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3 O has a sound similar to the French eu or nearly like that of e in her. It may be anglicized by e. (See Introduction, xx, 8.) & s o the French w, being intermediate between ee and oo. AIA., O. .5. A letter when it has a line underneath, or when italicised, is silent; e.g. in WALKER, GREENE, Öb-öh.* 6 to, small capital, in the pronunciation of a name, indicates that its sound is similar to TH in this. 7 to and k, small capitals, indicate the sound of the German chor one similar to it. (VI. and XX., 19.) S. th; sunall capital, has a sound nearly similar to the preceding, but more resembling a strongly aspirated h. 9. 1 (l liquid) is to be pronounced like lli in million: it blends the sounds of land y consonant. (XXVII, 12.) 10. M and N, small capitals, are nasal, being similar in sound to ng. (XIX., 19.) ll. R, small capital, has the sound of r" in terror. (XIX., 24.) 12. U, small capital, indicates the sound of the French eu. It is pronounced nearly as w in tub or in fur. 13. tw, capital, has a sound similar to our v. 14. Y and cy, at the end of an unaccented sylable, sound like e in me. 15. Ai and ay are considered to be equivalent to a in fate. 16. Au and aw have the sound of a in fall. 17, ee indicates a sound similar to i in pit or in spirit. 18. Ow, when the o is not marked long (Öw), is to be pronounced like out in hour. 19. Gh is sometimes employed in pronunciation for g hard. 20. S sounds like z.

If The sounds of the figured vowels are explained at the top of the page, in the body of the work.


1. Every letter, or combination of letters, occurring in the pronunciation of a word or name, is to be pronounced with its proper English sound; e.g., ou is to be sounded as in our, sour, &c., and not like 00, as in tour, and some other words of French origin: g must be hard, as in get, give, &c.; ch, as in chill, choose, unless the h be marked as silent, in which case ch has the sound of k.

2. In the pronunciation of foreign European names, care should be taken not to allow A to fall into the third or broad sound of this vowel—an error to which American and English speakers are very prone—it would be much less a fault, generally speaking, to pronounce it like a in fat. It should, however, be observed, that a preceding the nasal N in French, is usually broad, almost like o in not. (See Int. XIX., 19, 20, and 21.)

A, in some names, appears to have a sound intermediate between à and fl.

•The h. in this and similar instances, is employed in order to enable the learner more readily to pronounce the vowel short, as in not; were it omitted, thus, ob-o, inexperienced pupil might be in danger of pronouncing tha o long, as in no, or indistinctly, as we often hear it in piano. t it is intended that the mere English scholar shall pronounce these letters with their proper English sound. (See Introduction, WI.)

Thus the a in the penultimate syllable of ALABAMA, is somewhat longer than in fat, though not so broad as in far. It may be remarked that some orthoepists assign such a sound to a in certain English words, e.g. in fast. 3. When e and 0 end a syllable in the pronunciation of a word, they are always to be pronounced distinctly with their first sound (as in me or no.) 4. E is rarely figured when occurring in a syllable with the primary accent (IX.); in other cases e, and also the other vowcle, are frequently thus marked, in order to guard against their being pronounced indistinctly. 5. O marked long (Ö), though often employed in English names, in order to show merely that this letter has its first sound, when it occurs in the pronunciation of foreign words or names, always indicates that the sound of the vowel is to be prolonged. In like manner, Ó indicates that this letter has a sound like 0, in not, to be pronounced distinctly but very short. 6. The sound of u before a vowel, in Spanish words, is usually represented by w. Thus nuevo is pronounced nwa'-po, which is nearly equivalent to moo-a-ro. In Italian, the u before a vowel appears to be sounded more distinctly: accordingly, we have indicated the pronunction of nuovo, duomo, by noo-o'-vo, doo-o'-mo. In these cases, however, noo-0 and doo-0 are to be pronounced almost in one syllable.

7. When two or more geographical names, with the same spelling, occur in succession, and the pronunciation of the first only is given, it is intended that all shall be pronounced alike. 9. The pronunciation of a name is distinguished from the name itself, by its not beginning with a capital. In examples like the following, BRFs-LAu or bres'-lou, the latter spelling has reference to pronunciation only, while the former gives the true mode of writing the name and the pronunciation at the same time. Had we written BREslau, bres'-lau or bres'-lou, the same end would have been attained, but at the expense of brevity. 9. The number of syllables in a word or name is indicated by the hyphens; e.g. SMy the not being divided by a hyphen, is to be pronounced in one syllable; pane'-ya in two: the e, in such syllables as pane, is silent, being only used to render the preceding a long, as in fate. In some few cases, however, where a name of two or more syllables is necessarily familiar to all, we have not divided it by hyphens, nor indicated the pronunciation in any way; e.g., HENRy, William, &c. In Latin names, the accent only has been marked. 10. When the right or left bank of a river is spoken of the reader is supposed to be looking down the stream, or, in other words, going with the current. 11. It may be remarked, respecting the adjective and appellation of the inhabitants, derived from the names of places (see PREFAck, pages vi. and vii.), that, if the latter has man for its termination, in the singular, the plural is often expressed by the adjective; e.g., singular, FRENchMAN; plural, time FRENch : singular, ScotchMAN; plural, the Scotch, &c. We sometimes hear also “the SPANish,” instead of “THE SPANIARDs;” but such expressions are not to be approved. 12. When no date is given, the population of places in this country has reference to the census of 1840; the population of Great Britain to the census of 1841, and that of France to the census of 1836. 13. When, immediately after a geographical name, there occur one or more names beginning with a capital, enclosed in a parenthesis, these are to be understood as different modes of writing the first, but if the word enclosed begins with a small letter, it is merely the pronunciation of the first name.

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AA, #3, the name of several small rivers of Europe, in France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Germany. AAchEN. See Aix-LA-CHAPELLE. AALBorg, ol/-borg, a t. of Denmark; cap. of a bishopric of the same name, in Jutland, on the S. side of the extensive arm of the sea called Lymfiord. Lat. 57° 2' N., Lon. 9°57' E. Pop. estimated at about 9,000. (B.) AAR or AARE, AAR, a r. in the N. part of Switzerland, which rises near the E. extremity of the canton of Berne, and, traversing the lakes of Brienz and Thun, passes through the cantons of Soleure and Aargau, and falls into the Rhine, 28 m. E. of Bâle. Length, about 170 m. It becomes navigable at its egress from the lake of Thun. AARGAU, AAR/-gou, (Fr. Argovie, ano-go-ves; Lat. Argo/via), a canton in the N. part of Switzerland, bordering on the Rhine. Area, 505 sq. m. Pop., in 1836, 182,755. (M.) AARHuus, ow-hooce, a seaport t. of Denmark, in Jutland; cap. of a bishopric of the same name, on the E. coast. Lat. 56°9' 35" N., Lon. 10° 14' E. Pop. about 8,000. (B.) Abakansk, fl-bā-kānsk', a t. of Siberia, on the Abakan!, an affluent of they enisei, in the prov. of Kolyvan, remarkable for the ancient tombs discovered in its vicinity, which contain ornaments of silver and gold, and on which are to be seen statues of men from seven to nine feet high, with carved work of an extraordinary character. It appears that this country, at present so imperfectly civilized, was once inhabited by a people acquainted with writing and other arts. (B.) Lat. about 54° N., Lon. 91° 15' E. An ANCAY, Ab-àn-kis, a t. of Peru, 60 m. W. by S. from Cuzco. Lat. 13° 40′ S., Lon. about 73° W. Pop. about 50%. (B. ABANo, ä-bā/-no, a t. of Italy, near Padua, noted for its hot sulphurous baths. Permanent pop. 2,600. (B.) 53 5 *

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ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; N, nearly like ng.

ABRANTEs, A-brån'-t's, a t. of Portuguese Estremadura, 74 m. N. E. of Lisbon. Pop. 5,000. (B.)

AbRolhos, A-broles-yoce dangerous sand-banks and rocks on the coast of Brazil, in about 18° S. Lat., 30°20' W. Lon.

ABRUD BANYA, Öb-rood' baán'yūh", a small t. of Transylvania, remarkable for its gold mines. Lat. 46°28' N., Lon. 22° 10' E.

ABRuzzo, ä-broots-so, an extensive territory forming the N. E. portion of the Neapolitan dominions. It is divided into Abruzzo Ultra (ools-tra), and Abruzzo Citra (chees-trä), or, farther and nearer Abruzzo.

Abuscheh R. See Abooshehr.

Abutige. See Aboorizh.

AB-vs-sin'-1-A, a kingdom of Africa, bounded on the E. by the Red Sea, N. by Sennaar, W. and S. by Sennaar, Kordofan, and barbarous regions; about 770 m. long, and 550 broad. The ranges of mountains, with which it is everywhere intersected, preserve the air cool, and afford a sufficient supply of water. In consequence of this physical structure, Abyssinia is exceedingly fertile, and is exempted, in a great measure, from that sand which dooms so large a portion of Africa to sterility. The chief alimentary plants are, millet, barley, wheat, maize, and teff: All travellers concur in praising the fine wheaten bread of Abyssinia; but it is eaten only by people of rank. Teff grows on every soil, and affords the bread which is in universal use.

This once powerful kingdom, which during so many ages preserved its independence against the efforts of paganism and the sword of Mahomet, is now a prey to anarchy, and completely dismembered. Among the various kingdoms into which it has been divided, the following are the principal: The kingdom of AM HARA, of TIGRE, and of Siro A or Shwa. These will be spoken of in their respective places.—The Abyssinians profess Christianity, but their religion is filled with Judaical observances.—Adj. and inhab., Ab-vs-sin/-i-AN.

Acapulco, äc-à-pool/-co, a t. of Mexico, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. Its port is the finest in Mexico, and has few equals in the world. Lat. 16° 50' N., Lon. 99° 49' W. Pop. 4,000. (B.)

Ac'-co-MAck", a county of Virginia, on the E. shore of Chesapeake Bay. Pop. 17,096. Seat of justice, Accomack c. h.

Achee.N. See ATcheeN.

AchM1M. See Akhmy M.

Achstouney N. See Osh Mooney N.

Acqui. See Aqui.

AcRA, 4/-kra, or Ac/-CRA, a kingdom on the gold coast of Africa, about 26 m. in length, and from 12 to 20 in breadth-Also the chieft. of the above kingdom. Lat. 5°30' N., Lon.0° 15' W. Pop. estimated at 12,000. (B.)

AcRE, 4/-k'r or A/k’r, (Turk. and Arab. Akskä,) an ancient city and seaport of Palestine, in a pashalic of its own name, on a bay of the

* “The teff or tafo is a grain smaller than mustard seed, and well tasted Blumenbach thinks that it is the same with the Poa Abyssinica.” (M.B.)


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