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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. Ti/BER (It. Tevere, til-vå-rd; Anc. Ti'bris or Tiberis), a celebrated r. of Central Italy, which rises in the Tuscan Apennines, and, flowing south-easterly to within about 20 m. of Rome, then turns to the S. W., and falls into the Mediterranean by two mouths, 17 m. below that city. Its whole length is about 150 in. It is said to have been anciently navigable for vessels of considerable burden, as far as Rome, and for small boats nearly to its source; but, at present, the navigation is at all times difficult, especially near its mouth and in the vicinity of Rome. Its average breadth, in the lower part of its course, is about 300 ft.

Tiber. See THIBET.

Ticino, te-cheel-no, (Anc. Tici'nus), a r. in the N. of Italy, which rises in the S. part of Switzerland, and, flowing northward through L. Maggiore, falls into the Po, 24 m. S. of Milan. It is navigable to L. Maggiore.

Ticino (Fr. Tessin, tis'-sản'), a canton in the S. E. part of Switzerland, bordering on Italy. It derives its name from the above river, by which it is intersected. Area, 1,042 sq. m. Pop. in 1837, 113,923. (M.) This is the only Italian canton in the Swiss confederation; the inhabitants speak a dialect resembling the Milanese; they are all Roman Catholics.

Tipl-lis or Terlis, the cap. of the Russian prov. of Georgia, on the Koor, about midway between the Black and Caspian seas. The houses are generally ill built; the streets are crooked and extremely narrow. The newer portion of the town, however, which is separated from the old by the ruins of the ancient fortifications, has broader streets, and buildings in the European style. Tiflis is the residence of a Georgian metropolitan and an Armenian archbishop. Lat. 41° 41' N., Lon. about 45° E. The pop. is rapidly increasing, and is now probably near 45,000. (P. C.)

Tigré, teel-gra', the most powerful and warlike of the three principal kingdoms into which Abyssinia is divided, situated E. of the r. Tacazzé. Adowa is the chief town.

T1/-GRIS, a large r. of Asia, which rises in Asiatic Turkey, 70 or 80 m. N.W. of Diarbekir, between 38° and 39° N. Lat., and near 39° E. Lon. Its general course is south-easterly, and in about 31° N. Lat. and near 47° E. Lon., it unites with the Euphrates, to form the Shatt-elArab. The whole length of the Tigris is estimated at 920 m. Between Diarbekir and Mosul (ncar 300 m.) the river is navigable for rafts, at certain seasons: below Mosul, it is navigable throughout the year.

TIU-BURG, a manufacturing t. of Holland, in N. Brabant, 14 m. S.W. of Bois le Duc. Lat. 51° 33' N., Lon. 5° 4' E. Pop. 10,000. (B.)

Til/-sit, a t. of Prussia, on the Memel, 60 m. N. E. of Königsberg. Here was concluded, July, 1807, the celebrated treaty of peace between France, and Prussia and Russia. Lat. 55° 4' N., Lon. 21° 56' E. Pop. about 12,000. (B.)

Fate, får, fall, fåt; mé, mit; pine or pine, pin; nd, not; õő, as in good;

TIM-BUCI-roo or Tom-Booc'-TO0 (more properly Ten-Boctoo), a commercial t., cap. of a kingdom of the same name, in the N. W. central part of Africa, near the S. border of the Great Desert, about 8 m. from the left bank of the Joliba or Niger. Though its importance has much diminished froin what it was in the 14th century, when the kingdom of Timbuctoo was the nucleus of a great empire, it may still be regarded as the principal centre of commerce in this part of Africa. Lat. 17° 10' N., Lon. about 3? W. Pop. estimated from 10,000 to 12,000. (B.)

Tr'-mor, the largest of the Lesser Sunda Islands, between 8° 20' and 10° 30' S. Lat., and 123° 20' and 127° 20' E. Lon. Length, near 300 m., with a mean breadth of about 45 m. Timor is divided among a great number of petty kingdoms, nearly all of which are dependent on the Portuguese or Dutch. (B.)

TI-MOR-LAUT', one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, intersected by the 8th parallel of S. Lat., and 131st meridian of E. Lon. It is about 90 m. in length, and 40 m. in its greatest breadth. Scarcely anything is known of it except that the natives are unfriendly to strangers.

• Ti-o-ra, a small r. which rises in the N. part of Pa., and, making a circuit, passes into N. Y., and finally returns into Pa., and joins the E. branch of the Susquehanna.

Tioga, a co. in the S. part of N. Y., intersected by the E. branch of the Susquehanna, and bordering on Pa. Pop. 20,527. Co. t. Owego.

Tioga, a co. in the N. part of Pa., on the sources of the Tioga r., and bordering on N. Y. Pop. 15,498. Co. t. Wellsborough.

Tip-PAH, à co. in the N. part of Miss., bordering on Tenn. Pop. 9,444. Co. seat, Ripley.

TIPPECANOE, tip'-pe-ka-nool, a co. in the W. N. W. part of Ind., where the Tippecanoe river joins the Wabash. Pop. 13,724. Co. t. Lafayette.

Tip-PER-A'-ry, an inland co. in the S. of Ireland, prov. of Munster, S. E. of, and bordering on the Shannon. Pop. in 1831, 402,564. (P. C.)

TIPPERARY, a t. of Ireland, cap. of the above co., 23 m. S. E. of Limerick. Pop. 6,972.

Tıpl-ton, a co. near the S. W. extremity of Tenn., bordering on the Mississippi r. Pop. 6,800. Co. t. Covington.

Tor-EE',* written also Tirree, Tiry, and Tyres, an i. on the W. coast of Scotland, belonging to Argyleshire, above 12 m. in length, and 5 m. in its greatest breadth. Lat. 56° 30' N., Lon. 7° W.

TIRLEMONT, těér!'-mon', (Flem. Thienen or Tienen, teel-nen,) a manufacturing t. of Belgium, in the prov. of S. Brabant, 11 m. S. E. of Louvain. Pop. 8,000. (B.)

“They left LochTua on their lee,
And they wakened the men of the wild TIREE."

Scott's Lord of the Isles, Canto IV.

ou, as in our ; th, as in thin ; ty, as in this ; n, nearly like ng.

TISHAMINGO, tish-a-ming'-go, a co. forming the N. E. extremity of Miss. Pop. 6,681. Co. seat, Jacinto.

Titicaca, tit-e-kål-kả, the largest L. in S. America, situated partly in Bolivia and partly in Peru, between 15° 20' and 16° 40' N. Lat., and 68° and 71° W. Lon. Length, near 140 m.; greatest breadth, about 35 m. The surface of its waters is higher than the Peak of Teneriffe, being 12,795 ft. above the level of the Pacific. (P. C.) In some places, its depth has been ascertained to be 120 fathoms, but many parts are probably much deeper.

Tivoli, teel-vo-le, (Anc. Tilbur,) a t. of Italy, in the Papal State, on the Teverone (těv'-4-rol-na-Anc. Anio), 18 m. E. by N. of Rome, remarkable for its delightful situation and its interesting antiquities. Pop. about 6,000. (B.)

TO-BAl-GO (see Int. X.), one of the W. India Islands, belonging to Great Britain, intersected by the parallel of 11° 10 N. Lat., and the meridian of 60° 40' W. Lon. Length, 26 m. ; greatest breadth, 7 or 8 m. Pop. 13,700. (M.)

TO-BOLSK', an archiepiscopal city of Asiatic Russia, cap. of W. Siberia and of a gov. of its own name, on the Irtish, near its junction with the Tobol. The houses are built mostly of wood; the streets are generally broad, straight, and paved with wood. Lat. 48° 12' N., Lon. 68° 6' E. Pop., exclusive of the military, 20,000. (P. C.)

Tocantins, 1o-can-teens', a large r. of Brazil, which flows into the estuary of Para. Length estimated at 1,500 m.

Tocat, to-kåt', a large t. of Asiatic Turkey, on the Yesheel Irmak. Its appearance is said to resemble that of a European city. Lat. about 40° N., Lon. 36° 50' E. Pop. estimated by Balbi, on the authority of M. Fontanier, at near 100,000; but several other writers make it much less.

Todd, a co. in the S. W. part of Ky., bordering on Tenn. Pop. 9,991. Co. t. Elkton.


TO-KAY! (Hung. pron. to-koi), a t. in the N. E. part of Hungary, at the confluence of the Bodrog and Theiss, remarkable as the market for the famous wine of this name, which is produced in the surrounding country. Lat. 48° 7' N., Lon. 21° 24' E. Pop. 4,000. (B.)

To-LE/-DO (Sp. pron. to-lal-Do; Anc. Tole/tum), a celebrated but decayed city of Spain, cap. of a prov. of the same name, and formerly of the kingdom of Castile, situated on a hill near the Tagus, 36 m. S. S. W. of Madrid. It is the seat of a university and the residence of an archbishop. The Cathedral of this place is the largest and one of the finest in the kingdom. Toledo was formerly noted for its manufacture of swords; those now made here are said still to command a high price. Lat. 39° 55' S., Lon. 4° W. Pop. 15,000. (B.) ---- Adj. and inhab. To-LE-DẠN.

Tou/-LAND, a co. in the N. N. E. part of Conn., bordering on Mass. Pop. 17,980. Co. t. Tolland.

Toluca, to-lool-rá, a well-built t. of the Mexican States, about 10 m.

Fite, får, fall, füt; m', mët; p'ne, or p nr, pin; n), nðt; öö as in good ; N. of the mountain called the Nevado de Toluca (see Nevado), which has an elevation of 2,372 toises, or about 15,170 English ft. (B.) Lat. 19° 16' N., Lon. 99° 21' W. Pop. 12,000. (P. C.)

TOM-BIG/-BEE or TOM-BECK'-BE, a r. which rises in the N. E. part of Miss., and, flowing southerly into Ala., unites with the Alabama river to form the Mobile. Length estimated at 450 m. It is navigable for steamboats to Columbus, in Miss.

Tompl-KINS, a co. in the S. W. central part of N. Y., at the S. extremity of Cayuga Lake. Pop. 37,948. Co. t. Ithaca.

Tomsk, a handsome t. of Asiatic Russia, cap. of a gov. of the same name, on the Tom, an affluent of the Obi. Lat. 56° 30' N., Lon. 850 10' E. Pop. 8,000 or 9,000. (P. C.)

Tonkin or Tonquin, ton-keen', a kingdom in the S. E. part of Asia, bordering on the gulf of this naine. (See Cochin China.)

TONkin or Tonguin, GULF OF, is situated between 180 and 22° N. Lat., and 1069 and 110° E. Lon. Length above 200 m.; greatest breadth about 170 m.

Too'-LẠ (Tula), an important manufacturing t. of European Russia, cap. of a gov. of the same name, on the Oopa (Upa), an affluent of the Oka, 110 m. S. of Moscow. Its appearance from a distance, owing to the numerous spires and domes, is very imposing; but the crooked and ill-paved streets, and the houses built mostly of wood, tend to destroy, on a nearer view, the favourable impression which the approaching spectator may have received. Toola is remarkable for its manufacture of arms, the most extensive in the empire, whence it has been called the Birmingham of Russia. It employs above 7,000 workmen, producing annually 70,000 muskets and 25,000 side-arms. Cutlery of various kinds is also manufactured here. There are rich mines of iron ore of an excellent quality in the vicinity, but the metal employed in the manufactures is said to be principally, if not exclusively, froin Siberia. Lat. 54° 12' N., Lon. 37° E. Pop. 51,000. (P. C.)

TOORKISTAN, toork'-is-tản' (i. e. the “country of the Turks”), or INDEPENDENT Tartary, is situated in the N. W. central part of Asia, between 35° and 54° N. Lat., and 50° and 82° E. Lon., bounded on the N. by the Russian dominions, E. and S. E. by the Chinese empire, S. by Afghanistan and Persia, and W. by the Russian empire, from which it is partly separated by the Caspian Sea. Length, from E. to W., near 1,500 m. ; greatest breadth, from N. to S., about 1,250 m. Area vaguely estimated at 1,000,000 sq. m. A large portion of this extensive country consists of elevated table-land, intersected by ridges of mountains, some of which appear to be not less than 18,000 ft. above the level of the sea. Deserts of greater or less extent are found in different parts. Toorkistan is divided into a number of independent states or khanats, which vary greatly in extent and population. All the chiefs or khans appear to be possessed of a power more or less arbitrary. The principal khanats are those of Bokhara, Khiva, and Khokand, which are treated of under their respective heads. Mahometanism is the prevailing religion of Toorkistan; it is said that the laws of

ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; th, as in this ; N, nearly like ng. the Koran are more strictly observed here, than in any other Mahometan country. (For some further particulars respecting this country, see BOKHARA.)

Toor/-KO-MẠNS or toor'-ko-måns', a nation of Tartars, originally inhabiting the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea, but who are now spread not only over Toorkistan, but Persia, Afghanistan, and a considerable portion of Asiatic Turkey. They lead a wandering life and live in tents. They are said to be excellent horsemen, and to make hardy and brave soldiers.

TOPayos, to-pil-yos, written also TAPAJOs, a large r. of Brazil, flow. ing into the Amazon near 2° 20'S. Lat., and 54° 40' W. Lon. Entire length perhaps 1,000 m. It is navigable for boats the greater part of its course.

TOPlitz, TOEPLITZ or Teplitz, tep'-lits, a small t. of Bohemia, on the Saubach (soul-båk), 47 m. N. W. of Prague, noted for its hot mineral springs and baths. Permanent pop. about 2,600. (B.)

TOR-Bay', a spacious basin on the S. coast of England, in Devon. shire, which has several times been resorted to as a place of shelter by the fleets of England.

Torgau, tor'-gou, a fortified t. of Prussian Saxony, on the Elbe, 66. m. S. S. W. of Berlin. Pop. 5,300. (B.)

TORNEả, pronounced and sometimes written Tor!-NE-0,* a small t. of European Russia, on the N. W. frontier of the grand-duchy of Finland, at the mouth of the r. Torneå, which falls into the Gulf of Bothnia. Lat. 65° 51' N., Lon. 24° 12' E.

To-ron'-to (formerly York), lately the cap. of Upper Canada, on the N. shore of L. Ontario, towards its W. extremity. Lat. 43° 35' N., Lon. 79° 20' W. The pop. of this city has increased of latter years with extraordinary rapidity: in 1826, it was only 1,677; in 1836, it was 9,652, and in 1839, it amounted to 15,000. (P. C.)

Tor'-SHIOK' or Torznok (Torjok), a t. of European Russia, in the gov. of Tver. Lat. 57° 2' N., Lon. 35' 3' E. Pop. stated at 15,000. (P. C.)

Tor-To-L!, one of the Virgin Islands, in the W. Indies, belonging to Great Britain. Lat. 19° 27' N., Lon. 64° 35' W. Length about

12 m.

TOR-To-99 (Anc. Derto'sa), a fortified t. of Spain, in Catalonia, on the left bank of the Ebro, with several interesting remains of antiquity. Lat. 40° 49' N., Lon. 0° 33' E. Pop. about 16,000. (B.)

Tot'-ness, a t. of England, in Devonshire, 20 m. S. by E. of Exeter. Pop. 3,849.

Toul, tool, a t, of France, in the dep. of Meurthe, on the Moselle, here crossed by a bandsome bridge, 13 m. W. of Nancy. Lat. 48° 40' 32" N., Lon. 5° 5' 3" E. Pop. 7,279. (M.) Toulon, lool-lon, or too-lon', (Anc. Tello Martius), the second naval

* " Cold as the rocks on TORNEO's hoary brow."--CAMPBELL..

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