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Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mėt; plne or pine, pin; nd, nôt; oo as in good; ever, been since rebuilt on a regular plan, and now contains nearly 20,000 inhabitants. (P. C.) Lat. 38° 6' N., Lon. 15° 40 E.

REGGIO (Anc. Regium Lep'idi), a town of N. Italy, in the duchy of Modena, 16 m. W. N. W. of Modena. Among its literary and scientific establishments, is a museum of natural history, which belonged to the celebrated Spallanzani, who was born near Reggio. This town is also distinguished as the birth-place of Ariosto, one of the greatest of the Italian poets. Pop. 17,000. (B.).

REICHENBERG, ri/-ken-bérg', a flourishing t. of Bohemia, the second in the kingdom as respects population, situated on the Neisse, near the N. frontier, with numerous important manufactures. Lat. 50° 46' N., Lon. 15° 5' E. Pop. near 15,000. (P. C.)

Reims or Rheims, reemz, (Fr. pron. rånz; Anc. Durocorto rum, afterwards Remi;) an archiepiscopal city of France, in the dep. of Marne (of which, though not the cap., it is by far the largest town), 84 m. E. by N. of ris. It is surrounded with old walls and entered by six gates. One of these, the gate of Mars, consisted formerly of a Roman triumphal arch, which is still standing, though now superseded by a gate of modern construction. Among the remarkable edifices may be mentioned the Cathedral, one of the largest and most magnificent in Europe. It was erected chiefly in the 13th century, since which time the French kings have, with few exceptions, been consecrated here. Reims possesses extensive manufactures, principally of woollens, or fabrics of wool combined with other materials. Lat. 49° 15' N., Lon. 4° 3' E. Pop. 38,359. (P. C.)

Renaix, r'na, (Flem. Ron-se) a manufacturing t. of Belgium, in E. Flanders, 20 m. S. S. W. of Ghent. Pop. 12,000. (B.)

RENDSBORG, rendsl-borg, or RENDSI-BURG, a town and important fortress of Denmark, on the canal which connects the Baltic with the North Sea. It has a fine arsenal, and about 8,000 inhabitants. (B.) Lat. 54° 19' N., Lon. 9° 40 E.

Ren'-FREW, a small t. of Scotland, cap. of Renfrewshire, 6 m. W.N. W. of Glasgow.

REN/-FREW-SHỊRE, a co. in the S.W. part of Scotland, bordering on the river and frith of Clyde. Pop. 155,072.

RENNES, Renn, (Anc. Con'date, afterwards Red'ones,) a commercial and manufacturing t. of France, cap. of the dep. of Ille-et-Vilaine, on the r. Vilaine. It contains a royal college, a public library of 30,000 volumes, with some valuable manuscripts, and numerous other literary and scientific institutions. Lat. 48° 7' N., Lon. 1° 41' W. Pop. 30,000. (B.)

RENSSELA ER, renl-sel-er, a co. in the E. part of N. Y., bordering on Vt. and Mass. Pop. 60,295. Co. t. Troy.

REQUENA, ra-kal-nå, a t. of Spain, in New Castile, 43 m. W. N. W. of Valencia. Pop. 10,893. (M.)

Reus, ràl-ooce, an important manufacturing t. of Spain, in Catalonia, 5 m. W. by N. of Tarragona. Pop. stated at 24,600. (B.)

Reuss, ruce, (Ger. pron, roiss,) a territory of Germany, between 50€

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. 20' and 51° N. Lat., and 11° 30' and 12° 20' E. Lon.; divided by a part of the possessions of Saxe-Weimar, into two portions. This territory forms two independent principalities (belonging to two branches of the house of Reuss); viz., Reuss-Greitz and Reuss-Schleitz. The prince of the elder branch resides at Greitz (grites), a town on the Elster, with about 7,000 inhabitants. (B.) Lat. 50° 39' N., Lon. 12° 10' E. The prince of the younger branch has his residence at Schleitz (shlites), a little town, with a pop. of about 5,000 (B.), 15 m. W. S.W. of Greitz.

REUTLINGEN, roit-ling-en, a t. of Germany, in Würtemberg, cap. of the circle of Schwarzwald (Black Forest), on a tributary of the Neckar, 19 m. S. of Stuttgart. Pop. near 12,000. (P. C.)

Revl-pl (Russ. Kol-y-vån); in Esthonian, Tatlin or Tatleen); the cap. of the Russian gov. of Estonia, situated on the S. side of the Gulf of Finland, about 210 m. W.S. W. of St. Petersburg. It is very strongly fortified, and its harbour is one of the stations for the Russian fleet. Lat. 59° 27' N., Lon. 24° 35' E. Pop. 15,000 (P. C.), of whom a large proportion are Germans.

Rhea, ray, a co. in the S. E. central part of Tenn., on the Tennessee r. Pop. 3,985. Co. t. Washington.


Ruine (Anc. Rhe nus; Fr. Rhin, rån; Ger. Rhein, rine; Dutch, Rhyn, rine); a celebrated r. of Europe, which has its sources in the Alps. The principal branch, called by the Germans, the Vorder Rhein (i. e. fore Rhine), rises a little N. E. of Mount St. Gothard, in about 46° 38' N. Lat., and 8° 39' E. Lon. The general course of the river is northerly, to Mentz, thence nearly N.W., to the borders of the Netherlands, whence it takes a westerly direction, and divides into two principal branches; the larger of these, called the Waal or Wahal (wåål), joins the Meuse; the other, which retains the name of the Rhyn, falls into the N. Sea, in 52° 13' N. Lat. All that portion of the river which lies within or along the boundary of Switzerland, is called the Upper Rhine; from Bâle to Cologne it is denominated the Middle Rhine; and the remainder of the course to its mouths, the Lower Rhine. With respect to length, the Rhine is the fourth river of Europe, but it holds the first rank as a channel of commerce. Its whole course amounts to about 950 m. The Lower Rhine may be navigated by seavessels of 300 or 400 tons, though flat river-barges are generally used, on account of the numerous sand-banks. In some parts of the Middle Rhine, the navigation is greatly impeded by the rapidity of the current, as well as by numerous small islands and sand-banks, which are subject to sudden and frequent changes in their form and position. Steamboats have recently been resorted to, with great advantage, in navigating the Rhine. Near Schaffhausen, on the Upper Rhine, the river, running through a narrow channel, between lofty rocks, falls over a ledge of lime-stone, about 70 ft. in height, producing the celebrated “cataract of the Rhine."—Adj. RHEN-I8H.

RHINE, PROVINCE OF THE, forms the more southern of the two great

Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mė, mét; plne, or pine, pln; nd, nðt; öö as in good; divisions of Rhenish Prussia. The prov. of Westphalia (constituting the other division) bounds it on the N. E. Capital, Cologne.

RHINE, LOWER (Fr. Bas-Rhin, bå rån), a dep. forming the N. E. extremity of France, and bordering on the Rhine. Pop. 561,859. (B.) Capital, Strasbourg.

Rhine, UPPER (Fr. Haut-Rhine, o rân), a dep. on the E. frontier of France, S. of, and bordering on the above. Pop. 447,019. (B.) Capital, Colmar.

Ryode Island, one of the thirteen original U. S., and the smallest state in the Union, extending from 41° 17' to 42° N. Lat., and from 71° 6' to 71° 52' W. Lon.; bounded on the N. and E. by Massachusetts, S. by the Atlantic, and W. by Connecticut, and divided into 5 counties.* Length from N. to S., 46 m.; greatest breadth, from E. to W., 37 m. Area, 1,225 sq. m. Pop. 108,830. Providence and Newport are the capitals.-Inhab. Rhode IsųANDER.

RHODE ISLand, an i. of R. I., in Narragansett Bay, from which the state derives its name. It is near 15 m. long, with an area estimated at 50 sq. m. Newport is the principal town.

Ruodes (Gr. “Podos; Lat. Rhodus); a fertile i. near the E. extremity of the Mediterranean, belonging to Turkey, intersected by the 36th parallel of N. Lat., and the 28th meridian of E. Lon. Length, 46 m.; greatest brcadth about 16 m. Pop. estimated at 25,000. (M.) -Adj. and inhab. Ryol-D!-ẠN.

RHODEZ or Ropez, ro-da, (Anc. Segodu_num, afterwards Rute/ni,) a t. in the S. of France, cap. of the dep. of Aveyron, on the r. Aveyron. Its cathedral is regarded as one of the finest Gothic edifices in France. Among its literary institutions, may be mentioned the Royal College, and the Public Library, containing 15,000 vols. Lat. 44° 21' N., Lon. 2° 35' E. Pop. 9,158. (B.).

RYONE (Fr. Rhône; Anc. Rho'danus); a large r. of Europe, which rises in the central part of Switzerland, in about 46° 35' N. Lạt., and 8° 20' E. Lon., and, flowing at first south-westerly, traverses L. Leman; afterwards, having received the Saône, its course is almost due S., to the Mediterranean, which it enters by several mouths, near 43° 25' N. Lat., and 4' 30' E. Lon. The whole length is estimated at 590 m. The current of the Rhone and its larger tributaries is so rapid as to be a great obstacle to navigation with ordinary boats, but the recent introduction of steamers has, in a great measure, obviated that difficulty, and is said to have contributed vastly to the improvement of this portion of France.

Rhone, a dep. in the S. E. part of France, on the rivers Rhone and Saône. Pop. 482,024. (B.) Capital, Lyons.

Rhone, Mouths of (Fr. Bouches-du-Rhône, boosh du rône), a dep. in the S. of France, situated, as its name indicates, at the mouths of the Rhone. Pop. 362,325. (B.) Capital, Marseilles.

* Bristol, Kent, Newport, Providence, Washington.


ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. Riazan, re-å-zản, (formerly Per-es-låvll,) an archiepiscopal t. of European Russia, cap. of a gov. of the saine name, on an affluent of the Oka. Lat. 54° 34' N., Lon. 39° 20' E. Pop. about 9,000. (P. C.)

RICH'-LAND, a dist. in the centre of S. C., between the Wateree and Congaree rivers. Pop. 16,397. Co. t. Columbia.

RICHLAND, a co. in the N. central part of Ohio, N. by E. of Columbus. Pop. 44,532. Co. t. Mansfield.

RICHLAND, a co. in the S. E. part of Ill., a little W. of the Wabash r.

RICHLAND, a co. in the S. W. part of Wisconsin, on the N. side of the Wisconsin r.

Rich'-MỌND, a t. of England, in Surrey, 10 m. W. by S. of London. Pop. of the parish, 7,760.

RICHMOND, a city and port of entry of Va., the seat of justice of Henrico co., and the cap. of the state, is situated at the head of tide-water on James r., near 100 m., in a straight line, S. by W. of Washington. It is generally well

built, and its appearance from a distance is striking and picturesque. This town is very advantageously situated for com

It communicates by railroads with the Potomac and Roanoke, and there is a boat navigation of 220 m. on the James r., above Kichmond, a canal having been constructed round the falls, just above the city. Lat. (of the capitol) 37° 32' 17" N., Lon. 77° 27' 28" W. Pop. in 1830, 16,060; in 1840, 20,153.

RICHMOND, a co. of N. Y., comprising Staten Island, at the mouth of the Hudson. Pop. 10,965. Co. t. Richmond.

RICHMOND, a co. in the E. part of Va., N. E. of, and bordering on the Rappahannock. Pop. 5,965. Seat of justice, Richmond c. b.

RICHMOND, a co on the S. frontier of N. C., E. of, and bordering on the Yadkin. Pop. 8,909. Co. t. Rockingham.

RICHMOND, a co. in the E. part of Ga., bordering on the Savannah. Pop. 11,932. Co. t. Augusta.

Ri-oẠ or reel-gå, an important commercial t. of European Russia, cap. of Livonia, on the r. Dwina (or Düna), about 9 m. from its entrance into the Gulf of Livonia. The r. is crossed by a handsome bridge of boats, about 2,400 ft. long. Among the public buildings, may be mentioned the Cathedral of St. Peter, the tower of which is 440 ft. in height. (M.) Riga is one of the most important fortresses of the Russian empire. Lat. 56° 57' N., Lon. 24° 8E. Pop. near 60,000, of whom more than one-half are Protestants, being chiefly Germans or their descendants.

RIGA, Gulf of. See Livonia, GULF OF.
Rıd-O-LET (the diminutive from rigole

, a French word signifying a “ ditch or channel"). The rigolets in La. are channels connecting L. Pontchartrain with L. Borgne.

RIMINI, reel-me-ne, (Anc. Ariminum,) a t. of Italy, in the Papal state, on the Adriatic, at the mouth of the r. Marecchia (må-rek/-ke-à), which is here crossed by a handsome marble bridge. It has a public library of 30,000 vols., and other institutions, but is chiefly interesting on account of its antiquities. Lat. 44° 4' N., Lon. 12° 33' E. Pop. 13,450. (P. C.)

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mé, mét; pine or pine, pin; nd, nôt; öð, as in good;

Ri/-o Co-LOR-AD-o, i. e. “Red River," or simply COLORADO, a large r. of Texas, which falls into Matagorda Bay, near 29° 40' N. Lat., and 96° W. Lon. Length estimated at near 1,000 m.

Ril-o Del Norte, called formerly the Rio Bravo or Rio BRAVO DEL NORTE, (Sp. pron. reel-o brål-vo del nor/-ta,) i. e. the “rapid river of the North," a large r. of N. America, wbich rises near 41° N. Lat. and 110 W. Lon., and, flowing in a general south-easterly direction, falls into the Gulf of Mexico, near 26° N. Lat, and 97° 20' W. Lon. Through a great part of its course, it forms the boundary between Texas and Mexico. Length, above 2,000 m. It is not navigable to any extent. This river is frequently called the Rio GRANDE.

RIO JANEIRO, ril-o jạn-eel-ro, or simply Rio, or more fully, R10 DE JANEIRO, (Port. pron. reel-o dá zhån-dle-ro,) the cap. of the empire of Brazil, as well as of a prov. of its own name, and the largest and most commercial city in S. America, situated on a bay of the Atlantic, which forms, in every respect, one of the best harbours in the world. This bay is nearly 24 m. in length, and 15 m. in its greatest breadth; and, being surrounded by high hills, is protected from every wind. The entrance, which is scarcely a mile wide, is defended by several forts. The town is regularly laid out, but the streets are generally narrow, and the houses not remarkable for elegance. Among the literary and scientific institutions of the Brazilian capital, we may name the Public Library, containing from 50,000 to 70,000 vols.; the School of Medicine and Surgery, the Botanic Garden, and the Observatory. The trade of Rio is very extensive, and appears to be still rapidly increasing. The principal export is coffee; of which the quantity shipped at this place is said to be nearly equal to all the exports of coffee from all the other ports in the world. Lat. 22° 54' S., Lon. 42° 45' W. Pop. above 200,000; about one-half of whom are negro slaves.

Riom, re-On', a t. of France, in the dep. of Puy-de-Dôme, 8 m. N. by E. of Clermont. Lat. 45° 53' N., Lon. 3° 4' E. Pop. 11,050. (M.)

Rıp'-LEY, a co near the S. E. extremity of Ind., W. of Cincinnati. Pop. 10,392. Co. t. Versailles.

Ripley, a co. the S. S. E. part of Mo., bordering on Ark. Pop 2,856. Co. t. Van Buren.

Rip-on or Rıpl-PỌN, a small t. of England, in the N. Riding of Yorkshire, on the Ure, 22 m. N. W. of York. It was formerly celebrated for its manufacture of spurs, which were in such high repute, that “as true steel as Ripon-rowels,” became a proverbial expression for a man of fidelity and courage.

Ritch'-JE, a co. in the N. W. part of Va., near the Ohio r.

RIVE-DE-Gver, reev d’zhe-al, a rapidly-increasing t. of France, in the dep. of Loire, 20 m. S. W. of Lyons. It has extensive manufactures and very productive coal-mines in its vicinity. Pop. in 1836, 9,040. (M.)

Rives, reevz, (now called Henry,) a co. in the W. part of Mo., on the N. side of Osage r. Pop. 4,726.

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