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Fate, får, fall, fåt; me, mit; płne or pine, pin; nó, nôt; öö, as in good; above the level of the sea. It is an extinct volcano; but, from some crevices in the crater, hot watery vapours still issue. These crevices are called by the natives the nostrils of the Peak.

Ten'-NES-SEE' River, the largest affluent of the Ohio, rises in the W. part of N. C., and, flowing westerly into Tenn., afterwards makes an extensive circuit through the N. part of Ala., then changing its course, runs nearly N. through Tenn. and Ky., and falls into the Ohio, near 37° N. Lat. and 88° 35' W. Lon. According to many geographers, the Tennessee is formed by the union of the Clinch and Holston rivers. The whole length is estimated at 1,100 m. It is navigable for steamboats, during high water, to Florence, in Ala., about 260 m.

TENNESSEE, one of the U. S., between 35° and 36' 40' N. Lat., and 81° 40' and 900 W. Lon.; bounded on the N. by Kentucky and Virginia, S. E. by N. Carolina, S. by Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, and W. by the Mississippi r., which separates it from Arkansas and Missouri; and divided into 73 counties.* Length, from E. to W., about 430 m.; greatest breadth, from N. to S., about 110 m. Area estimated at 45,000 sq. m. Pop. 829,210; of whom 640,627 are whites, 5,524 free coloured persons, and 183,059 slaves. Nashville is the seat of government. Tennessee was admitted into the Union in 1796.

TERAMO, tēr/-8-mo, a t. of Naples, cap. of the prov. of Abruzzo Ultra, about 10 m. from the Adriatic. Lat. 42° 40' N., Lon. 13° 48' E. Pop. 9,000. (B.)

TERCEIRA, tēr-sale-ra, one of the principal islands of the Azores: it is intersected by the parallel of 38° 40' N. Lat., and the E. coast is grazed by the 27th meridian of W. Lon. Length, 24 m.; greatest breadth, 14 m. Area estimated at 260 sq. m. Pop. estimated at 50,000. (P. C.) Angra is the chief town.

TERMINI, tér-me-ne, (Anc. Ther/mæ, i. e. “hot baths,") a fortified seaport t. of Sicily, on the N. coast, remarkable for its hot mineral springs and baths, and for the ruins of the ancient city of Him'era, in its vicinity. Lat. 37° 57' N., Lon. 13° 42' E. Pop. about 14,000. (B.)

TERNI, tērl-ne, (Anc. Interam/na) a t. of Italy, in the Papal State, on the Nera, an affluent of the Tiber, 48 m. E. by N, from Rome. Pop. about 6,000. (P. C.) About 4 m. to the E., on the Velino (va-leel-no), a stream which flows into the Nera, is a celebrated cascade, called the Cascata del Marmore (kás-kål-tå dėl mar'-mo-ra). The water

* Anderson, Bedford, Benton, Bledsoe, Blount, Bradley, Campbell, Cannon, Carroll, Carter, Claiborne, Cocke, Coffee, Davidson, De Kalb, Dickson, Dyer, Fayette, Fentress, Franklin, Gibson, Giles, Granger, Greene, Hamilton, Hardiman, Hardin, Hawkins, Haywood, Henderson, Henry, Hickman, Humphreys, Jackson, Jefferson, Johnson, Knox, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lincoln, Madison, Marion, Marshall, Maury, McMinn, McNairy, Meigs, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan Obion, Overton, Perry, Polk, Rhea, Roane, Robertson, Rutherford, Sevier, Shelby, Smith, Stewart, Sullivan, Sumner, Tipton, Van Buren, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Weakly, White, Williamson, Wilson.

ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. falls, by three leaps, about 700 ft. (some say 750 ft.), producing one of the most beautiful and romantic cataracts in the world.*

TER/-RA DEL FU-E-Go, more properly TIERRA DEL Fuego, te-ér/-rå dėl fwal-go, a group of islands at the S. extremity of S. America, separated from the continent by the Strait of Magellan. T principal island is about 270 m. in length, and 180 or 190 m. in its greatest breadth. The name of Tierra del Fuego, or “ land of fire,” is supposed to have been given to this insular group by the Spaniards, from their having witnessed here a volcanic eruption. A phenomenon of this kind was observed, not many years since, by Captain Basil Hall, while on a visit to these islands. Tierra del Fuego is inhabited by savages, who appear to be in the lowest state of ignorance and barbarism. They are low in stature, and are of a dark copper or mahogany colour. The climate is cold, but the temperature is comparatively equable. Cloudy weather, rain, and wind prevail throughout the year, and fine days are rare.

TERRACINA, têr-rå-cheel-nå, (Anc. Anx'ur, afterwards Terraci'na), a sea port t. of Italy, in the Papal State, 60 m. S. S. E. of Rome, remarkable for its interesting remains of antiquity.

TERRE BONNE (i.e. "good land”), usually pronounced tar bone, a parish in the S. part of La., bordering on the sea. Pop. 4,410. Seat of justice, Williamsburg.

TESSIN. See Ticino.

TEX/-as, a republic of N. America, between 25° 50' and 38° N. Lat., and 93° 40' and 107 W. Lon. Bounded on the N. E. and S. E. by the United States and the Gulf of Mexico, and S. W. and W. by the Mexican states, from which it is separated by the Rio del Norte. Length, from its S. to its N. W. extremity, about 1,000 m.; greatest breadth, from E. to W., near 750 m. Area estimated at 320,000 sq. m. Pop. at 250,000, of whom about 25,000 are slaves. The soil of Texas, especially in the eastern and southern parts, is represented as being remarkably fertile ; vast prairies are found in every section of the country, alternating with tracts of land covered with timber. The climate of the low lands is very warm, but is said to be on the whole more salubrious than that of the southern United States. The Texan year is divided into the wet and the dry season. The former lasts from December to March. From April to October little rain falls, though thunder-storms frequently occur. Texas, as is doubtless known to most of our readers, formed, a few years since, in connexion with Coahuila, one of the Mexican states. In 1835, the Texans declared their independence, which was finally secured by the battle of San Jacinto (fought April 21st, 1836), in which Santa Anna, the Mexican commander-in-chief, was defeated and taken prisoner. Texas has since been recognised as an independent state, by the leading powers of Europe and America, and though Mexico still refuses to relinquish her claim, it is not proba

* See Childe Harold, Canto IV., stanzas 69, 70, and 71: also the accompanying


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Fåte, får, fall, fåt; mė, mét; plne or pine, pin; nd, not; oo, as in good; ble that she will ever be able to reconquer the country. The constitution adopted by the Texan government is essentially the same with that of the United States. Texas, however, is an integral and not a federal republic, resembling in this respect one of our states, though the chief magistrate is called a president. During the last session of Congress (1844-5), a bill was passed providing for the annexation of Texas to the United States; and, as the Texans appear generally to be warmly in favour of this measure, there is but little doubt that the union proposed will be consummated at no distant period. Washing, ton, a small town on the river Brazos, near 30° 20' Ñ. Lat., and 96° 20 W. Lon., is at present the capital of Texas.-Adj. and inhab. Texl-ẠN.

Texl-el, often called Tes-sel, a small i. off the W. coast of Holland, at the entrance of the Zuyder Zee.

THAMES, temz (Anc. Tam'esis), the largest and most important river of England, rises in Gloucestershire, near Cirencester, by several branches. The principal one, called the Isis, joins the Churn near Cricklade, where the united stream first takes the name of Thames; though, after the example of the literati of Oxford, it is generally called the Isis till after it passes that city. The general course of the river is easterly; it falls into the German Ocean in about 51° 30' N. Lat., and 0° 50' E. Lon. The whole length is computed at 210 m. It is navigable for ships of any burden to Deptford (about 4 m. S. E. of London), for vessels of 800 ions to Catharine's Docks, near the Tower of London, and for barges to the confines of Gloucestershire. The greatest breadth of the Thames at London, is rather more than a quarter of a mile; the mean breadth may be 700 or 800 ft.

Than'-ET, ÍSLE OF, a dist. of England, in the county of Kent, separated from the mainland by the r. Stour.

THEaki or Thaki, the-al-ke (Anc. Ithaca), one of the smaller Ionian islands, intersected by the parallel of 38° 25' N. Lat., and the meridian of 20° 40' E. Lon. Length 14 m.; breadth 5. m.

THEBES (Thelbæ; or Dios'polis, i. e. the “ city of 'Jove"), a once famous but long-ruined city of Upper Egypt, capital of the kingdom of the Pharaohs when in the zenith of their power, situated on both sides of the Nile. Lat. 25° 43' N., Lon. 32° 39' E. Its remains of antiquity are perhaps the most magnificent and imposing to be found on the globe. (See Penny Cyclopædia, articles Egypt, Carnac, and Luxor; also, " Wilkinson on the Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians.")

THEBES (Gr. Orbai, thebai, pronounced thel-và by the modern Greeks; Turk. Teel-vå), a t. of Greece, situated in a fine plain, about 30 m. N. N. W. of Athens. A few inscriptions are the only vestiges remaining, to remind us of the ancient capital of Bæotia. Pop. supposed not to exceed 5,000. (M.)

Theiss, tice (Hung. Tisza, tee-sóh; Anc. Tibis'cus), a r. of Hungary, the principal tributary of the Danube. It rises in the Carpathian Mountains, near 47° 30' N. Lat., and 25° E. Lon., and flowing at first north-westerly, then south-westerly, and afterwards southerly, falls into

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; TH, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. the Danube in about 45° 10' N. Lat., and 25° 22' E. Lon. Its whole course is estimated at not less than 500 m., for the greatest part of which it is navigable.

Thibet or Tibet, tib-et* or tib-et (called by the natives T'phoo-p’ho), an extensive country in the S. E. central part of Asia, of which very little is known. It appears to lie between 27° and 36° N. Lat., and 72o and 103° E. Lon., and is bounded on the S. W. by parts of the Hindoo Koosh and Himalaya Mountains, S. by the Himalayas and the northern boundaries of Assam, Birma, and the Chinese prov. of Yunnan. The eastern boundary is very uncertain, and the northern seems to be entirely unknown. As far as our information extends, Thibet consists almost wholly of table-land, the highest plains of which are more than 10,000 ft. above the level of the sea. The climate, as we might expect in a country so elevated, is generally cold;t indeed, one of the native appellations of Thibet is said to signify the “snowy region of the north." In some of the valleys, however, especially in that of the Dzangbo (or Sanpoo), it is very warm. During some seasons of the year the air is excessively dry, so that meat exposed to it, becomes so perfectly desiccated that it may be ground like bread, and may be preserved in this state for a number of years. It appears also that the Thibetans in like manner dry the bodies of their sovereign Lamas, instead of embalming them. This country produces many of the vegetable fruits and trees of Central and Southern Europe. All our domestic animals are known in Thibet ; besides which there are goats with a very fine fleece, and those with long fine hair; and argali (the Ovis ammon), a species of wild sheep, with horns of 100 lbs. weight. (P. C.) The inhabitants of Thibet belong to the Mongolian race. They are said to be mild and humane, but not to exhibit the enterprise of their neighbours either to the N. or S. The art of printing has been practised among them froin a remote age. Thibet is remarkable as the central seat of Boodhism, which is found here in its greatest purity. The priests are called lamas (i8l-mıs): the Dalaï (dål-li') Lama, or Grand Lama, who resides at Lassa, is believed to be an incarnation of the deity in a human form. On the dissolution of this body, he is sup

*“And spicy rods, such as illume at night

The bowers of Tibet, send forth odorous light,
Like Peris' wands when pointing out the road
For some pure spirit to its blest abode."

Moore's Lalla Rookh, † It appears, however, from the testimony of several respectable travellers, that some elevated regions of Thibet, which, according to the received theory, should be buried in everlasting snow, are not only habitable, but teem with animal and vegetable lisc. In the most southern portions of this country, the line of perpe. tual congelation (if we follow the general rule on this subject) could not be placed higher than 12,300 ft. above the sea; and yet, on an elevation of more than 16,000 feet, Captain Gerrard saw horses gallopping about in all directions, and feeding on the very tops of the heights, while various kinds of birds were soaring in the air above them. (See British India, by Murray, Wilson, &c. Harper's edition, vol. III., page 204.)

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Faie, får, fåll, fåt; me, mét; plne or pine, pin; no, nðt; oo as in good; posed to re-appear in some infant, who accordingly passes through the term of his mortal existence with all the honours of the grand laina. Adj. and inhab. Tyıb'-E-TAN.

THIELT, teelt, a t. of Belgium, in the province of W. Flanders, 13 m. S. S. E. of Bruges. It is the chief market for the flax trade of Flanders. Lat. 51° N., Lon. 3° 20' E. Pop. 12,000. (P. C.)

THERS, te-air', a t. of France, in the dep. of Puy de Dôme. Lat. 45° 51' N., Lon. 3° 33' E. Pop. 6,807. (M.)

THIONVILLE, te'-on-vill', a fortified t. of France, in the dep. of Moselle, on the r. Moselle, 16 m. N. of Metz. Pop. 4,201. (M.)

Tuom!-s, a co. in the S. part of Ga.,,bordering on Florida. Pop. 6,766. Co. t. Thomasville.

TyOM'-AS-TỌN, a t. of Me., in Lincoln co., on St. George's r., 12 m. from the sea, and 37 m., in a straight line, S. E. of Augusta. Here is the Maine State Prison. Pop. of township, 6,227.

Thorn, torn, a celebrated fortified t. of Prussia, on the Vistula, here crossed by a long wooden bridge, 50 m. S. S. W. of Marienwerder. Lat. 53° N., Lon. 18° 36' E. Pop, about 11,000, without the military, or 14,000, including them. (B.) Thorn was the birth-place of Copernicus.

THREE RIVERS (Fr. Trois Rivières, trwả re-ve-air'), a t. of Lower Canada, cap. of a dist. of the same name, and formerly of all Canada, on the St. Lawrence, at the mouth of the St. Maurice, which here being divided, by two small islands, into three channels, bas given name to tbe town. Lat. 46° 23' N., Lon. 72° 29' W. Pop. estimated at between 4,000 and 5,000. (M.)

Thun, toon, a small t. of Switzerland, in the canton of Berne, on the r. Aar, about a mile below its egress from the lake of this name, 16 m. S. S. E. of Berne. Pop. 4,833. (P. C.) The Lake of Thun (called by the Germans Thuner-See, tool-ner så), is about 13 m. in length, and 3 m. in its greatest breadth.

Thurgau, toor!-gou, (Fr. Thurgovie, tür'-go-ve'; Lat. Thurgo' via ;) a canton at the N. E. extremity of Switzerland, bordering on L. Con. stance and the Rhine. Area about 270 sq. m. Pop. 84,124. (P. C.) FRAUENFELD, froul-en-felt', the cap., situated in a valley near the Thur (toor), an affluent of the Rhine, has only about 1,800 inhabitants. (B.)

THURINGJA, thu-rin-je-a, (Ger. Thüringen, tül-ring-en,) the name of an extensive tract in the central part of Germany, watered by the rivers Saale and Werra, and including the Thuringian Forest. Its limits have varied at different times, and the name is now but little used, the original Thuringia having become incorporated with the territories of different states.- Adj. THURINGIAN, thu-rin/-je-an.

THURINGIAN FOREST (Ger. Thüringer Wald, tül-ring-er wält), a hilly and woody tract of country in the central part of Germany, forming' a portion of the ancient Hercynian Forest, extending through Gotha, Weimar, Coburg, and some other small states.

THURLES, a t. of Ireland, co. of Tipperary, on the Suir, 77 m. S. W. of Dublin. Pop. about 7,000. (M.)

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