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Fate, får, fåll, fåt; me, mét; pine or pine, pin; nd, not; öö, as in good;

MER/-1-on-ETH-SHIRE, a co. in the N. W. part of Wales, bordering on the sea. Pop. 39,332.

MER/-8-WETH-ER, a co. in the W. part of Ga., bordering on the Flint r., near its source. Pop. 14.132. .Co. t. Greeneville.

MERI-RJ-MACK', a r. of New England, which rises in the N. central part of New Hampshire, and, flowing southerly into Massachusetts, afterwards changes its course to the N. E., and empties itself into the Atlantic about 20 m. S. of Portsmouth. Its whole length is near 200 m. The navigation is obstructed, especially in the upper part of its course, by a number of rapids and falls.

Merrimack or MAR-A-MEC, a r. of Mo., which falls into the Mississippi about 20 m. below St. Louis.

MERRIMACK, a co. in the S. central part of N. H., intersected by the Merrimack r. Pop. 36,253. Co. t. Concord.

MER!-SE-BURG (Ger. pron. mérl-sch-bĐÓRG'), a manufacturing and cominercial t. of Prussian Saxony, the cap. of a gov. of the same name, on the r. Saale, 18 m. W. of Leipsic. It has a fine cathedral, with one of the largest organs in Germany. Lat. 51° 22' N., Lon. 12° E. Pop. above 8,000. (B.)

MER!-SEY, an important r. in the W. N. W. part of England, which flows into the Irish Sea. About 15 m. from its mouth, it expands into an estuary, which, at its broadest part, is about 3 m. wide. The Mersey and Irwell

have been rendered navigable as far as Manchester. MERTHYR TYDvil or Tydfil, mçr/-thịr tid/-vil, a t. of Wales, in Glamorganshire, 19 m. N. by W. of Cardiff, with rich mines of coal and iron ore. It has increased very rapidly within the last few years. Lat. 51° 44' N., Lon. 2° 20' W. Pop. of the entire parish, 34,977.

MĘSH-ED', often written MUSHED, a decayed city of Persia, in Khorassan, remarkable for the mausoleum of Imâm Reza, “ the magnificence of which, with its silver gates, jewelled doors, rails once of solid gold, glittering domes and minarets, and handsome arcades, is almost unequalled in Persia.” (M.) This city carries on considerable trade with the neighbouring towns of central Asia, and has some important manufactures. Lat. 36° 18' N., Lon. 59° 35' E. Pop. 45,000. It is, however, often doubled by the number of pilgrims who visit the shrine of Imâm Reza. (P. C.)

MES-O-PO-TAI-MI-A (Arab. Al Jezira or El-Jez-eel-rch, “the island"), the name given by the ancient Greeks to a country of Asia, which lies between the Euphrates and Tigris. Its length, from N. W. to S. E., is between 600 m. and 700 m.; its greatest breadth is near 200 m. Mesopotamia signifies literally “between the rivers."

MESSINA, mes-seel-nå, (Anc. Zan'cle and Messe' ne or Messa/na,) a fortified city of Sicily, cap. of a prov. of the same name, near the N. E. extremity of the island, with the best harbour in the kingdom of the two Sicilies. The port of Messina is formed by a semicircular strip of land, which, from its resemblance to a sickle, suggested the origina! name of the town; Zancle (in Greek, Zayxan) signifying a "sickle,” or" pruning-hook.” This city contains several remarkable buildings,

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ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; Th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. a royal college, and an extensive public library, which is rich in Greek manuscripts; it also possesses the most extensive commerce and manufactures of all the towns of Sicily. Lat. 38° 14' N., Lon. 15° 35' E. Pop. 60,000. (P. C.)

Metz, mets, (Fr. pron. mace; Anc. Divodu'rum; afterwards Mediomat/rici, and Met/tis or Me'lis,) a city and fortress in the N. E. part of France, the cap. of the dep. of Mo:elle, situated on the Moselle, about 80 m. W. N. W. of Strasburg. The interior of the town is in general handsome; the streets are straight, wide, and well paved. The most remarkable of the public edifices is perhaps the cathedral, a Gothic building remarkable for the boldness anui lightness of its architecture. Its length is about 387 ft., and the height of the tower near 400 ft. Metz contams an académie universitaire, a royal college, a royal academy of letters and arts, a royal practical school of artillery and military engineering (the finest institution of the kind in Europe), a public library of 31,000 vols., and numerous other literary and scientific institutions. Lat. 49° 7' N., Lon. 6° 10' E. Pop. 42,793. (B.)

Meurtue, murt, a dep. in the N. E. part of France, intersected by the r. Moselle. Pop. 424,366. (B.) Capital, Nancy.

Meuse, muze, (Fr. pron. muz; Dutch, Maas, måås; Anc. Mo'sa,) a r. which rises in the N. E. part of France, and, flowing through Belgium and the southern part of Holland, falls into the N. Sea, in about 51° 56' N. Lat., and 4° 3' E. Lon. Above 40 m. from its mouth, its waters unite with those of the Rhine or Whaal, but the stream thus formed still retains the name of Maas. The entire length of this river is estimated at 400 m. It is navigable to Verdun, in France, or about threefourths of its course.

Meuse, a dep. in the N. E. part of France, intersected by the above r., and bordering on Belgium. Pop. 317,701. (B.) Capital, Bar-le-Duc.

MEX-s-co, (Sp. pron. Mëh'he-ko) THE UNITED STATES OF, a federal republic of America, situated between 16° 40' and 42° N. Lat., and 86° 40' and 124° 30' W. Lon.; bounded on the N. and E. by the United States, Texas, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Bay of Honduras; S. and W. by British Yucatan, the united states of Central America, and the Pacific Ocean. Extreme length, from S. E. to N. W., about 2700 m.; greatest breadth, from E. to W., near 1,000 m. The area, including Texas, is estimated by Balbi at about 1,656,000 sq. m., which would leave above 1.300,000 exclusive of that republic. The Mexican confederation consisted, a few years since.* of 19 states and the Federal District, besides several territories, with an immense tract of country which has not been annexed to any of the particular states. The following is a list of the states :-Chiapa (che-d'-på), Yucatan (yoo-kåtin'), Tabasco (ta-bds-ko), Oaxaca (wẫ-Hả?-kẫ), Vera Cruz (và?-rả krooce), Puebla (pweb-la), Mexico, Michoacan (me'-cho-8-kản'), Xa

• Owing to the civil dissensions of the Mexicans and to other causes, it appears to be impossible to obtain any entirely satisfactory information respecting the present political condition of this republic. The pop. is probably about 7,000,000.

Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mé, init; plne or pine, pln; nd, nôt; öð, as in good; lisco or Jalisco (Hi-lees-ko), Guanaxuato (ġ wản-8-Hwa'-to), Queretaro (kér-//-tå-ro), San Luis Potosi (sin loo-is' po-to-see!), Zacatecas (så-kåis/-kås), Durango (doo-rångl-go), Occidente (ok-se-den-t), So-no-ra and Cinaloa (se-nå-lo'-á), Chihuahua (che-wål-wa), Cohahuila (ko-åweel-lå), and Texas (see Texas), Nuevo Leon (nwal-vola-one'), Tamaulipas (tå-mou-lec/-pås). The territories are:--New Mexico, Colima (ko-leel-må), Tlascala (tlås-ká/-lå), and Upper and Lower California. î'he climate of Mexico, as might be expected in a country of such vast extent, varies greatly in different parts. In the neighbourhood of the capital, at an elevation of inore than 7,000 ft. above the sea, the thermometer rarely falls below the freezing point. The winter may be compared to that of Naples, while in summer the temperature is seldom above 75°, in the shade. On the table-land of Toluca (S. S.W. of the city of Mexico), which has an elevation of near 9,000 ft. above the sea, the air is so cold, during the greater part of the day, that the thermometer generally ranges from 42° to 46°, so that even those persons who have been brought up in northern regions, find the climate very unpleasant. (P. C.) In the southern portions of the country, on the low lands, the climate is very hot, as in other intertropical regions. Humboldt has asserted, that in this country may be grown almost all the vegetable productions, which are found between the equator and the poles. Maize constitutes the principal food of the lower classes, and is produced everywhere, even on the highest table-lands, where wheat will not grow. On the low lands, bananas are extensively cultivated, or, to speak more correctly, are produced abundantly, with scarcely any cultivation. “Humboldt affirms that half a hectare (a bout an acre) of land, planted with bananas, will furnish food for more than fifty individuals; whereas the same extent of land, if sown with wheat in Europe, would not support more than two individuals.” (M.) But this facility of obtaining a subsistence, appears to have exerted a most baneful influence on the character of the Mexicans, by fostering improvidence and sloth. Mexico is especially remarkable for its rnineral wealth. Not only gold and silver, but copper, iron, and lead, exist in abundance. Quicksilver is also found. The carbonate of soda, which is necessary for the smelting of the silver ore, is collected in several lakes, where it is found crystallized on the surface, in great abundance. -Adj. and inhab. Mexl-3-CẠN (Sp. Mexicano, měh-He-kål-no).

Mexico (called by the aborigines Tenochtitlan), the cap. of the united Mexican states, one of the most beautiful cities in the world, and, till recently, the largest in America, is situated in the midst of an elevated plain, surrounded by mountains, at the height of 7,468 ft. above the level of the sea. The streets are wide, well paved, and flagged, and cross each other almost uniformly at right angles. The Great Square (Plaza Mayor, plål-så må-yore') is one of the finest to be seen in any metropolis : in its centre is a colossal statue of Charles IV. of Spain, said to be superior to any other work of this kind existing in the New World. The Cathedral, on the N. side of the Great Square, is regarded as the finest ecclesiastical edifice in America. There

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. are, besides, a number of churches, reinarkable for the magnificence of their architecture, and the costliness of their paintings, sculpture, and other decorations. Mexico was formerly inferior to none of the American cities, as a seat of science and literature; but, in these as in most other respects, its course has been retrograde for several years past. There is a university, a college of mines, with a rich collection of minerals, and a number of other institutions, most of which, howa ever, are said to be in a state of decay. Lat. 19° 26' N., Lon. 99° 5' W. Pop. estimated at 180,000. (B.)

Mexico, Gulf of, on the S. E. coast of N. America, between about 18° 10' and 30° 20' N. Lat., and 81° and 98° W. Lon. Its length, from N. E. to S. W., is near 1,100 m.; its greatest breadth, above 600 m.

MÉZIÈRES, měz'-e-air', a strongly fortified t. of France, the cap. of the dep. of Ardennes, on the Meuse. Lat. 49° 46' N., Lon. 4° 44' E. Pop. 4,000. (B.)

Miaco, me-å/-ko, or Keel-o, a large city of the Japanese empire, situated on the island of Niphon, 230 m. W. by S. of Yeddo. It was formerly the capital of Japan, and is now the residence of the Daïri (då-ee-rce) or chief priest, and contains a number of remarkable edifices. One of the teinples has a colossal image of the god Daïboots, or the Grand Boodha, made of wood and covered with gilt paper, represented, like the Hindoo idols, sitting on a flower of lotus. The total height is more than 90 ft., the statue being about 80, and the flower above 10ft

. high. The image is 25 ft. (4 toises) between the shoulders, and is capable of containing several people in the palm of the hand. In a neighbouring building is suspended the largest bell in the known world. It is about 18 ft. high, and weighs 2,040,000 Dutch pounds, or about 1,000 tons! (B.) Miaco is the first manufacturing and probably the first commercial town in Japan. Here, also, all the money of the empire is coined. Miaco signifies " capital;" Keco (or Kio), a "residence.” Lat. about 34° 30° N., Lon. 136° E. The pop. probably exceeds 500,000. (B.)

Mi-AM'-1, a r. which rises in the N. W. central part of Ohio, and, flowing south-westerly, joins the Ohio at the S. W. extremity of the state, about 20 m. below Cincinnati. Its whole length is probably

Miami, a co. in the W. part of Ohio, intersected by the above r. Pop. 19,688. Co. t. Troy.

Miami, a co. in the N. central part of Ind., intersected by the Wabash and Erie Canal. Pop. 3,048. Co. t. Peru.

Michael, St., (Port. Sam Miguel, så' On (almost soung) me-gel'), the largest i. of the Azores, intersected by the parallel of 37° 50' N. Lat. and the meridian of 25° 30' W. Lon. Length above 40 m.; greatest breudth, 14 m. Ponte Delgada is the chief town.

Michigan, mish-e-gan', one of the five great lakes of N. America connected with the r. St. Lawrence, situated between 41° 30' and 46° N. Lat., and 85° 50' and 88° W. Lon. Its length, following the curve, is near 350 m.; its greatest breadth, about 90 m. The surface of this

150 m.

Fate, får, fall, fit; mė, mét; pine or pine, pin; n), nôt; õð as in good; lake is about 600 ft. above the level of the sea ; its depth is stated to be 900 ft. Lake Michigan is connected, at its N. E. extremity, by the Strait of Mackinaw, with Lake Huron.

MICHIGAN, one of the U. S., situated between 41° 40' and 18° N. Lat., and 82° 10' and 91° W. Lon. It consists of two great natural divisions, viz., the lower peninsula, bounded on the W. and N. W. by Lake Michigan, on the N. E. and E. by Lake Huron, the r. and Lake St. Clair, the Detroit r. and Lake Erie, and on the S. by Ohio and Indiana ; length, from N. to S., about 290 m.; greatest breadth, from E. to W., rather more than 200 m.: and the upper peninsula, situated between the lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan, and bounded on the S. W. by Wisconsin; its length is near 330 m., with a mean breadth of 50 or 60 m. The total area is estimated at above 60,000 sq. m. The state is divided into 65 counties.* Pop. 212,267. Detroit is the seat of government. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1836.

MICHILIMACKINAC. See MACKINA W.

Mid-DEL-BURG', an ancient t. of Holland, in the i. of Walcheren, cap. of the prov. of Zealand. Among its literary institutions, the Athenæum or Academy deserves to be mentioned. Lat. 51° 30' N., Lon. 3° 37' E. Pop. 3,500. (M.)

MIDDLEBURY, inidl-del-bér-re, the cap. of Addison co., Vt., on Otter creek, 33 in., in a straight line, S. W. of Montpelier. Pop. of the township, 3,162. Middlebury College, of this place, was founded in 1800.

MID-DLES-B9'-ROUGU, a t. and river port of England, in the N. Riding of Yorkshire, on the Tees, 16 m. E. by N. of Darlington, with which it is connected by a railway. Pop. 5,463; in 1831, it was only 154. (M.)

MID-DLE-SEX', a co. in the S. E. part of England, N. of, and bordering on the Thames. It comprises within its limits the greater part of the metropolis. Pop. 1,576,636.

MIDDLESEX, a co. in the N. E. part of Mass., bordering on N. H. Pop. 106,611. Co. towns, Cambridge and Concord.

MIDDLESEX, a co. in the S. part of Conn., intersected by the Connecticut r.,

and bordering on Long Island Sound. Pop. 24,879. Co. t. Middletown.

MIDDLESEX, a co. in the E. part of N. J., on the Raritan r. and bay. Pop. 21,893. Co. t. New Brunswick.

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* Alcona (Negwegon), Allegan, Alpena (Anamickee), Antrim (Megissee), Are. nac, Barry, Berrien, Branch, Calhoun. Cass. Charlevoix (Kishkawkee), Cheboy. gan, Chippewa, Clair St., Clare (Kaykakee), Clinton, Crawford (Shawwano), Eaton, Emmet (Tonedagana), Genesee, Gladwin, Gratiot, Hillsdale, Ingham, Tonia, Iosco (Kanotin), Isabella, Jackson, Joseph St., Kalamazoo, Kalcasca (Ware bassee), Kent. Lake (Aishcum), Lapeer, Leelenaw, Lenawee, Livingston. Macomb, Manistee, Mason (Notipeskago), Michilimackinac, Midland, Missaukce, Monroe, Montcalm, Montmorency (Cheonoquet), Necosta, Newaygo, Oakland, Oceana, Ogemaw, Omeena, Osceola (Unwattin), Oscoda, Ottawa, Otsego (Okkuddo), Presque Isle, Roscommon (Mickenauk), Saginaw, Shiawassee, Van Buren, Washtenaw, Wayne, Wexford (Kawtawwabet), Wyandot.

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