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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. All the cantons of Switzerland are republics, excepting Neufchâtel, in which the king of Prussia exercises the right of sovereignty. The Swiss confederation has no permanent capital; by a federal enactinent of 1815, Zurich, Bern, and Lucerne, are alternately the seat of the general government.--Adj. Swiss; inhab. Swiss, and sometimes SWITZI-ER.

SWITZERLAND, a co. forming the S. E. extremity of Ind. Pop. 9,920. Co. t. Vevay.

Syd-NEY, an important commercial t. of New Holland, cap. of the colony of New South Wales, on the S. side of the bay called Port Jackson, which forms, perhaps, the finest natural basin in the world. This bay is about 15 m. long; the anchorage is everywhere excellent, and ships are perfectly protected from every wind. Sydney was ori. ginally founded in 1788, as a colony for convicts; but it appears that considerably more than half of the present population, which amounted in 1841 to 29,973, came free to the colony, while about 7,000, or nearly one-fourth, have been born here. Lat. 33° 55' S., Lon. 150° 10' E.

SYRI-A-CUȘE (Anc. Syracu'sæ; It. Siracasa, se-rå-kål-så); a celebrated city and seaport of Sicily, on the E. coast, about 30 m. S. S. E. of Catania. Its harbour, once so famous, is now choked with sand, and little remains, except its vast ruins, to remind the spectator of the proud metropolis of ancient Sicily, which durst oppose the power of Athens, of Carthage, and of Rome. The present town is pretty strongly fortified, but its streets are narrow and dirty, and its commerce reduced almost to nothing. Lat. 37° 4' N., Lon. 15° 18' E. Pop. 14,000. (B.) -Adj. and inhab. Syr'-A-cul-sẠN.

Syracuse, a flourishing t. of N. Y., cap. of Onondaga co., on the Erie Canal, where it is joined by the Oswego Canal, about 47 m., in a straight line, W. of Ulica. Near it are the extensive salt-works of Salina. Pop. of the township of Salina, in which it is situated, 11,013.

Syrl-1-4, à country of rather indefinite extent, between 30° and 38° N. Lat., and 34° and 38° or 39° E. Lon., situated at the E. extremity of the Mediterranean, and forming a part of the Turkish empire. The name of Syria (Evgra) was given to this country by the Greeks and Romans, and is now unknown to the Asiatics. The Arabs call it Bel. ed! Es-Shảm (or simply Es-Sham), i. e. “ the country to the left;" because when in prayer they face the rising sun, it lies to their left hand. Though within the temperate zone, Syria exhibits all the climates of the globe. In the Ghor (the valley between the Dead Sea and the Sea of Tiberias), the mean annual temperature appears to be not much lower than that of the equator. This need not surprise us when we consider that the lower part of this valley is more than 1,000 ft. below the level of the sea. (P. C.) The Arabic poets have said that the "Sanneen (or Sannin, the southern part of Lebanon) bears winter upon his head, spring upon his shoulders, autumn in his bosom, while summer lies sleeping at his feet.” Under so various a climate, the vegetable productions, as might be expected, are extremely numerous, comprising


Fate, får, fåll, fåt; mė, mit; płne or pine, piu; n', nit; öö as in good. many of those which belong to the three different zones. -Adj. Syrl-tAN and Syr'-1-AC; inhab. Syrian.

SZARVAS, SÕR/-vosh', a commercial t. of Hungary, on the Körös (köl. rösh'), an affluent of the Theiss, about 47 m. N. N. E. of Szegedin. Pop. 14,000. (B.)

SZEGEDIN, sèg - Ĉd-een', a royal free t. of Hungary, at the confluence of the Theiss with the Marosch, about 100 m. S. E. of Pesth. It has several important manufactures, and an extensive trade. Lat. 46° 17' N., Lon. 20° 10' E. Pop. 32,000. (B.)

TAB-AR-EE-YEH, commonly written Tabarien (Anc. Tiberias), a small t. of Palestine, on the W. shore of the lake, to which it gives its

It is said to have been utterly destroyed by the earthquake of 1837.

TABAREEYEH, LAKE OF (called in Scripture the Sea of Galilee or of Tiberias), is intersected by the parallel of 32° 50'N. Lat., and the meridian of 35° 40' E. Lon. Length 14 m. ; greatest breadth 7 m. The r. Jordan flows through this lake, and falls into the Dead Sea.

TẠB-REEZ! (Tabriz), sometimes called TAURIS, a large but decayed city in the N. of Persia, prov. of Azerbaïjan, about 50 m. E. of L. Ooroomeeyeh. Lat. about 38° 10' N., Lon. 46° 30' E. The population, which was formerly estimated at 550,000, is now reduced to 100,000 or 80,000. (B.)

TACAzzé, tå-kåt-så, (sometimes written Takatz or Takatze,) a r. of Abyssinia, which falls into the Nile, near 17° 30' N. Lat.

Tag‘-AN-ROG', an important commercial t., sea port, and fortress of European Russia, in the gov. of Ekaterinoslaf, on the Sea of Azof, near its N. E. extremity. Lat. 47° 13' N., Lon. 38° 39' E. Pop. about 17,000. (P. C.)

Tal-gus (Sp. Tajo, tål-ho; Port. Tejo, til-zho); the largest r. of the Spanish peninsula : it rises near the W. frontiers of Aragon, where that kingdom joins New Castile, in about 40° 30' N. Lat., and 1° 40' W. Lon. Flowing in a westerly course, it passes nearly through the centre of the peninsula, and falls into the Atlantic in 38° 38' N. Lit., and 9° 20' W. Lon. Its whole length exceeds 550 m. It is navigable to Abrantes, about 90 m. above Lisbon.

Tahiti, tå-heel-te, (formerly written Otaheite,) the largest and most important of the Society Islands, between 17° 30' and 18° S. Lat., and 149° and 149° 40' W. Lon. Length about 48 m.; greatest breadth about 26 m. Its form is remarkable; it seems as if an island almost perfectly circular had been joined to the extremity of an elliptical one. The isthmus which connects the two parts is only about 3 or 4 m. broad. Pop. 8,000. For the character and condition of the inhabitants, see SOCIETY ISLANDS.- Adj. and inhab. Tahitian, tå-heel-te-an.

TALAVERA DE LA Reyna, tå-là-val-rå då lå råle-nå, an ancient t. of Spain, in New Castile, on the Tagus, 42 m. W. by N. of Toledo. Pop. about 8,000. (B.)

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. TÅV-BQT, a co. of Md., E. of, and bordering on the Chesa peake Bay. Pop. 12,090. Co. t. Easton.

Talbot, a co. in the W. part of Ga., bordering on Flint r. Pop. 15,627. Co. t. Talbotton.

TaliaFERRO, toll-e-ver, a small co. in the E. part of Ga., on the head waters of the Ogechee. Pop. 5,190. Co. t. Crawfordville.

TAJLA-DE/-G9, a co. in the E. part of Ala., bordering on the Coosa r. Pop. 12,587. Co. t. Talladega.

TaL'-LA-HASI-SEE, the cap. of the state of Florida and seat of justice of Leon co. Lat. 30° 28' N., Lon. 84° 36' W. Pop. 1,616.

TaL'-LA-HATCH-JE, a co. in the N. W. part of Miss., intersected by a r. of the same name, a branch of the Yazoo. Pop. 2,985.

TAL-LA-POO!-sẠ, a r. in the E. part of Ala., which unites with the Coosa to form the Alabama r.

Tallapoosa, a co. in the E. part of Ala., intersected by the above r. Pop. 6,444. Co. t. Montreal.

TAM-BOFI (Tambow), a t. of European Russia, cap. of a gov. of the same name, on an affluent of the Oka. Lat. 52° 44' N., Lon. 41° 45 E. Pop. 20,000. (P. C.)

TAM-MA-NY, Sr., a parish in the E. part of La., on the W. side of Pearl r. Pop. 4,598. Seat of justice, Covington.

Tampico, tåm-peel-ko, called also PUEBLO NUEVO, pweb-lo nwal-vo, a small but flourishing commercial t. of Mexico, in the state of Tamaulipas, on the r. Panuco (på-nool-ko), near its entrance into the Gulf of Mexico. Lat. 22° 15' N., Lon. 97° 52' W.

Taney, taul-ne, a co. in the S. W. part of Mo., bordering on Ark. Pop. 3,264.

TANGIER, tan-jeer', (called Tån/jęh by the Moors,) a sea port t. and once important fortress of Fez, on the Strait of Gibraltar. Lat. 350 48' N., Lon. 5° 50' W. Pop. 9,500. (P. C.)

Tan-JORE', a fortified city of Hindostan, cap. of a fertile dist. of the same name, belonging to the presidency of Madras. Lat. 10° 48' N., Lon. 79° 12' E. Pop. probably not less than 70,000 or 80,000. (P. C.)

TAORMINA, tå-or-meel-nå, (Anc. Taurome'nium,) a small t. of Sicily, on a high, craggy mountain, near the E. coast of the island, remarkable for its romantic situation, and for its antiquities; among which the ancient theatre deserves particular mention. Though of a size capable of accommodating 40,000 spectators, it is principally excavated in the slope of a mountain, the seats being hewn out of the rock. Lat. 37° 48' N., Lon. 15° 18' E. Pop. about 6,000. (P. C.)

TAPAJOS. See Topayos.

Tap'-PA-HAN-NOCK, a port of entry of Va., cap. of Essex co., on the Rappahannock r.

Tar River. See PamLICO.

Tarakay, tar-ra-kil, commonly called SAG-HAL'-L-EN, a large i. on the E. coast of Asia, extending from 46° to 54° 20' N. Lat. Length, above 600 in.; breadth, from 25 m. to 120 m. As it is very rarely visited by Europeans, little is known respecting it. It is said to be covered with dense fogs, nearly all the year round. The aboriginal

Fate, får, fåll, fåt; me, mėt; plne or pine, pin; no, nôt; oo as in good ; inhabitants are called Aïnos (il-nos), being the same race as the Koorilians.

Taranto, tảl-rån-to, (Anc. Taren'tum,) a fortified archiepiscopal city and seaport of Naples, cap. of the prov. of Otranto, on the Gulf of Taranto, near its N. extremity, with an excellent harbour. Tarentum was anciently the principal Greek city on the E. coast of Italy, constituting, with its adjoining territory, an independent and powerful state. Lat. 40° 27' N., Lon. 17° 15' E. Pop. 18,000. (P. C.)

TARAscon, tå-rås -kon', (Anc. Tarascon or Taruscon, Tagovoxwv) a walled t. of France, in the dep. of the Douths of the Rhone, on the Rhone, 16 m. E. by S. of Nismes. Its castle was formerly the residence of the counts of Provence. Lat. 43° 48' N., Lon. 4° 40' E. Pop. 9,220. (M.),

TARAzona, tảr-å-thol-nả, (Anc. Turiaso,) a t. of Spain, in Aragon. Lat. 41° 55' N., Lon. 1° 43' W. Pop. 10,000. (B.)

Tarbes, tarb, (Anc. Turba,) the cap. of the French dep. of Upper Pyrenees, on the Adour. It is one of the best-built and cleanest towns in the S. of France. Lat. 43° 14' N., Lon. 0° 4' E. Pop. 12,500. (B.)

Tarn, a dep. in the S. of France, intersected by a r. of the same name, which flows into the Garonne. Pop. 346,614. (B.) Capital, Albi.

TARN AND GARONNE (Fr. Tarne-et-Garonne, tarn å gå'-ronn'), a dep. in the S. or S. W. of France, on the rivers from which it takes its

Pop. 242,184. (B.) Capital, Montauban. TAR -RA-Go-NẠ or tậr-ra-go-uả (Anc. Tarraco), an archiepiscopal city and sea port of Spain, in Catalonia, cap. of a prov. of its own name, on the Mediterranean, 50 m. W. by S. of Barcelona. Lat. 41° 9 N., Lon. 1° 16' E. Pop. about 11,000. (B.)

Tar'-soos' (Anc. Tar/sus), a commercial t. in the S. E. part of Asia Minor, about 12 m. from the Mediterranean. Tarsus was the birthplace of St. Paul. Lat. 36° 56' N., Lon. 34° 54' E. Pop. estimated at 30,000 (B.), but some other writers rate it much lower.


TATI-NALL, a co. in the S. E. part of Ga., bordering on the Altamaha. Pop. 2,724. Co. t. Reidsville.

Taunton, tân-ton, a t. of England, in Somersetshire, 37 m. S. W. of Bristol. Pop., including an area of above 4 sq. m., 12,066.

TAUNTON, a manufacturing t. of Mass., one of the seats of justice of Bristol co., on a r. of its own name, about 31 m. in a straight line duc S. from Boston, with which city it is connected by a railroad. Pop. 7,645.

Taul-RI-DA, now usually called Krim, a gov. in the S. part of Europe, occupying the Crimea and a portion of the adjacent country.


Tay, the largest r. of Scotland: it rises on the frontiers of Argyleshire, a little N. of Loch Lomond, and, flowing north-easterly, passes through Loch Tay, and, after making a considerable circuit, expands itself into the estuary called the Frith of Tay, and falls into the sea,


110 m.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; n, nearly like ng. in about 56° 27' N. Lat., and 2° 45' W. Lon. Length estimated at

It is navigable for ships of 500 tons to Dundee, and for vessels of 100 tons to Perth, about 20 m. farther.

TazewELL, taz-wel, a co. in the S. W. part of Va., bordering on Ky. Pop. 6,290. Co. t. Jeffersonville.

Tazewell, a co. in the N. W. central part of III., S. E. of, and bordering on the Illinois r. Pop. 7,221. Co. t. Tremont.

TCHAD, a large lake of Africa, in Soodan, intersected by the 13th parallel of N. Lat. and the 15th meridian of E. Lon. Its E. and N. E. shorcs have never been visited by a European traveller, but its length is stated to be five days' sail. (P. C.)

TCHER'-NI-Gop! (Czernigow), an archiepiscopal city of Russia, cap. of a gov. of the same name, on the Desna, an affluent of the Dnieper. It was built in 1024, and is accounted the oldest town in European Russia. Lat. 51° 27' N., Lon. 31° 18' E. Pop. estimated at about 7,000. (P. C.)

Teche, tesh, a bayou of La., communicating with the Atcha falaya. TEFLIS. See TIFLIS.

TEHRAN, teh-rån!, or TEHERAN, (called, by the Persians, Teh-h'rån',) the modern cap. of Persia, situated in the prov. of Irak Adjemi, in the midst of a well-cultivated plain, wbich, however, is destitute of trees. It is surrounded by a high and strong wall of earth, flanked with numerous towers. The streets are narrow, and the houses have generally a mean appearance. Lat. 35° 40' N., Lon. 51° 23' E. The pop., which is rapidly increasing, is estimated by Balbi at not less than 130,000 during winter; in summer it is considerably less.

TEIGNMOUTH, tin'-muth, a small sea port t. and watering-place of England, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Teign, 12 m. S. of Exeter.

TEL/-fair, a co. in the S. E. central part of Ga., intersected by the ()cmulgee. Pop. 2,763. Co. t. Jacksonville.

TEMESVA'R, tem'-esh'-våår!, (i. e. the “fort of Temes,'') a royal free city of Hungary, cap. of the county of Temes (teml-ésh), and one of the handsomest towns and strongest fortresses in the Austrian empire, on a canal which has communication with the Danube. Lat. 45o 42 N., Lon. 21° 20' E. Pop. above 14,000. (B.)

TEN-ASI-SER-IM, a name applied to the British possessions in Farther India, which were acquired from the Birinans by the peace of 1826. The Tenasserim provinces constitute a territory extending along the E. shore of the Bay of Bengal, for about 450 m., between 10° and 17° N. Lat. The climate of this region is said to be remarkably healthy, and the country very productive.

TEN-ER-IFFE' (Sp. Tenerife, tă-nå-reel-fa), the largest and most populous of the Canary Islands, between 27° 50' and 29° 40' N. Lat., and 16° 5' and 17° 5' W. Lon. Length, 73 m.; greatest breadth, near 40 m. Area estimated at 1,012 sq. m. Pop. in 1829, 85,000. (P. C.) The most remarkable feature of this island is its celebrated mountain summit, known as the Peak of Teneriffe, which rises 11,946 ft. (P. C.)

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