of the year. Jidda is fortified, and contains a numerous garrison, dependent on the viceroy of Egypt. JoANNINA. See JANINA. Jo DAl-viess, a co. occupying the N. W. extremity of Ill. Pop. 6,180. Co. t. Galena. John Baptist, St., a parish in the S. E. part of La., intersected by the Mississippi, and bordering on the W. extremity of L. Pontchartrain. Pop. 5,776. Seat of justice, Bonnet Carré. John, St., or St. John's River (called by the Indians Looshtook, or the “long river”), the principal stream in New Brunswick, and, after the St. Lawrence, perhaps the finest in British America, rises from several sources near the northern border of Maine, and, flowing in a general south-easterly course, falls into the Bay of Fundy, in about 45° 10' N. Lat., 66° 3' W. Lon. The whole course is estimated at 380 m. It is navigable for vessels of 20 tons about 200 m. John's, St., a city and seaport of New Brunswick, situated on the N. side of St. John's r., near its mouth. Though not the capital, it is the largest and most important town in the colony. It is a free port. Lat. 45° 15' N., Lon. 66° 3' W. Pop. in 1834, 12,885. (M.) John's, St., the cap. of the i. of Newfoundland, situated on the E. coast, is fortified, and has a fine harbour. The pop., during winter, is estimated at from 12,000 to 15,000 (B.), but in summer it is often not nearly so great, as then several thousand persons are sometimes absent on fishing expeditions. Lat. 47° 33' N., Lon. 52°40'W. Job N'-son, a co. in the E. central part of N. C., intersected by the Neuse r. Pop. 10,599. Co. t. Smithfield. Johnson, a co, in the N. W. part of Ark., intersected by the Arkansas r. Pop. 3,433. Seat of justice, Johnson c. h. Johnson, a co. in the S. central part of Ind., on the White r. Pop. 9,352. Co. t. Franklin. Johnson, a co, forming the N. E. extremity of Tenn. Pop. 2,658. Co. t. Taylorsville. Johnson, a co, in the S. part of Ill., bordering on the Ohio. Pop. 3,626. Co. t. Vienna. Johnson, a co. in the W. part of Mo., S. of Missourir. Pop. 4,471. Co. t. Warrensburg. I * a co. in the S.E. of Iowa, intersected by Iowa r. Pop. ,491. Johns'-Ton, a flourishing manufacturing t. of Scotland, in Renfrew. shire, 10 m. W. by S. from Glasgow. Pop. 5,824. Joliba. See Niger.
ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this; N, nearly like ng.
Josks, a co, in the E. part of N. C., S. of the Neuse r. Pop. 4,945. Co. t. Trenton.
JoNes, a co. near the centre of Ga., bordering on the Ocmulgee. Pop. 10,065. Co. t. Clinton.
Jones, a co, in the S.E. part of Miss., intersected by Leaf r. Pop. 1,258. Co. seat, Ellisville.
Jones, a co, in the E. part of Iowa, intersected by the Wapisipinecone r. Pop. 471. Co. t. Edinburg.
Jonköping or JoskjöPING, yons-chö-ping, a t. of Sweden in Gothland, the cap. of a gov. of the same name, situated at the S. extremity of L. Wetter. Lat. 57° 47' N., Lon. 14° 10' E. Pop. 4,000. (B.)
Jood-Poor' or MAR’-war', a state of Hindostan, in Rajpootana, situated between 24° and 28° N. Lat., and 70°20' and 75°30' E. Lon.
Joodroor, the cap. and largest t. of the above state, is situated about 100 m. W. of Ajmere. Pop, estimated at about 60,000. (B.)
Jok'-DAN, a celebrated r. of Palestine, which rises in the Anti-Libanus, or Mount Hermon, and, flowing S. through the L. of Tiberias, empties itself into the Dead Sea. Its length is about 150 m.
or Ullo, Ho-rool'-yo, often pronounced Ho-roo'-yo, a recently formed
volcanic mountain of Mexico, about 70 m. S. W. of Walladolid. In 1759, from the midst of cultivated fields of sugar cane and indigo, a mountain arose in one night 1,600 ft. above the previous level of the #". Flames are said to have issued from an extent of more than alf a square league, while fragments of burning rocks were thrown up to a prodigious height, and through a thick cloud of ashes, illumined by volcanic fire, the softened surface of the earth was seen to swell like an agitated sea. The numerous apertures of this volcanic mass, which is 3 or 4 iniles in extent, continue still, it is said, to emit smoke. Lat. 18° 45' N., Lon. 101° 30' W.
Joseph, St., a co. in the S. part of Mich., bordering on Ind., and intersected by the St. Joseph's r. Pop. 7,068. Co. t. Centreville.
Joseph, Sr., a co, in the N. part of Ind., intersected by St. Joseph's r., bordering on Mich. Pop. 6,425. Co. t. South Bend.
Joseph's, Sr., a r. which rises in the S. part of Mich., and flowing into Ind., afterwards returns into Mich., and empties itself into L. Michigan.—Another small r. of the same name rises in the S. part of Mich., near the sources of the above, and flowing into Ind., unites with St. Mary's r. to form the Maumee.
Joudpoor. See JoodPoon.
JUAN, St. See SAN Juan.
Jus-AN FER-NAN'-dez (Sp. pron. Hoo-An' for-nān'-deth), a group of islands in the S. Pacific, situated about 400 m. W. of the coast of Chili, near 33° 40′ S. Lat., and 79° W. Lon. The largest one, called Juan Fernandez, from the name of the discoverer, is 10 or 12 m. in length, and perhaps 6 in breadth. It is chiefly remarkable for having been, in the 17th century, the solitary residence of Alexander Selkirk, during a period of more than four years.
Jug-gon-NAut', a t. and celebrated temple of Hindostan, and one of
the principal places of Hindoo pilgrimage, is situated in the prov. of Orissa, on the sea-coast, 260 m. S. W. of Calcutta. The temple of Juggernaut is said to be regarded by the natives as the most sacred religious establishment in all India. Lat. 19° 49' N., Lon. 85°54' E. Permanent pop. estimated at 30,000. (B.) Jujuy, hoo-hwee', a state of S. America, formerly belonging to the confederation of La Plata, but which is now entirely separated, and may be regarded as an independent republic. (B.) It is situated on a river of the same name, which flows into the Vermejo, near 23° S. Lat. and 62° W. Lon. Juliers, zhū’-le-A", (Ger. Jülich, yoo'-lik.) an ancient t. and fortress of Rhenish Prussia, situated about 23 m. W. of Cologne. Pop., exclusive of the military, 2,800. (B.) JUM!-NA, a r. of Hindostan, the principal tributary of the Ganges, rises on the S. W. declivity of the Himalayas, near 31° N. Lat., and 78° 30' E. Lon., and flowing at first in a southerly, and afterwards south-easterly direction, joins the Ganges at Allahabad, where its breadth is quite as great as that of the latter river. Its whole length is estimated at 780 m. JUNGFRAU, yoong'-frou,” (i. e. the “virgin,”) or the “Virgin Mountain,”f a magnificent and lofty mountain of Switzerland, in the canton of Bern, surrounded by formidable rocks and precipices, in consequence of which it was formerly deemed inaccessible. Height, 2,145 toises, or 13,719 ft. above the level of the sea. Lat. 46° 33' N., Lon. 7°57' E. Ju'-NI-At-A, a r. of Pa., which rises in the S. central part of the state, and, flowing easterly, falls into the Susquehanna, about 14 m. above Harrisburg. JUNIATA, a co, in the S. central part of Pa., intersected by the above r. Pop. 11,080. Co. t. Mifflin. Ju'-RA, an i. of Scotland, one of the Hebrides, lying W. of Argyleshire, of which county it forms a part. It is about 26 m. in length, and near 9 m. in its greatest breadth. JURA, a mountain chain of Europe, which commences near Geneva, and runs northward along the frontier of France and Switzerland. The whole length is perhaps 160 m., and the average breadth about 30 m. The culminating point of this chain is Le Recullet (ler' kül'-lès) in the French dep, of Ain, which is only about 880 toises, or 5,628 ft. above the level of the sea. JURA (Fr. pron. zhū-rā'), a dep, in the E. of France, bordering on Switzerland. It derives its name from the Jura Mountains, by which it is traversed. Pop. 315,355. Capital, Lons-le-Saulnier. JUT'-LAND (Dan. Jylland, yül'-land), a territory of Denmark, which formerly occupied the whole peninsula, between the Baltic, the Catte
* “But I have seen the soaring Jungfrau rear Her never trodden snow."—Childe Harold, Canto IV.
f"The Virgin Mountain wearing like a queen A brilliant crown of everlasting snow."—Wordsworth.