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Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; oõ as in good; of plants in America : the Philadelphia Athenæum, founded in 1814, has a library of near 8,000 volumes: the Philadelphia Museum (formerly Peale's Museum) contains a rich collection of curiosities, among which is the skeleton of a mastodon, the most perfect in the world. Philadelphia is particularly distinguished as a seat of medical science: the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, founded in 1765, and the Jefferson Medical College, founded in 1824, are justly regarded as the first institutions of the kind in America. Among the charitable establishments of this city, we may mention the Alms House, situated on the W. bank of the Schuylkill, S. W. of the City Proper, and the Pennsylvania Hospital, containing an extensive medical library, and a painting, by West, of Christ healing the Sick, presented to the institution by the illustrious artist himself. Philadelphia is the greatest manufacturing town in the Union, and the multitude of ignorant and degraded persons who are usually congregated in such places, has doubtless been an influential cause of the riots with which the city has so frequently of late been afflicted and disgraced. Philadelphia is abundantly supplied with excellent water from the Schuylkill. Water-wheels, turned by the river, are employed to force the water up into extensive reservoirs, situated on the top of Fair. mount, (about 14 m. W. N. W. of the densely inhabited part of the city,) whence it is distributed to every part of the town. The scenery around the water-works, including Fairmount, with its six reservoirs, resembling so many beautiful lakes, is truly enchanting. The water supplying the suburbs of Spring Garden and Northern Liberties is raised from the river by means of steam, a separate system of waterworks having recently been constructed. At Fairmount the Schuyl. kill is crossed by a handsome wire suspension-bridge, 343 ft. in length, the first of the kind which has been erected in this country. Philadelphia contains a navy yard, in which have been built several of the finest vessels in the United States' navy. Lat. of the High School Observatory, 39° 57' 8" N., Lon. 75° 10' 29" W. Pop., including the suburbs, 228,691.-Inbab. Phil'-A-DEL-PHI-AN.

PHILADELPHIA, a co. of Pa., including the above city, which is its beat of justice. Entire pop. 258,037.

Phill-IP-PINE ISLANDS, a numerous group, situated in the eastern seas, between 5° and 19° N. Lat., and 117° and 126° E. Lon. The principal are Luzon, Mindinao, Panay, Palawan, Samar, Zebu or Cebu, and Mindoro, which are noticed under their respective names. The Philippines were discovered in 1521, by Magellan, (who was killed in one of the islands,) since which time they have rernained in the possession of the Spanish, who appear to have settlements on all the larger islands. The aboriginal inhabitants consist of two races, the Malays, and a tribe of negroes called Negritos (na-greel-toce). The former have, with some exceptions, submitted to the sway of the Spaniards, and embraced Christianity. They are the proprietors of the soil, and are treated by the Spaniards as free subjects. They are said to be well lodged, clothed, and abundantly supplied with food, so that their con

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. dition is perhaps superior to that of the peasantry in many parts of Europe. The Negritos inhabit the mountain fastnesses, and are generally independent. Some of them, however, are said to have embraced Christianity. The most important Spanish settlements are on the islands of Luzon and Panay. Much the greater part of Mindinao (the second in size) is inhabited by independent savages, some of whom are daring pirates. The principal productions of the Philippine islands are sugar, indigo, tobacco, and rice. Cocoa of a superior quality is produced, but not exported, being extensively consumed at home.

PHILIPS, a co. in the E. part of Ark., bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 3,547. Co. t. Helena.

Piacenza, pe-å-chen/-zả, (Anc. Placen/tia,) a fortified city of Northern Italy, in the duchy of Parma, cap. of a duchy of its own name, situated near the right bank of the Po. It possesses a public library of 30,000 volumes, and other institutions. This town holds a conspicuous place in ancient and modern bistory. In 1447, it was taken and pillaged by the soldiers of the Milanese commander Sforza, since which time it has never recovered its former prosperity. Lat. 45° 3' N., Lon. 9° 43' E. Pop. about 28,000. (B.)

Pil-art, a co. in the E. central part of III., intersected by the r. Sangamon. Co. t. Monticello.

Pic-AR-DY, (Fr. La Picardie, lå-pe'-kar'-deel,) a former prov. of France, now divided among the deps. of Pas-de-Calais, Somme, Aisne, and Oise.

Pick'-A-WAY, a co. in the S. central part of Ohio, intersected by the Scioto r. Pop. 19,725. Co. t. Circleville.

Pick-ENS, a dist. forming the N. W. extremity of S. C. Pop. 14,356. Seat of justice, Pickens c. h.

Pickens, a co. in the W.N. W. part of Ala., bordering on Miss. Pop. 17,118. Co. t. Carrollton.

Pico, peel-ko, or the “ Peak," an i. of the Azores, intersected by the parallel of 38° 25' N. Lat., and the meridian of 28° 30' W. Lon. Length about 30 m.; greatest breadth 10 m. Seen 6 or 7 leagues from the westward, it appears like a steep conical mountain rising directly from the sea, whence its name. The height is estimated at 7,000 ft.

PIEDMONT, peed-mont, (It. Piemonte, pe-s-mon-ta, i. e. Pie di Monte, or the “ foot of the mountain,") an extensive tract of country in the N. W. part of Italy, included within the dominions of Sardinia, and comprising the western portion of the basin of the Po. Its natural boundaries on the N., W., and S., are formed by the Alps; on the S. E. by the Apennines, which skirt the Gulf of Genoa. Its extent, from N. to S., is about 120 m.; from E. to W., near 100 m.-Adj. and inhab. Pied'-MON-TEȘE'.

PIERRE, Saint, s'nt peer, (Fr. pron. sån pe-air/,) the largest t. on the island of Martinique, in the W. Indies, situated on the W. coast. Lat. 14° 44' N., Lon. 61° 12' W. Pop. 18,000. (B.)

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mlt; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; oo, as in good ;

Pike, a co. forming the E. N. E. extremity of Pa., and bordering on the Delaware r. Pop. 3,832. Co. t. Milford.

Pike, a co. in the W. central part of Ga., bordering on Flint r. Pop. 9,176. Co. t. Zebulon.

Pixe, a co. in the S. E. part of Ala., a little S. of the Talla poosa r. Pop. 10,108. Seat of justice, Pike c. h.

Pire, a co. in the S. part of Miss., W. of Pearl r., and bordering on La. Pop. 6,151. Co. seat, Holmesville.

Pixe, a co. in the W. S. W. part of Ark., a little N. of Reed r. Pop. 969. Co. t. Zebulon.

PIKE, a co. forming the E. extremity of Ky. Pop. 3,567. Co. t. Piketon.

Pike, a co. in the S. part of Ohio, intersected by the Scioto r. Pop. 7,626. Co. t. Piketon.

Pike, a co. in the S. W. part of Ind., S. of, and bordering on the White r. Pop. 4,769. Co. t. Petersburg.

Pike, a co. in the W. part of I., bordering on the Mississippi and Illinois rivers. Pop. 11,723. Co. l. Pittsfield.

Pike, a co. in the E. N. E. part of Mo., bordering on the Mississippi. Pop. 10,616. Co. t. Bowling-Green.

Pillau, pill-lou, a sea port t. of Prussia, situated on a point of land at the entrance of the Frische Haff, 25 m. W. by S. from Königsberg, of which it may be said to be the port: vessels of a large size, which, on account of the shallowness of the Frische Haff, cannot ascend to Königsberg, stop at Pillau, in consequence of which it is a place of considerable iinportance. Lat. 54° 34' N., Lon. 19° 53' E. Pop. scarcely 4,000. (B.)

Pill-sen, a fortified t. of Bohemia, cap. of a circle of the same name, on the Beraun (ba-roun'), an alluent of the Moldau, with an active trade and numerous manufactures. Lat. 49° 45' N., Lon. 13° 23' E. Pop. 8,000. (B.)

PINEROLO, pe-na-roll-o, (Fr. Pignerol, peen-yer-oll) a t. and formerly an important fortress of Piedmont, cap. of a prov. of the same name, situated at the foot of the Alps, 25 m. S. W. of Turin. Pop. about 11,500. (P. C.)

Pisa, peel-za or peel-så, (Anc. Pilsæ,) a decayed archiepiscopal city of Central Italy, cap. of a prov. of the same naine, in the grand-duchy of Tuscany, on the Arno, about 8 m. from its mouth. In the middle ages this town was the cap. of a celebrated and powerful republic, when it is said to have possessed a population of 150,000; at present, the number of its inhabitants is not more than about 20,000. (B.) Among its buildings, may be mentioned the famous leaning tower, called the Belfry (Campanile, kåm-på-neel-là); it is 190 ft. in height, and the topmost story overhangs the base, on one side, about 15 ft. The view from the summit is alike extensive and beautiful, but when the spectator looks down towards the base, from the overhanging side, the effect is terrific. The University of Pisa is the first in Tuscany, and was formerly one of the most celebrated in Italy. It is at present at..

rence.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; N, nearly like ng tended by about 400 students: its library contains 55,000 vols. The Observatory is in Lat. 43° 43' 11" N., Lon. 10° 24' 9“ E.-Adj. and inhab. Pisan, peel-zan.

PISCATAQUA, pis-kat-à-quì, a r. of N. England, which forms a part of the boundary between Maine and New Hampshire, and flows into the Atlantic.

Pis-CATU-A-QU18, a co. forming the N. extremity of Me., and extending S. beyond the centre. Pop. 13,138. Co. t. Dover.

PISTOJA, pis-tol-yả, (Anc. Pistoria or Pisto/rium,) a well built town of Central Italy, in the grand-duchy of Tuscany, 29 m. N. W. of Flo

It possesses various manufactures: those of organs and firearms may be particularly mentioned. Pistols are said to have derived their name from this town. Pop. 12,000. (B.)

Prt-cairn's! ISLAND, a small i. in the Pacific, near 25° S. Lat., and 130° W. Lon.

Piteå, pit-e-ó, a small r. in the N. of Sweden, which enters the Gulf of Bothnia, near 65° 10' N. Lat.

Pitt, a co. in the E. part of N. C., intersected by the Tar r. Pop. 11,806. Co. t. Greenville.

PittsI-BURG, the cap. of Alleghany co., in Pa., and, as regards population, inanufactures, and commerce, the second town in the state, is situated at the confluence of the Monongahela and Alleghany rivers (whose junction forins the Ohio), near 250 m., in a straighi line, W. by N. from Philadelphia. Its position is very advantageous for trade, as it has a ready communication with all the great towns on the Ohio and Mississippi, but it is especially distinguished for its extensive and fourishing manufactures in iron, glass, and other articles. The surrounding country is exceedingly rich in bituminous coal, the constant burning of which, as fuel, causes a perpetual cloud of black smoke to hang over the place. The suburbs, Birmingham and Alleghany, are respectively situated on the left side of the Monongahela, and the right side of the Alleghany rivers, and communicate with the city by bridges. A conflagration, almost without a parallel in the history of our country, has recently (April 10, 1845) desolated Pittsburg. It is estimated that 1,100 or 1,200 houses, including nearly all the business portion of the city, have been consumed. Lat. 40° 32 N., Lon. 80° 2 W. Pop. in 1840, 21,115, or, if we include Alleghany, 31,204.

PITT-SYL-VAI-NI-a, a co. in the S. part of Va., bordering on N. C. Pop. 26,398. Co. t. Competition.

PLAQUEMINE, plak-meen', a parish forming the S. E. entremity of La., intersected by the Mississippi r. Pop. 5,060. Seat of justice, Fort Jackson.

PLASENCIA, plå-sen'-she-a, (Sp. pron. plå-send-the-å.) a fortified t. of Spain, in Estremadura, remarkable for a number of Roman antiquities, among which there is a fine aqueduct of 80 arches, which conveys wa. ter to the town. Lat. 40° 7' N., Lon. 5° 55' W. Pop. 7,000. (B.)

PLATA, RIO DE LA, reel-o déi lå plå-tå, a large r. or rather estuary of S. America, formed by the confluence of the rivers Parana and Uru

Fate, får, få]], fåt; me, mét; pne, or pine, p?n; nd, nôt; öð as in good; guay. Its length is about 160 m.; its breadth varies from about 30 to 130 m. The name Rio de la Plata, or “river of silver," was given to it by Sebastian Cabot, who first penetrated beyond the junction of the Paranı and Paraguay, in consequence of bis having obtained a consi. derable booty of silver and gold from the Indians of the adjacent country, whom he defeated: there are no precious tnetals on its banks. (E. G.)

Plata, La, lå plål-tå, called also the ARGENTINE REPUBLIC (Republica Argentina, rk-pool-le-ki BR-Hen-teel-nả), a republic of S. America, situated between 220 and 41° S. Lat., and 52o and 720 W. Lon. ; bounded on the N. by Bolivia, E. by Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay, and the Atlantic, S. by the Atlantic and Patagonia, and W. by Chili and Bolivia. Greatest length, from N. to S., about 1,300 m.; mean breadth, from E. to W., near 700 in. Area estimated at above 90,000 sq. m. Pop. 700,000. (B.) The names of the United Provinces of La Plata are as follows-Buenos Ayres, Santa Fe, Entre Rios (in'-trå reel-oce), Corrientes (cor-re-en/-tis), Cordova, Santiago del Estero (sån-te-il-go del is-td-ro), l'ucuman (too-kod-mån/), Salta, Catamarca, Rioga (re-o-gå), San Luis, Mendoza, San Juan. Owing to the dissensions between these different states, it is difficult to say what is the present political condition of this country. Though nominally a republican confederation, La Plata appears to be divided into a number of independent governments, which are, for the most part, ruled by dictators. The country of La Plata is characterized by soine striking natural peculiarities. Between 280 and 30° S. Lat., a desert plain extends from near the Rio Dulce, westward, to about the 68th meridian of W. Lon., a distance of perhaps 280 m. : near its eastern extremity, it is about 60 m. in breadth, but farther west it is much broader. Though more than 700 m. from the Atlantic, the surface of the ground is but a few feet above the level of the sea, and is for the most part covered with a thick efflorescence of salt. Hence this desert has received the name of the Great Salina (Gran Salina, grån sả-leel-nå). The vegetation is limited to a species of Salsola, from the ashes of which soda is extracted. The wind from this desert appears sometimes to resemble the sirocco of Africa. In December, 1825, for several days the wind was so hot in Santiago del Estero, that it blistered the face and hands even of those who remained in their houses ; leaves fell scorched from the trees; the bolts, keys, and locks of the doors were so hot that they could not be retained in the hand; and the inhabitants seemed to be threatened with suffocation. In the Despoblado (dés-po-blål-Do), or “uninhabited” country, an extensive and elevated region supposed to be more than 13,000 feet above the sea, situated on the E. side of the Andes, in the N. W. part of La Plata and the adjoining territories of Bolivia, a large portion of the surface of the ground is covered with salt. Where this mineral is so extensively diffused, we need not be surprised to find, what is actually the case, that the waters of a large number of the rivers and lakes are saline; especially in the central and western portions of the country. The vegetable productions of La Plata vary according to the

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