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ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; Th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. Pe-of-R8-A, a co. in the N. W. central part of Ill., bordering on the Illinois r. Pop. 6,153. Co. t. Peoria.

PERIGUEUX, pêr'-re'-guh', (Anc. Vesun'na ; afterwards Petroco/rii,) a commercial and manufacturing t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Dordogne, on the Isle (eel), an affluent of the Dordogne. There are a nuinber of interesting antiquities in its vicinity. Lat 45° 11' N., Lon. 0° 44' E. Pop. 9,329. (B.)

PERM (Russ. pron. pêrm), a t. in the E. part of European Russia, cap. of a gov. of the same name, on the r. Kama. Lat. 58° 1' N., Lon. 56° 26' E. Pop. about 10,000. (P. C.)

PERNAMBUCO, pēr-nåm-boo-ko, called also CIDADE DO Recife, sedål-dá do ra-seel-fà, (i. e. the “city of the reef,” so nained from the extensive reef which defends the harbour from the swell of the ocean,) a flourishing city and seaport of Brazil, cap. of a prov. of the same name, situated on the Atlantic, at the mouth of the r. Capabaribe, 210 m. N. E. of Bahia. It is the third town of Brazil, in commercial importance. Lat. 8° 4' S., Lon. 34° 50' W. Pop. estimated by Balbi at 60,000.

PERNAU, płR/-nou, a seaport t. of European Russia, on the Gulf of Riga, at the mouth of a river of the same name. Lat. 58° 22' N., Lon. 24° 31' E. Pop. 9,000. (M.)

PERPIGNAN, pér'-peen -yản', a strongly fortified t. of France, cap. of the dep. of the Eastern Pyrenees, on the r. Thet, about 80 m. S. W. of Montpellier. It possesses a library of 15,000 vols., and other literary institutions. Lat. 42° 42' N., Lon. 2° 54' E. Pop. 16,733. (M.)

Per-QUIM!-9 Ns, a co. in the N. E. part of N. C., N. of, and bordering on Albemarle Sound. Pop. 7,346. Co. t. Hertford.

Per'-ry, a co. in the S. E. central part of Pa., on the Juniata and Susquehanna rivers. Pop. 17,096. Co. t. Bloomfield.

Perry, a co. in the W. central part of Ala., intersected by the Cahawba r. Pop. 19,086. Co. t. Marion.

Perry, a co. in the S. E. part of Miss., intersected by Leaf r., a branch of the Pascagoula. Pop. 1,887. Co. seat, Augusta.

Perry, a co. in the W. central part of Ark., bordering on the Arkan

Perry, a co. in the western part of Tenn., intersected by the Tennessee r. Pop. 7,419. Co. t. Perrysburg.

PERRY, a co. in the S. E. part of Ky., on the sources of the Kentucky r. Pop. 3,089. Co. t. Hazard.

Perry, a co. in the S. E. central part of Ohio, between the Hocking and Muskingum rivers. Pop. 19,344. Co. t. Somerset.

PERRY, a co. in the S. part of Ind., bordering on the Ohio r. Pop. 4,655. Co. t. Rome.

PERRY, a co. in the S. W. part of II., a little E. of the Kaskaskia r. Pop. 3,222. Co. t. Pinckneyville.

PERRY, a co. in the S. E. part of Mo., opposite to the mouth of Kaskaskia r. Pop. 5,760. Co. t. Perrysville. Persia, perl-she-a, (called by the natives Iran ee'-rån’; Gr. IIepous)

sas r.

Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mé, mét; pine or pine, pin; nd, nðt; öð, as in good; an extensive country in the S. S. W. part of Asia, between 250 and 40° N. Lat., and 44o and 62° E. Lon. Its political boundaries have varied greatly at different epochs, sometimes including Armenia, Georgia, Bokhara, and sometimes reduced to less than its natural limits. These are, on the S. the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf; on the S. W. and W. the Tigris; on the N. the Aras and the Caspian Sea; and on the E. the Indus. The north-eastern limit is not determined by any natural boundary. At present, however, the territories of Persia are much more circumscribed; the extensive provinces of Afghanistan and Beloochistan are quite independent, while a considerable tract of land E. of the Tigris is possessed by Turkey. The greatest extent of Persia (with its present boundaries), from E. to W., may be near 1,000 m.; from N. to S., about 800 m. Area, 450,000 sq. m. Pop. 9,000,000. (B.) The greater part of Persia is an elevated plain, a considerable portion of which is desert. Indeed, the whole country, with slight exceptions, is very sparingly watered; much, however, is done by irrigation, to overcome this natural defect. Persia has nearly all the agricultural products of southern Europe, besides several that are ordinarily found only in the tropics. The religion is Mahometanism; the government a military despotism. Teheran is the capital.—Adj. and inhab. PERSIAN, perl-she-an.

PERSIAN GULF, an extensive arm of the Indian Ocean, situated between Persia and Arabia, and extending from 24° to 30° 10' N. Lat., and from 48° to 57° E. Lon. Length about 600 m.; greatest breadth near 230 m.

Perl-son, a co. in the N. part of N. C., on the sources of the Neuse, and bordering on Va. Pop. 9,790. Co. t. Roxboro.

Perth, a manufacturing t. of Scotland, and once the residence of the Scottish kings, cap.

Perthshire, situated on the Tay, 33 m. N. by W. of Edinburgh. Lat. 56° 24' N., Lon. 3° 25' W. Pop. 19,293.


PERTH-SHỊRE, a co. in the E. part of Scotland, bordering on the Frith of Tay. Pop. 137,390.

Peru, pe-rool, (Lat. Peru' via,) a country of S. America, situated between 30 20 and 22° S. Lat., and 68° and 81° 20' W. Lon.; bounded on the N. by Ecuador, E. by Brazil, S. by Bolivia, S.W. and W. by the Pacific. Length, from N. N. W. to S. S. E., near 1,500 m.; greatest breadth, from E. to W., above 900 m.; area estimated at 500,000 sq. m. Pop. 1,700,000. (B.) It may be observed that the name of Peru was formerly applied to a country far more extensive than the territories of the present republic; but the southern portion, called Upper Peru, after the Spanish power was overthrown in 1824, was formed into an independent state (in 1825), and received the appellation of Bolivia. The climate of this extensive country varies according to the elevation of the land, its proximity to the sea, and other circumstances. Along the whole coast S. of Cape Blanco, a drop of rain never falls; but for nearly five months, from June to November, the earth is covered with a fog. During this period, the ground is constantly moistened and fertilized by

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. the dew caused by the condensation of the fog. During this period, which may be said to constitute the winter of the lower countries, the higher regions enjoy fine weather and have their summer. But in January, the rains on the mountains commence, and continue about three months. The climate of Peru is not so hot as might be supposed. In summer, the weather is delightfully fine, and the heat is moderated by the sea and land breezes. The mean annual temperature, according to Humboldt, is 72°, the maximum 82°, and the minimum 55. Nearly all the animals peculiar to S. America are found in Perii, as the jaguar, the puma, the sloth, the armadillo, the ant-eater, &c. Among the vegetable productions of this country, we may particularly notice the cinchona, the tree or shrub which yields the Peruvian bark this plant, which is pecular to S. America, and is most abundantly found in the extensive country formerly comprehended under the name of Peru, requires a temperature considerably lower than that which usually prevails in tropical regions, and is said seldom to grow at a less elevation than 4,000 ft. above the sea. Peru is particularly noted for its wealth in silver and gold; but many of the mines, which were formerly very productive, have either become exhausted, or from other causes are no longer worked. The government of Peru is a federal republic, resembling, in many of its features, that of the United States. 'Lina is the capital.—Adj. and inhab. PE-RUI-VI-AN. (Sp. Peruano, pa-roo-8-no.)

Perugia, pa-r00/-jå, (Anc. Peru'sia,) à t. of Italy, in the Papal state, cap. of a prov. of the same name, on a hill not far from the right bank of the Tiber, 85 m. N. of Rome. It has a university, attended by 300 or 400 students, with a library of 30,000 vols. Perusia was an important city of ancient Etruria, and some highly interesting Etruscan antiquities have been recently found in the present town and its vicinity. Lat. 43° 7' N., Lon. 12° 22 E. Pop. estimated at 30,000. (B. and M.)*

Pesaro, pål-så-ro, (Anc. Pisau/rum), a seaport t. of Italy, in the Papal state, on the Foglia (folel-yå), near its entrance into the Adriatic. Lat. 43° 55' N., Lon. 12° 54' E. Pop. about 12,000. (B.)

PESHAWER, pesh'-our', a city of Afghanistan, cap. of a prov. of the same name, and formerly one of the residences of the kings of Cabool, is situated in the midst of an extensive plain, watered by several branches of the Cabool r. Lat. 34° 6' N., Lon. about 71° 30' E. Pop. estimated in 1809 at 100,000, but at present it is probably below 70,000. (B.)

Pestu (Hung. pron. pesht), the handsomest, most populous, and most commercial t. of Hungary, situated on the left bank of the Danube, opposite to Buda, with which it is connected by a bridge of boats. The streets are, for the most part, wide and straight, and are adorned with several handsome public buildings. Though Buda is the residence of the viceroy and the cap. of the kingdom, Pesth is the seat of the chief judicial courts of Hungary. This town possesses a university founded

• The population of Perugia, with its suburbs, is slated by the P. C. (on the authority of Calindri) at 15,000.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mé, mét; pine or pine, pin; nd, nðt; öö, as in good; in 1635, at Tyrnau; which in 1777 was transferred to Buda, and in 1784 to Pesth. It is one of the most richly endowed in Europe, and possesses a library of 60,000 vols., a cabinet of natural history, and several other similar establishments. There are 49 professors, and above 1,000 students. The National Museum of Pesth is one of the most remarkable in Europe, as well for its rich collection of coins and medals, as for its valuable library, which contains, among other works, numerous manuscripts from distinguished Hungarian writers. Lat. 47° 30 N., Lon. 19° 4' E. Pop. estimated by Balbi at above 75,000.

PEP-TER-BO-RỌUGU, also written PETERBURGH, a small city of England, in Northamptonshire, 75 m. N. by E. of London. Pop. 6,107.

PEL-TER-HEAD, a sea port t. of Scotland, in Aberdeenshire, on the German Ocean. Lat. 57° 32 N., Lon. 1° 47' W. Pop. 4,586.

Pel-TERS-BURG, St. (Russ. Peterburg, pd/-ter-boorg), the largest city of the Russian empire, and the seat of the imperial government, situated at the E. extremity of the Gulf of Finland, where it receives the r. Neva. The ground on which the city stands is low and swampy, and the surrounding country is a morass and forest, except where it has been ameliorated by industry and art. St. Petersburg, now regarded as the most magnificent city in the world, was founded in 1703, by Peter the Great, but is chiefly indebted for its beauty and grandeur to the empress Catharine II. Since her time, it has been still further improved, and at present is altogether unrivalled among the capitals of Europe for the width and regularity of its streets, the length and magnificence of its quays, and the elegance of its squares and public buildings. The streets are from 60 to 120 ft. wide, and appear to be lined with palaces. Among the multitude of remarkable edifices, we may name the Cathedral of Kasan: the Church of St. Isaac, built entirely of marble; when finished, it will probably be the most beautiful in the Russian capital : the Palace of the Hermitage, the favourite residence of Catharine II., by whom it was built; it contains a costly library, a collection of paintings, and other treasures : and the New Michailof (me-ki/-lor) Palace, the residence of the grand-duke Michael. St. Petersburg contains several noble monuments, at the head of which stands the magnificent equestrian statue of Peter the Great. The Field of Mars, adorned with a statue of Suvarof (Suwarow), will admit of 40,000 or 50,000 men being reviewed in it. Among the literary and scientific institutions of the Russian metropolis, may be mentioned the University, founded in 1819: the Academy of Sciences, founded by Peter the Great, on the plan of Leibnitz, with a library of 100,000 vols.: the Medico-Chirurgical Academy, founded by Peter the Great, and reorganized by Alexander; connected with it are two extensive hospitals: and the Imperial Public Library, containing above 400,000 vols. The hospitals and charitable institutions of all descriptions are numerous and well supported, the virtue of charity being one of the most prominent features of the Russian character. St. Petersburg is the greatest manufacturing city, and has the most extensive foreign trade, of any in the empire. It is the residence of a Roman Catholic archbishop and a

ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. Greek metropolitan. The observatory is in 59° 56' 31" N. Lat., and 30° 18' 57" E. Lon. Pop. in 1839, 476,386 (P. C.); deducting the military and strangers, the number of inhabitants is said not to exceed 380,000

PE'-TÆRS-BURG, a flourishing t. and port of entry in Va., on the App pomattox, 21 m. S. by E. of Richmond. It is well built, and has an active trade, and considerable manufactures. Lat. 37° 14' N., Lon. 77° 20 W. Pop. 11,136.

PETERWARDEIN, pe'-ter-war-dine, (Ger. pron. pa-ter-wårl-dine,) a small t. and important frontier fortress of Slavonia, on the Danube. It is a place of extraordinary strength, both by nature and art, and has been styled “the Gibraltar of Hungary.” Lat. 45° 15' N., Lon. 19° 55' E. Pop., including the garrison, stated at 6,500. (P. C.)

Perl-tis, a co. in the W, central part of Mo., a little S. of the Missouri r. Pop. 2,930. Co. t. Georgetown.

Pézenas, pez'-nå', (Anc. Piscenæ,) a t. in the S. of France, in the dep. of Hérault, 24 m. W. S. W. of Montpellier. Pop. 7,490. (M.)

Puil'-A-DEL-PH/-A, a port of entry, the second city of the United States, and the metropolis of Pennsylvania, is situated between the rivers Delaware and Schuylkill, about 6 m. above their confluence, . and about 130 m. in a straight line, N. E. by E. from Washington. It is laid out with extreme regularity; the streets, with scarcely an exception, crossing each other at right angles. The city has an air of reinarkable neatness, and many of the streets are very handsome, though there is but little variety in the appearance of the houses. Among the remarkable edifices may be mentioned the State House, a plain brick building, situated in Chesnut street, a third of a mile from the Delaware, remarkable for containing the hall in which the Declaration of Independence was signed: the Custom House, formerly the United States Bank, situated in the same street, E. of and near the Slate House, a marble edifice, built on the model of the Parthenon: the United States Mint, built also of marble, in Chesnut street about midway between the Delaware and Schuylkill; it is the principal, and was, until recently, the only place in the Union where coin is struck : the Girard College, situated about 2 m. N. W. of the centre of the city, a magnificent structure, which, when finished, will be entirely surrounded by Corinthian columns; not only the walls and columns, but even the roof and floors are to be of marble: and the Eastern Penitentiary, an establishment in which the system of solitary confinement has been resorted to with distinguished success. In literary and scientific institutions, Philadelphia, perhaps, ranks bigher than any other city in the United States. The Philadelphia Library, commenced in 1731, by Franklin, pow contains about 50,000 volumes: the American Philo sophical Society, founded in 1743, has among its members distinguished men in all parts of the world; its library contains 14,000 volumes : the Academy of Natural Sciences possesses a well chosen scientific library of about 7,000 volumes, and, besides numerous specimens in the other departments of natural history, the most extensive collection

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