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Fåte, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; pine or pine, pin; nd, not; öð, as in good ; 12 m. S. of the Po. It is surrounded by walls, and is rather more than 4 m. in circumference. The streets are wide and straight, but appear somewhat dull and deserted. Parma has a superior school or lyceum, with the chairs of theology, medicine, and philosophy, attended by about 400 students; a public library, with 80,000 printed vols. and 4,000 manuscripts; and several other literary institutions. The Ducal Gallery has many valuable paintings, by some of the first Italian masters : most of the churches of Parma are adorned with those of Corregio. The ancient Parma was a town of the Etruscans: it became a Roman colony at the same time as Mutina (now Modena), 183 years before Christ. Lat. 44° 48' N., Lon. 10° 27'E. Pop. about 36,000. (P. C. and M.) Balbi, however, states it at about 30,000.


PASCAGOULA, pas'-ka-good-la, a r. in the S. E. part of Miss., which flows into a bay of the same name.

Pasco or CERRO Pasco, seR/-Ro pås-ko, a t. of Peru, situated 14,278 ft. (P. C.) above the level of the sea, remarkable for its silver mines, which are among the richest in the world. Lat. about 10° 40 S., Lon. 75° 43' W. Pop. fluctuating, between 12,000 and 16,000. (P. C.)

Pas-de-Calais, på' d' kå-lal, or the “Strait of Calais," a dep. near the N. extremity of France, bordering on the Strait of Dover. Pop. 664,654. (B.) Capital, Arras.

Pas'-QUO-TANK', a co near the N. E. extremity of N. C., bordering on Albemarle Sound. Pop. 8,514. Co. t. Elizabeth City.

PAs-sal-ic, a small r. in the N. E. part of N. J., flowing into Newark Bay Near Paterson it has a perpendicular descent of 50 ft. and a total fall of 70 ft., affording an immense water-power.

Passaic, a co. in the N. part of N. J., bordering on N. Y. Pop. 16,734. Co. t. Paterson.

Passau, pås/-sou, a t. and important fortress of Bavaria, cap. of the circle of the Lower Danube, at the confluence of the Inn and the Ilz (ilts) with the Danube. A handsome bridge, resting on ? piers of granite, crosses the last-named river, which is 754 ft. wide. Two suburbs, the one on the right bank of the Inn, and the other on the left bank of the Jlz, are called respectively Inpstadt and Ilzstadt. Passau is in 48° 34' N. Lat., and 13° 28' E. Lon. Pop., including the suburbs, about 10,500. (P. C.)

Pat-A-GO-NI-, an extensive country of S. America, occupying the S. extremity of the continent, and extending from 39° to pear 54° S. Lat., and from 63° to 75° 40' W. Lon. It is separated on the N. from the territories of La Plata by the r. Negro; the line which divides it from Chili is not accurately determined : on all other sides it is bounded by the sea. Length, from N. to S., about 1,060 m.; greatest breadth, from E. to W., 600 m. The area is probably above 300,000 sq. m. The natives of this country are called PATAGONIANS ; a name which they received from Magellan, on account of the supposed magnitude of their

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. feet, * which, being wrapped up in skins, probably appeared to him much above their actual size. The Patagonians have in fact comparatively small feet and hands. About the middle of the last century, Captain Byron met with a number of these people, who, if we may trust his statements, were not less than 8 ft., soine even exceeding 9 ft. in height. It appears, however, to be now generally admitted that there has been great exaggeration respecting the stature of the Patagonians: nevertheless they are, according to the most authentic information we possess, the tallest people of whom we have any knowledge; the average height being probably above 6 ft. The plains of Patagonia appear to be generally sterile, owing partly to the nature of the soil and partly to a deficiency of rain. The climate, though cold in winter, is said to be healthy, and generally pleasant.-Adj. and inhab. Par -A-G0'-NI-AN.

Pat'-ER-BỌN, a flourishing manufacturing t. of N. J., cap. of Passaic co., on the Passaic r., near the falls, 17 m. N. N. W. of N. Y. Pop. 7,596.

Parl-NẠ, a large city of British India, cap. of the prov. of Bahar, situated on the Ganges, near 300 m. N. W. of Calcutta. Lat. 25° 37' N., Lon. 85° 15' E. Pop. estimated at above 300,000. (M.)

PA-TRAS (Anc. Pat/re), a sea port t. of Greece, on the N. N. W. coast of the Morea. It suffered extremely in the war of independence, but appears now to be rapidly recovering its former prosperity. Lat. 38° 14' N., Lon. 21° 47' E. Pop. probably above 8,000. (B.)

Parl-Rick, a co. in the S. part of Va., bordering on the Blue Ridge and N. C. Pop. 8,032. Co. t. Taylorsville.

Pau, pó, a t. in the S. W. part of France, cap. of the dep. of the Lower Pyrenees, on a small river called the Gave de Pau (gåv d' po), an affluent of the Adour. It is regularly laid out and well built. As a pleasant and healthy residence, it is much resorted to by strangers, especially by the English. It contains an académie universitaire, a royal college, and other institutions. Pau is remarkable as the birthplace of Henry IV. of France, and of Bernadotte, the late king of Sweden. Lat: 43° 18° N., Lon. O° 22' W. Pop. 11,959. (M.)

Paull-DING, a co. in the N. W. part of Ga., bordering on Ala. Pop. 2,566. Seat of justice, Paulding c. h.

Paulding, a co. near the N. W. extremity of Ohio, bordering on Ind. Pop. 1,034. Co. t. Paulding.

Pavia, på-veel-å, † (Anc. Ticinum,) a city and celebrated seat of learning in Austrian Italy, cap. of a prov. of the same name, is situated on the Ticino, 19 m. S. of Milan. At the head of its numerous literary and scientific institutions, stands the University, the first in Italy, which, among its professors in our own times, can boast of Scarpa,

Patagon (pat-a-gone') in Spanish signifies a large foot.
t" And now appear as on a phosphor sea,
Numberless barks from Milan, from Pavia."

ROGERS' Italy, Part First, VII

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Fate, får, fall, fåt; me, mit; plne or pine, pin; no, not; oo as in good; Volta, Configliacchi, and other distinguished men. It has three facul. ties, those of law, medicine and philosophy. It is particularly cele. brated as a school of medicine. The University of Pavia was founded by Charlemagne, and restored in the 14th century by Galeazzo Visconti; but it owes its present form and institutions to the empress Maria Theresa, and her enlightened minister, count Firmian. The number of students is about 1,400. Pavia was formerly the residence of the Lombard kings, and was afterwards the capital of one of the short-lived Italian republics. From its numerous public edifices, it was called “the City of a Hundred Towers," but its magnificence and fame belong to another age, and it has long been in a state of paralysis and decay. Lat. 45° 11' N., Lon. 9° 10' E. Pop. near 24,000. (B.) — Adj. and inhab. Pavian, på-veel-an.

Paxl-o (Anc. Paxlos), the smallest of the seven Ionian Islands, situated about 10 m. S. by E. of Corfu. It is scarcely 5 m. long. Pop. in 1836, 5,237. (M.)

Paz, La, lå piz, (Sp. pron. lå påth,) an important commercial city of S. America, in Bolivia, cap. of a dep. of the same name, on the E. declivity of the Andes, 12,170 ft. above the level of the sea, near 16° 30' S. Lat., and 63° 10' W. Lon. Pop. above 20,000. (P. C.)

Pearl River, a r. which rises in the N. E. central part of Miss., and flowing southerly, falls into L. Borgne. Its length is above 250 m., but its navigation is impeded by drift-wood, shallows, and sand-bars.

Pearl/-ING-TON, a port of entry of Miss., in Hancock co., on the E. side of Pearl r.

Peel-bles, an inland co. in the S. of Scotland. Pop. 10,499.–Also, a small t., cap. of the above, on the Tweed, 22 m. S. of Edinburgh.

PE'-DEE', GREAT, a r. that rises in the N. W. part of N. C., in which state it is called the Yad/-kin, and flowing in a general south-easterly direction through S. C., falls into the Atlantic near 33° 10' N. Lat. Near its mouth it is joined by the Little Pedee, and other streams, which form an estuary named Winyaw bay. It has a sloop navigation of 130 m.

Pegu, pe-god, a former kingdom of Chin-India, now forming the S. portion of the Birman empire.—Adj. and inhab. Peguan, pe-goo'-an.

Pegu (called Bå-gool by the natives), a decayed city of the Birman empire, the ancient cap. of the above kingdom, on a river of the same name, an affluent of the Irrawaddy. Here is the famous temple of Shoomadoo, being a pyramid of brick, 331 ft. high, with a base 162 ft. square. It is surmounted by a sort of umbrella, made of iron, and gilt, nearly 20 ft. in diameter. Lat. 17° 40' N., Lon. 96° 20' E. The pop. of Pegu is said to have formerly amounted to 150,000, but the place is now in ruins, and almost deserted.

Peipus, pl e-pooce or Tchood'-SKO-E, a large lake in the W. part of European Russia, between 57° 48' and 59° N. Lat., and 26° 56' and 28° 10' E. Lon. Extreme length, about 85 m.; greatest breadth, 32 m. The southern portion, which is joined to the rest by a strait not 2 m. wide, is called the L. of Pskof, being situated principally within that

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; N, nearly like ng. government. The Peïpus communicates with the Gulf of Finland by the r. Narova or Narva.

Pekind' or Pe'kin' (signifying, it is said, the " Northern Capital"), the largest city of China, and the seat of the imperial government, is situated not far from the left bank of the Pei-Ho (pa-ho'), with which river it is connected by a narrow canal, about a hundred m. W. N. W. of the Gulf of Petchelee. It is about 19 m. (15,400 toises) in circumference, exclusive of the suburbs. Peking is composed of two parts, entirely distinct from each other, viz. the Imperial Town (called also the Tartar Town, because it was founded by the present Tartar dynasty, and because the greater number of the inhabitants are Mantchoos), containing the imperial palace, and the great offices for the administration of the empire; and the Chinese Town, called likewise the External Town, from its being situated without the walls of the principal city. Though itself enclosed by walls, this is, properly speaking, only a suburb. The walls are about 40 ft. high and twenty feet thick at the base. There are 16 gates, over each of which is a watch-tower 9 stories high, and in each story are port-holes for capnon. The roads leading to Peking are paved with blocks of granite; the streets of the city are not paved, but are constantly watered to keep down the dust. The streets of the Imperial Town are broad, straight, and very

clean. The principal ones vary from 140 to 200 ft. in breadth. (P.C.) The houses are usually not higher than one story. The wooden columns in front of the shops are painted red and blue, and are sometimes gilt. In many places arches resembling the triumphal arches of Europe, built of wood, and richly decorated, cross the streets. These structures are erected for the purpose of honouring such persons of either sex as have been distinguished for their virtue, their learning, or for important services rendered to the state. The imperial buildings are covered with yellow tiles, those of the princes with green, and all the other houses with gray tiles. Peking is the seat of the great National College or University, in which is said to be concentrated all the learning of China. The Imperial Library is unquestionably the largest which exists out of Europe: it is estimated to contain what is equivalent to at least 300,000 of our octavo volumes. (B.) In the cabinet of natural history, belonging to the emperor, the specimens are accompanied by representations in painting, which are executed with scrupulous fidelity. The Imperial Observatory is in 39° 54' 13" N. Lat., and 116° 27' 54" É. Lon. The pop. of Peking is variously estimated, froin 600,000 or 700,000 to 3,000,000; Balbi gives 1,300,000 as the most probable estimate. The garrison is supposed to amount to 80,000.

PEMBROKE, pem'-brõõk, a sea port town of Wales, cap. of Pembrokeshire, on the margin of Dounpool, an inlet on the s. side of Milford Haven. Lat. 51° 40' N., Lon: 4° 53' W.

PEMBROKESHIRE, pem-brook-shịr, a co. occupying the S. W. extremity of Wales. Pop. 88,044.

PEN-DLE-Ton, a co. in the N. central part of Va., on the S. branch of the Potomac. Pop. 6,940. Co. t. Franklin.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mėt; plne, or pine, pin; n., nôt; öð as in good;

PENDLETON, a co. in the N. N. E. part of Kentucky, intersected by the Licking r., and bordering on the Ohio. Pop. 4,455. Co. t. Falmouth.

Penn'-SYL-VA'-NI-a, one of the thirteen original U. S., situated between 39° 40' and 42° 16' N. Lat. (almost the whole of the northern boundary runs upon the 42d parallel), and 74° 45' and 80° 30' W. Lon.; bounded on the N. by L. Erie and New York, E. by New York and New Jersey, froin which it is separated by the r. Delaware, S. by Maryland and Virginia, and W. by Virginia and Ohio; and divided into 56 counties.* Length, from E. to W., about 300 m.; greatest breadth, from N. to S., 170 m.; with the exception, however, of the most western portion, the breadth is equal in all parts, being rather more than 150 m. Area estimated at 46,000 sq. m. Pop. 1,724,033. Pennsylvania is distinguished above the other states of the Union, by her extraordinary mineral wealth. Anthracite coal is found in exceeding abundance in the counties of Schuylkill, Carbon and Luzerne, in the eastern part of the state. Bituminous coal occurs in great quantities in the neighbourhood of Pittsburg, on the western declivity of the Alleghanies, and in other places, There are also rich mines of iron ore and extensive quarries of marble. Harrisburg is the capital.-Inhab. Penn -SYL-VA/-NI-AN.

PE-NOB'-scot, the largest r. in Maine, of which the principal branch rises in the N. W. part of the state, and, flowing at first south-easterly, traverses Chesuncook lake. Afterwards, having received the eastern branch, it takes a southerly course, and falls into the Atlantic in about 44° N. Lat. and 69° W. Lon. Its length is estimated at above 250 m. It is navigable for large vessels to Bangor, more than 50 m. from the


PENOBSCOT, a co. of Maine, on the above r., extending from near the Atlantic coast, northward, to the border of Canada. Pop. 45,705. Co. t. Bangor.

Pen-ryn', a t. of England, in Cornwall, 11 m. N. W. of Falmouth. Pop. 3,337.

Pen-sa-col-LẠ, a port of entry of Florida, in Escambia co., situated on Pensacola Bay, 10 m. from its entrance into the Gulf of Mexico. Pop. 2,000. Lat. 30° 28' N., Lon. 87° 12 W.

Pen-zə or Pensa, a flourishing t. in the S. E. central part of European Russia, cap. of a gov. of the same name, on the Soora (Sura), an affluent of the Volga. Lat. 53° 12' N., Lon. about 44° 30' £. Pop. 11,000, (P. C.)

PEN-ZANCE', a sea port t. of England, in Cornwall, 8 m. E. by N. of Land's-end. Pop. 8,578.

Adams, Alleghany. Armstrong. Benver, Bedford, Berks, Bradford, Bucks, Butler, Cambria, Centre, Chester, Clearfield, Clinton, Columbia, Crawford, Cumber. land, Dauphin, Delaware, Elk, Erie, Fayette. Franklin, Greene, Huntingdon, Indiana, Jefferson, Juniata, Lancaster, Lebanon, Lehigh, Luzerne, Lycoming, McKean, Mercer, Mifflin. Monroe, Montgomery, Norihampton, Northumberland, Perry, Philadelphia, Pike, Potter, Schuylkill, Somerset, Susquehanna, Tioga, Union, Venango, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Westmoreland, Wyoming, York.

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