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ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; tu, as in this; n, nearly like ng. N. coast of the island of Java. Lat about 7° S., Lon. 110° 25' E. Pop. estimated at from 36,000 to 38,000. (B.)

SAM-AR', one of the Philippine islands, intersected by the 12th parallel of N. Lat., and the 125th meridian of E. Lon. Length near 150 m.; greatest breadth about 60 m.

Sam'-AR-CAND', a celebrated but now decayed city of Asia, in Independent Tartary, situated in a fertile valley, about 120 m. E. of Bokhara. It was once the capital of the vast empire of Tamerlane, when its pop. is said to have amounted to 150,000. The tomb of that famous conqueror is still in excellent preservation; his remains repose under a lofty dome, the walls of which are superbly adorned with jasper and agate. Lat. 39° 50' N., Lon, about 67° E.

Pop. variously estimated at from 10,000 to 30,000, and even 50,000.

SAMBOR, såm'-bor, a t. of Austrian Galicia, cap. of a circle of the sanje name, on the Dniester. Lat. 49° 32' N., Lon. 23° 17' E. Pop. 9,000. (B.)

Sal-Mos (called by the Turks Soo-sảm'), a fertile i. of the Greek archipelago, belonging to Turkey, intersected by the parallel of 37° 40' N. Lat. and the 27th meridian of E. Lon. It is separated from the coast of Asia Minor by a strait_not 2 m. in breadth. Length about 30 m. ; greatest breadth 17 m. Pop. 15,000. (P. C.) Samos contains several interesting monuments of antiquity; among others, some remains of the great temple of Juno, who was worshipped with particular honour in this island, from its having been (as the Samians maintained) the place of her birth. - Adj. and inhab. Sal-MI-An or SAM-1-OT'.

SAMP-SỌN, a co. in the S. E. central part of N. C., a little E. of Cape Fear r. Pop. 12,157. Co. t. Clinton.

Sam-Tiago, soung-te-ål-go, or St. JAl-Go, also written San-THIAGO, the largest of the Cape Verde Islands, intersected by the 15th parallel of N. Lat., and the meridian of 23° 40' W. Lon. Length 36 m.; greatest breadth 18 m. Pop. above 12,000. (P. C.) Praya is the cap. of this island and of the whole group.

Sanaa or Sana, sa-nål, a walled city of Arabia, cap. of the prov. of Yemen Proper, about 150 m. N. N. E. of Mocha. Pop. estimated at 40,000. (M.)

SAN-DUS-KY, a r. in the N. part of Ohio, which flows into a bay of the same name, on L. Erie.

SANDUSKY, a co. in the N. part of Ohio, at the mouth of the above r. Pop. 10,182. Co. t. Lower Sandusky.

SANDUSKY, a port of entry of Ohio, in Erie co., on the shore of Sandusky Bay, near its opening into L. Erie. Pop. 1,200.

SAND!-wrch or sand/-widge, one of the original Cinque Ports of England, in Kent, on the Stour, about 2 m. from its mouth, and 65 m. E. by S. of London. Lat. 51° 16' 30" N., Lon. 1° 20' E. Pop. only 2,913.

SANDWICH Islands, one of the Polynesian groups, situated in the Pacific, between 18° 50' and 22° 20' Ñ. Lat., and 154° 40' and 160° 20 W. Lon. The principal islands are Hawaii, Oahu, Atui, Maui,

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, nôt; öð as in good ; Molokaï or Morotai,* Nihau, and Lanaï or Ranai,* which are noticed under their respective names. The natives of the Sandwich Islands appear to be a branch of the great Malay race. They are of middle stature, and well formed, with muscular limbs and open countenances, and seem to possess a large share of intelligence and enterprise. When this group was discovered by Cook, in 1778, the inhabitants were observed to have made greater progress in civilization than those of the other Polynesian islands. Since their conversion to Christianity, in 1819, the American missionaries have laboured among them with distinguished success. Books and newspapers are now printed in the native language at Honolulu, and even a map of the islands has been engraved at Lahaina, in Maui. Many of the Sandwich Islanders now dress in the European fashion; and vessels built at Honolulu, manned by natives, traverse the Pacific to the N. W. coast of America, and to Canton.-Inhab. Sandwich ISLANDER.

SANGAMON, sangl-ga-mon', a co. in the centre of Ill., intersected by a river of the same name, which flows into the Illinois. Pop. 14,716. Co. t. Springfield.

SAN-I-LAC, a co. in the E. S. E. part of Mich., bordering on L. Huron. SAN JUAN. See Porto Rico.

San Jul-an, or SAS JUAN DE LA FRONTERA (Sp. pron. sản Hoo-án! då lå fron-tàl-rå), i. e. “St. Juan of the frontier,” a t. of S. America, in La Plata, near the Chilian frontier, remarkable for its wines, which form an important article of commerce. Lat. 31° 4' S., Lon. 68° 57' W. Pop. estimated at 16,000. (B.)

San Marino, sản må-reel-no, a little republic of Italy, under the protection of the pope, situated near 43° 55' N. Lat., and 12° 30' E. Lon. Area 22 sq. m. Pop. 7,600. (M.)

SANQUHAR, sankl-er, a small but ancient t. of Scotland, in Dumfries. shire, on the Nith, 24 m. N. N. W. of Dumfries.

Santa Cruz, san'-tạ crooce, or St. Croix, sent-croil, a fertile i. in the W. Indies, belonging to the Danes, near 30 m. in length, and about 8 m. in its greatest breadth. Lat. about 17° 40' N., Lon. near 65° W.

SANTA MARIA, sản' -tả mả-ree -ã, a t. of Naples, in the immediate vicinity of Capua. Pop. estimated at above 9,000. (B.)

SANTA MARIA, one of the Azores or Western Islands, intersected by the 37th parallel of N. Lat., and the meridian of 25° 10' W. Lon.

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It is stated as a curious fact that the inhabitants of both the Sandwich and Society Islands are incapable of distinguishing between the sounds of l and , and of t and k. This does not appear to arise so much from a defect in the organs of speech as of hearing. It is said that they can utter correctly the sounds of the letters just named, but that they cannot distinguish them either when spoken by themselves or by others. It appears that the English missionaries in the Society Islands firet adopted the mode of writing names like those above cited with t and r; the Americans in the Sandwich Islands have unfortunately had recourse to a different orthography, whence arises the diversity of spelling which we find in the best works on the Polynesian islands. In connexion with this subject, it may be remarked, that in other languages t and c or k are sometimes changed for each other. Thus in Latin, we find nuncius or nuntius: Lutetia, the ancient name of Paris, appears to have been written also Lucetia (in Greek, AEUKETTA, Leuketia), and Loticia (Aotikia, Lotikia).

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. Santa Marta, sån/-tå már/-tå, a fortified seaport t. of New Granada, on the Caribbean Sea, with a fine harbour. It is a free port. Lat. 11° 20' N., Lon. 74° 8' W. Pop. estimated at 6,000. (B.)

SANTA MAURA, sản-tả mou/-rả, (Anc. Leu/cas, or Leuca/dia pronounced by the modern Greeks léf-kå-Deel-å,) one of the Ionian Islands, intersected by the parallel of 38° 40' N. Lat., and the meridian of 20° 40' E. Lon. Length 22 m.; greatest breadth 9 m. Area about 180 sq. m. Pop. in 1836, including the troops, 17,385. (M.).

SANI-ta Ro'-sa, a co. near the N. W. extremity of Florida, bordering on Ala.

SAN-TAN/-DER (Sp. pron. sản-tản-dai/), an important commercial t. and seaport of Spain, in Old Castile, cap. of a prov. of the same name, on the Š. side of the Bay of Biscay. Lat. 43° 28' N., Lon. 3° 42' W. The pop., which has considerably increased of late years, may now be estimated at 30,000. (P. C.)

SANTAREM, sản?-ty-rêN, (almost sl-td-rengl,) an ancient t. of Portugal, on the Tagus, about 50 m. N. N. E. of Lisbon. It has been the residence of several of the Portuguese kings. Lat. 39° 16' N., Lon. 8° 38' W. Pop. estimated at about 8,000. (B.)

San'-tee', a r. of S. C., formed by the junction of the Congaree and Wateree. It flows S. E., and falls into the Atlantic by two mouths, near 332 6' N. Lat., and 79° 20' W. Lon. Steamboats ascend to Columbia, on the Congaree branch.

San-Thiago. See Sam-Tiago. SANTIAGO. See COMPOSTELA. SANTIAGO, sån-te-d'-go, a city of S. America, cap of the republic of Chili, situated in an extensive plain, about 50 m. from the sea, on an affluent of the r. Maypu (ini-poo'). It is regularly and generally well built, and is in fact one of the finest cities in S. America. It contains an institute, which may be regarded as a university, two high schools for girls, and other important literary establishments. Lat. 33° 25' S., Lon. 70° 40' W. Pop. estimated at 60,000. (P. C.)

Santos, sån/-tós, a sea port and commercial t. of Brazil, on the i. of St. Vincent. Lat. 23° 56' S., Lon. about 46° 10' W. Pop. estimated at 7,000. (M.)

SAÔNE, sône, a r. of France, which rises in the dep. of Vosges, and, flowing southerly, joins the Rhone at Lyons. Small steamboats ascend this river as far as Châlons.

SAÔNE, UPPER, (Fr. Haute-Saône, öte sône,) a dep. in the E. N. E. part of France, intersected by the above r. Pop..343,298. (B.) Capital, Vesoul.

SAÔNE AND LOIRE (Fr. Saône-et-Loire, sône à lwår), a dep. in the E. part of France, intersected by the Saône and Loire. Pop. 538,507. (B.) Capital, Mâcon.

Sapl-tin or LEWIS River, a r. of Oregon, which falls into the columbia, near 46° N. Lat. and 119° 40' W. Lon. Length estimated at

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mėt; plne, or pine, pin; nó, ndt; Õð as in good ;

SAR-A-GOS/-s» (Sp. Zaragoza, thà-rå-gol-thå; Anc. Salduba ; afterwards Cæsaraugus'ta), an archiepiscopal city of Spain, cap. of Aragon, on the left bank of the Ebro, which is here crossed by a fine stone bridge, 600 ft. in length, resting on seven arches. This town formerly contained a number of edifices, distinguished for their magnificence, but the greater part were much injured in the war with the French in the early part of the present century. The church of Nuestra Señora del Pilar (nwes-trả sane-yol-rå del pe-lar'), which is still preserved, is a superb building; the principal altar, built entirely of alabaster, in the Gothic style, is greatly admired as a piece of ancient architecture. Among the institutions for education, may be mentioned the University, founded in 1474, now attended by about 1,500 students. Saragossa will be ever memorable for the heroic and almost unparalleled bravery with which its citizens, under Palafox, resisted the French forces dur. ing the peninsular war, in 1808–9. Having been once compelled to raise the siege, the enemy returned the ensuing year, with reinforcements, and, aided by an epidemic within the city, they at length induced the inhabitants to surrender, by granting them honourable terms. Pop. 43,000. (B.)

SAR-A-TOPI (Saratow), a t. of European Russia, cap. of a gov. of the same name, on the right bank of the Volga. It is irregularly built, and the houses are mostly of wood. Lat. 51° 31' N., Lon. about 46° E. Pop. stated at above 41,000. (P. C.)

SAR'-A-TO'-GẠ, a co. in the È. part of N. Y., between and bordering on the Hudson and Mohawk rivers. Pop. 40,553. Co. t. Ballston.

The township of Saratoga, in the E. part of this county, on the Hudson, at the mouth of Fish creek, is memorable as the scene of the surrender of Gen. Burgoyne's army to the Americans, under Gen. Gates, on the 17th of October, 1777.

SARATOGA SPRINGS, the principal watering place in the U. S., situated in the above co., 28 m., in a straight line, N. of Albany. It is an incorporated village, consisting principally of one fine broad street, adorned with trees, with many large and excellent hotels and boarding houses. A great quantity of the mineral waters of Saratoga is bottled and sent to different parts of the world. Pop. of the township, 3,384.

SAR-DIN-1-4 (It. Sardegna, sar-danel-yả; Fr. Sardaigne, sar'-dañe'), an important i. in the Mediterranean, forming a part of the Sardinian states, between 38° 51' and 41° 17' N. Lat., and 8° 4' and 9o 50 E. Lon. Its form resembles a parallelogram, the longer sides running nearly N. and S. Extreme length, about 168 m. ; greatest breadth, near 90 m. Area estimated at 10,000 sq. m., being a trifle larger than Sicily, according to the estimate of some geographers. Pop. 524,633. (M.) The island is generally fertile, but exhibits a considerable va. riety of soil: it produces almost all the fruits and vegetables of Southern Europe. A large portion of the surface is hilly and mountainous. The climate varies according to the locality: near the coast, the temperature seldom, if ever, falls below the freezing point, while the summits of the mountains in the interior are often capped with snow in


ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. winter. Sardinia is governed by a viceroy appointed by the king. Cagliari is the capital.--Adj. SAR-DIN-8-AN; inhab. Sard or SARDI

SARDINIAN STATES (It. Stati Sardi, stål-te sarl-de), the name given to the dominions of the house of Savoy. This kingdom comprehends, besides the Island of Sardinia, an extensive territory occupying the N. W. portion of Italy, between 43° 40' and 46° 27' N. Lat., and 5° 38' and 10° 6' E. Lon.; bounded on the N. by Switzerland, E. by Austrian Italy, and the territories of Parma, Tuscany, and Modena, S. by the Mediterranean, and W. by France. Length, from S. E. to N. W., near 250 m.; greatest breadth, above 200 m. It includes the duchy of Savoy, Piedmont in its more extensive sense, the duchy of Genoa, and the county or province of Nice. Total area of the kingdom, about 29,000 sq. m. Pop. 4,650,368. (M.) Area of the continental portion, about 19,000 sq. m. Pop. about 4,100,000. The prevailing religion of the Sardinian states is Roman Catholicism. The government is a monarchy, hereditary in the male line; and though the regal authority is somewhat circumscribed by a supreme council in the Island of Sardinia, it is absolute in the continental portion of the kingdom. Turin is the capital.

SAREE, så'-reel (Sari), an ancient city of Persia, in the prov. of Mazanderan, a few miles from the S. ehore of the Caspian Sea. Lat. near 36° 30' N., Lon. 53' 10' E. Pop. estimated at 30,000. (B.) It is said, however, to have been recently almost depopulated by the plague.

Sarl-No, a t. of Naples, at the head of a river of the same name, 13 m. N. W. of Salerno. Pop. about 10,000. (P. C.)

Sarthe, sart, a dep. in the N. W.central part of France, intersected by a r. of the same name, which falls into the Mayenne. Pop. 466,888. (B.) Capital, Le Mans.

ŚA-RUM, Old, an ancient and now totally ruined city of England, in Wiltshire, 2 m. N. of Salisbury or New Sarum. It is interesting, as affording a striking example of the rotten borough system. It sent two members to the house of commons in the time of Edward III., and after its total decay, without having a single house or inhabitant, the proprietor of the land, on which it once stood, was still permitted to exercise this important privilege, until the passing of the reform act.

SAS-KATCHI-A-WẢN', a large r. of British America, rising in the Rocky Mountains, and flowing into L. Winnipeg. The whole length, including Nelson r. (the outlet of L. Winnipeg), which may be regarded as its lower portion, is estimated at above 1,500 m.

Sassari, sås/-så-re, an archiepiscopal t., cap. of the N. division of the I. of Sardinia, on a small r. about 8 m. from the N. W. coast. It has a university, besides other literary institutions, and about 20,000 inhabitants. (P. C.) Lat. 40° 43' N., Lon. 8° 26' E.


Sauk, a co in the S. W. central part of Wisconsin, on the N. W. side of the Wisconsin river, Pop. 102.

SAUMUR, só '-mur', an ancient t. of France, in the dep. of Maine and

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