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Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, m?t; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; öö, as in good ; Loire, on the Loire (which is here crossed by a stone bridge, nearly 900 ft. in length), 28 m. S. E. of Angers. In the time of the Huguenols, this town was one of the principal centres of Protestantism in France; and for a time, commerce, learning, and the arts, flourished here. But its prosperity fell with the fall of the Huguenot party, which followed ihe revocation of the edict of Nantes by Louis XIV. Saumur was the birth-place of Madame Dacier. Pop. 11,576. (M.)

SA-van-nau, a r. of the U.S., which rises, by several branches, on the S. frontier of N. Carolina, where this state borders on S. Carolina and Georgia ; flowing south-easterly, it forms the greater part of the boundary between S. C. and Ga., an:l falls into the Atlantic near 32° N. Lat., and 81° W. Lon. Its whole length is estimated at 600 m.

It is navigable for large vessels to Savannah, for steamboats of 150 tons to Augusta (about 250 m. from the sea), and for smaller vessels, 150 ro. further.

SAVANNAH, a city and port of entry of Ga., cap. of Chatham co., and the largest and most commercial town in the state, is situated on the right bank of the river of the same name, about 15 m. from its mouth. The streets are wide and regular, with spacious squares, and many handsome buildings. Lat, 32° 5' N., Lon. 81° 8' W. Pop. 11,214.

Save, (Ger. Sau, sou; Anc. Sa'vus,) a r. of the Austrian empire, which rises in Illyria, near_46° 30' N. Lat., and 13° 40' E. Lon.' Its general direction is nearly E. S. E.; after a course of about 590 m. it joins the Danube, at Belgrade. It is navigable for vessels of from 150 to 200 tons, to the mouth of the Kulha (kool'hå), near 45° 30' N. Lat., and 16° 20' E. Lon.

Savona, sả-vol-nå, a sea port t. of N. Italy, in the Sardinian States, on the Mediterranean, 25 m. S. W. of Genoa. Pop. 15,500. (P. C.)

Savl-ov* or sav-oi', (It. Savoia, så-voil-8,) a country of N. Italy, with the title of duchy, between 45° 4' and 46° 25' N. Lat., and 5° 37' and 7° 8' E. Lon. On the N. it borders on L. Leman, and on the W. it is partly bounded by the Rhone, which separates it from France. Area, 4,270 sq. m.

Pop. 564,137. (M.) Savoy forms the nucleus of the Sardinian monarchy. It was governed as early as the 10th century by its own counts, whose descendants acquired Nice, in 1388, and Piedmont, in 1418. In 1713, Sicily was added to the dominions of the house of Savoy, then first recognized as one of the royal houses of Europe. That island was soon after exchanged for Sardinia, which, at that time, belonged to Austria.—Inhab. Sav'-OY-ARDI.

When the blithe son of Savoy journeying round,
With humble wares and pipe of merry sound,
From his green vale and shelter'd cabin hies,
And scales the Alps to visit foreign skies."

Rogers's Pleasures of Memory.
+ We very frequently hear this word pronounced Savoy'ard, but we believe that
the accentuation given above, is generally adopted by the best speakers.

" That stern yet kindly spirit who constrains
The SAVOYARD to quit his naked rocks."

WORDSWORTH's Excursion, Book 1.

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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. Saxg-ALTENBURG-—'-tep-burg, (Ger. Sachsen-Altenburg, såk/-senal-ten-bóórg',) a small duchy of Germany, between 50° 44' and 510 6 N. Lat., and 11° 20' and 12° 40' E. Lon. It consists of two nearly equal portions, separated from each other by the territory of Reuss. Area, 483 sq. in.

Pop. 121,590. (P. C.) Altenburg is the capital. SAXE-Cof-BURG-Gotha, (Ger. Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha, såkl-sen kolbõõkg go'-tả,) a duchy of Germany, consisting chiefly of two large portions, viz. the principalities of Coburg (see COBURG), and Gotha. The latter is principally between 50° 35' and 51° 6' N. Lat., and 10° 20' and 11° E. Lon. Area about 590 sq. m. Pop. 96,658. Total area of the duchy, about 790 sq. m. Total pop. near 138,000. (P. C.) Gotha is the capital.

SAXE-MEININGEN-HILDBURGHAUSEN, sax-mil-ning-en hilt-boorg-hou'. zen, a duchy of Germany, composed of the ancient duchy Meiningen, the principalities of Hildburghausen and Saalfeld, and some other districts. It lies chiefly between 50° 12' and 50° 53' N. Lat., and 10° 7' and 11° 10' E. Lon. Area about 832 sq. m. Pop. 144,294. (P. C.)

Saxe-Weimar or Saxe-Weimar-EISENACH, sax-wil-mạr-i-zen-ák, (Ger. Sachsen-Weimar, såk-sen-wil-mar,) a grand-duchy of Germany, consisting of the two principalities of Weimar and Eisenach, composed of several detached portions, between 50° 25' and 51° 30' N. Lat., and 9° 50' and 12° 15' E. Lon. Area about 1,400 sq. m., of which Eisenach occupies about 445. Total pop. 245,813. (P. C.) Weimar is the capital.

Saxl-o-NY (Ger. Sachsen, såkl-sen), in its largest sense, is used to designate an extensive country in the N. of Germany, stretching from the Weser, on the W., to the frontiers of Poland, on the E. Its limits appear never to have been definitely and permanently settled. It was formerly considered to include Westphalia. The name properly denotes the country of the Saxons; and as the boundaries of their dominion often changed with the changing tide of conquest, we may readily understand why the appellation of Saxony has been so variously and vaguely applied.

Saxony, KINGDOM OF, a state in the central part of Germany, between 50° 10' and 51° 28' N. Lat., and 11° 55' and 15° 3' E. Lon. Length above 140 m.; greatest breadth about 75 m. Area 5,788 sq. m. Pop. 1,652,114. (P. C.) The government is an hereditary limited monarchy. Dresden is the capital. -Adj. and inhab. Saxl-on.

Saxony, Prussian, a prov. of the Prussian dominions, consisting of the Saxon territories formerly belonging to Prussia, together with those which were dismembered from the kingdom of Saxony in 1815. It is bounded on the N. and N. E. by Brandenburg, E. by Silesia, S. by the kingdom of Saxony, and W. by Hesse, Brunswick, and Hanover. Its form is very irregular: the area falls but little short of 10,000 SCAN-DER-OON', Gulf of, forms the N. E. extremity of the Mediter

It is near 40 m. long and 30 m. broad. SCANDEROON or ISKENDEROOM. See ALEXANDRETTA.

sq. m.


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Fate, får, fall, fåt; mė, mit; pine or pine, pin; no, nôt; oo, as in good;

SCAN-DI-NA-v1-an Peninsula comprehends the N. W. portion of Europe, between 55° 20' and 71° 6' N. Lat., and 5° and 31° E. Lon. It is chiefly included between the Baltic, on the E., and the Atlantic, on the W. and N. W. Length near 1,200 m.; breadth about 470 m. The greater portion of it is covered with sterile mountains, and it is in general thinly inhabited. The appellation is derived from SCANDINAvia, the ancient name of this country, or at least of that portion of it which was known to the Romans.


SCAR/-BO-RQUGH, a seaport t. of England, in the N. Riding of Yorkshire, on the N. Sea, 36 m. N. E. of York. Pop. of the borough, with an area of above 3 sq. m., 10,060.

SCHAFFHAUSEN, shåf-houl-zen, (Fr. Schaffhouse, shåf"-ooz!,) the most northern of the Swiss cantons, situated on the N. side of the Rhine. Area 116 sq. m. Pop. 31,125. (M.)

SCHAFFHAUSEN, a walled t. of Switzerland, cap. of the above canton, on the Rhine, about 50 m. E. by N. of Basle. "It possesses a college, with ten professors; a gymnasium; a town library, containing the books belonging to the celebrated Müller, a native of this place; and other institutions. For the Falls of Schaffhausen, see RHINE.


SCHELDT, skelt, (Dutch, Schelde, skell-dch; Fr. Escaut, es'-ko'; Anc. Scal/dis;) a r. that rises in France, in the dep. of Aisne, and, flowing into Belgium, with a general N. N. E. course, passes Antwerp, a few miles below which town it divides into two arms, called the East and the West Scheldt. Its length is estimated at 210 m. Ships of war can ascend to Antwerp (where the tide rises 12 feet), and small boats to Cambray, which is only about 20 m. from the source of the river,

SCHELESTADT, shell-es-tảd', (Anc. Elce/bus or Elcelbum,) a manufacturing t. of France, in the dep. of Lower Rhine, on the li, an affluent of the Rhine, 26 m. S. S. W. of Strasburg. The invention of glazing earthenware is ascribed to this town. Pop. in 1831, 9,384. (P.C.)

SCHEMNITZ, shern'-nits, (Hung. Selmecz Bánya, shil-mits båån-yõh,) an important mining town of Hungary, on a river of the same name, 46 m. N. by E. of Gran. Its gold and silver mines are considered as the richest in Hungary. Lat. 48° 27' N., Lon. 18° 50' E. Pop. above 22,000. (B.)

SCHENECTADY, sken-ek!-tu-de, a co. in the E. part of N. Y., intersected by the Mohawk r. Pop. 17,387.

SCHENECTADY, a city of N. Y., cap. of the above co., 16 m. N. W. of Albany. Lat. 42° 48' N., Lon. 73° 55' W. Pop. 6,784. Schenectady is the seat of Union College, a flourishing institution, founded in 1795.

SCHIEDAM, Skee-dim', a t. of S. Holland, on the Schie (skee), an affiuent of the Meuse or Maas, 3 m. W. of Rotterdam. It has acquired a celebrity not very creditable, from its being the great centre of the

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; Th, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. gin manufacture in the kingdom of Holland. Lat. 51° 55' N., Lon. 4° 24 E. Pop. 10,000. (B.)

Schoa. See SHOA.

SCHOHARIE, sko-harl-re, a co. in the E. S. E. or S. E. central part of N. Y., W. of Albany. Pop. 32,358. Co. t. Schoharie.

SCHOUWEN, SKoul-Wen, an i. of Holland, on the right side of the E. Scheldt, at its mouth, forming a part of the prov. of Zealand.

SCHUYLER, skiller, a co. in the W. part of Ill., bordering on the Illinois r. Pop. 6,972. Co. t. Rushville.

SCHUYLKILL, skooll-kill, a r. wbich rises in the E. part of Pa., and flowing south-easterly, falls into the Delaware about 6 m. S. of Philadelphia. Its whole length is estimated at 120 m. It is navigable for sloops to Philadelphia, but a little above that city there are falls; yet, by means of lockage, dams, and side-canals, boats may ascend to Port Carbon, above Pottsville.

SCHUYLKILL, a co. in the E. part of Pa., on the sources of the above river. Pop. 29,053. Co. t. Orwigsburg.

SCHWABACH, shwål-bảk, a thriving manufacturing t. of Bavaria, on a r. of the same name, an affluent of the Regnitz, 9 m. S. S. W. of Nuremberg. Pop. about 8,000. (B.)

SCHWARZBURG, shwarts'-burg or shwårts/-boorg, a principality in the central part of Germany, consisting of two principal portions, the more southern of which is called the Upper County, the more northern, the Lower County. The former lies between 50° 34' and 50° 55' N. Lat., and 10° 50' and 11° 23' E. Lon. The Lower County is situated between 51° 13' and 51° 27' N. Lat., and 10° 32' and 11° 16' E. Lon. The house of Schwarzburg is now divided into two branches, Rudolstadt (rool-dol-stått), and Sondershausen (son'-ders-houl-zen), each of which has a part both of the Upper and the Lower County. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt contains an area of 408 sq. m. Pop. 65,600. (M.) Rudolstadt, the capital, on the Saale, has a pop. of 4,000. (B.) Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, possesses a territory of 360 sq. m. in extent, and about 54,000 inhabitants. (M.) Sondershausen, with a pop. of 3,600 (B.), is the capital.

SCHWEIDNITZ, shwitel-pits, a fortified t. of Prussian Silesia, on the Weistritz (wicel-trits), an affluent of the Oder. Lat. 50° 51' N., Lon. 16° 27' E. Pop. above 9,000. (B.)

SCHWERIN, shwa-reen', a t. of N. Germany, cap. of the grand-duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, on the W. side of a lake of its own name. Among the remarkable buildings, we may mention the ducal palace, containing a fine picture-gallery and museum. Lat. 53° 36' N., Lon. 11° 30' E. Pop. above 13,000. (P. C.)

Schwitz or Schwyz, shwits, à canion in the N. E. central part of Switzerland, which has given its name to the whole confederation. It is intersected by the 47th parallel of N. Lat., and the meridian of 8° 50' E. Lon., and borders on the L. of Lucerne. Area, 341 sq. m. Pop.

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mé, mệt; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; oo, as in good; 40,650. (P. C.) Schwitz, the capital, stands about 3 m. N. E. of the L. of Lucerne, and has a pop. of about 4,000.

Scul-LY ISLANDS, a group belonging to England, lying about 30 m. W. by S. from Land's End. There are a great number of islets and rocks, but only a few islands of any importance; St. Mary's, the largest, contains between 2 and 3 sq. m. The pop. of the entire group in 1831 was only 2,465. (M.)

Scil-o, or sheel-o, (Mod. Gr. Cho (X_o),Heel-o; Anc. Chilos;) a furtile and beautiful i. belonging to Turkey, in the Ægean Sea, intersected by the parallel of 38° 30' N. Lat., and the 26th meridian of E. Lon., and separated from Asia Minor by the Strait of Scio, which is about 5 m. wide. Length about 35 m.; greatest breadth 13 m. In 1820 the pop. was estimated at 100,000, but, in consequence of so many of the inhabitants having been massacred or carried into slavery, in the late Greek war, it has been reduced, it is said, to less than 20,000. (P. C.) The wine of Chios is celebrated as among the best in the Levant, and it had the same reputation in ancient times. Chios claims the honour of having given birth to Homer.-Adj. and inhab. CHIOT, keel-ot; or Chil-an, when the ancient island is referred to.

Sçi-ol-ro, a r. of Ohio, which rises in the S. W. central part of the state, and, flowing at first south-easterly, and afterwards nearly S., falls into the Ohio r. at Portsmouth. It is about 200 m. long, and is navigable for boats 130 m.

Scioto, a co. in the S. part of Ohio, at the mouth of the above r. Pop. 11,192. Co. t. Portsmouth.

Scot'-LẠND, a country occupying the northern portion of the island of Great Britain, between 54° 38' and 59° 41' N. Lat., and 1° 46' and 6° 13' W. Lon. It is bounded on all sides by the sea, except on the S., where it is separated from England by Solway Frith, the Cheviot hills and the Tweed. Length, from N. to s., about 280 m.; greatest breadth above 170 m. Area 26,014 sq. m. Pop. 2,450,764; of the islands belonging to Scotland, 169,420; total, 2,620,184. The kingdom, with its dependencies, is divided into 32 counties. Before the accession of James VI. (afterwards James I. of England), to the English throne, in 1603, Scotland constituted an independent kingdom. Till the Union, which was consummated in the reign of queen Anne, though under the same sovereign with England, it still had its own parliament. According to the Articles of Union, ratified Jan. 16, 1707, the peerage of Scotland is represented in the house of lords of the United Kingdom by 16 peers, chosen by the whole body of Scotch peers at the commencement of each parliament. The counties were to be represented by 30 members in the house of commons, and the boroughs by 15 members. This arrangement continued till 1832, when the borough representation received an addition of 8 members, making in all 53. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland, and was formerly the residence of the Scottish ] kings.-Adj. SCOTCH or Scot/-t18h; inhab. Scor or SCOTCH/-MẠN.

SCOTLAND, a co. in the N. E. part of Mo., bordering on Iowa.

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