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ALLEGHANY, a co. forming the W. extremity of Maryland. Pop. 15,690. Co. t. Cumberland. ALLEGHANY, a co. in the central part of Virginia, near the source of James r. Pop. 2,749. Co. t. Covington. ALV-LEN, a co. in the S. part of Kentucky, bordering on Tennessee, a little W. of the Cumberland r. Pop. 7,329. Co. t. Scottsville. ALLEN, a co. in the W. N. W. part of Ohio, on the Miami Canal. Pop. 9,079. Co. t. Lima. * ALLEN, a co. in the N. E. part of Indiana, intersected by the Maumeer. Pop. 5,942. Co. t. Fort Wayne. Allier, Ål-le-A, a r. of France, flowing into the Loire, 3 m. below Nevers. ALLIER, a dep. in the E. central part of France, intersected by the above r. Pop. 309,270. (B.) Capital, Moulins. Al/-Lo-A, a seaport of Scotland, in Clackmannan co., on the N. bank of the Forth, 27 m. W. N. W. of Edinburgh. The harbour is safe and commodious. Lat. 56° 7' N., Lon. 3° 46' W. Pop. 5,434. ALMADEN, Al-mâ-dens, a t. of Spain, in New Castile, 55 m. N. of Cordova. Its mines of quicksilver are regarded as the richest in Europe. Pop. about 10,000. The mines of Almaden have been long known, and are supposed to have been wrought by the Romans; a few years ago they yielded, annually, about 22,000 quintals of mercury. (B.) ALMANs A, Al-mâns-sà, a t. of Spain, 60 m. S. W. of Valencia. Pop. 5,000. (M.) ALMEIDA, al-mâ/e-dà, one of the strongest fortresses in Portugal, situated in the prov. of Beira, on the Spanish frontier. Lat. 40° o: Lon. 6° 52' W. Pop. 1,150. (P. C.) ALMERIA, Al-mâ-reel-ā, a rich maritime t. of Spain, in the prov. of Granada, near the mouth of the r. Almeria, 77 m. S. E. of Granada, with a good harbour. Lat. 36° 44' N., Lon. 2° 31' W. Pop. 19,000. (B. ALMUNECAR, al-moo-nā-căr, a small seaport t. of Spain, with a § harbour and a castle, 38 m. S. of Granada. Lat. 36°42' N., Lon. 3° 47' W. ALNwick or ALNEwick, an/-nik, a t. of England, in the co. of Northumberland, 32 m. N. by W. of Newcastle. At the N. entrance of the town stands Alnwick Castle, a magnificent mansion, belonging to the duke of Northumberland. The original building is supposed to have been a stronghold in the time of the Romans. Lat. 55° 25' N., Lon. 1°42' W. Pop. 4,945. Al-PE/-NA (Anamickee), a co. in the N. E. part of Mich., bordering on L. Huron. ALPs, Alps, mountains of Europe, which divide Italy from France, Switzerland, and Germany. Their general form resembles that of a crescent. Beginning near the mouth of the War, on the Gulf of Genoa, they terminate, after many windings, near the Gulf of Trieste, on the Adriatic. The highest summit is Mount Blanc. (See BLANc, Mount.) ALPs, Low ER, (Fr. Basses-Alpes, bass Alp,) a dep, near the S. E. ou, as in our; th; as in thin ; th, as in this; N, nearly likeng.

foil, of France, bordering on Italy. Pop. 159,045. (B.) Capital, igne. Alps, Upper, (Fr. Hautes-Alpes, ote zálp,) a dep, in the S. E. part of France, N. of, and bordering on the preceding. Pop. 131,162. (B.) Capital, Gap. ALsACE, all-såss', a former prov. of France, now divided into the deps. of Upper and Lower Rhine. ALs, als, usually, though improperly, written AlseN, all-sen, a fertile island in the Baltic, lying between Fünen and the E. coast of Sleswick. It is about 20 m. long and 8 broad. Pop. about 15,000. (P. C.) ALTAI Al-tá-e or āl-ti', mountains of Asia, which commence near the sea of Aral, and terminate at East Cape, on the Pacific Ocean, in the 17tth degree of W. Long. They traverse, under different names, an extent of near 5.0.0 miles. The highest part of the chain is computed at 11,512 feet (1,800 toises) above the level of the sea. (B.) ALTAMAHA, aul'-ta-ma-hau', a r. of Georgia, formed by the union of the Oconee and Ocmulgee. It runs S. E., and empties into the sea about 60 m. S. W. of Savannah. It is navigable for vessels of 30 tons as far as Milledgeville, on the Oconee branch, about 300 m. from the sea. ALTAMURA, Al-to-moo'-rà, a t. of Naples, in the prov. of Bari. Lat. 40° 47' N., Lon. 16° 33' E. Pop. estimated at 16,000. (B.) ALTENBURG, all-ton-burg", (Ger. pron. all-ten-bóðng",) a t. of Germany; cap. of the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg, on the Pleisse, with several important literary institutions. Lat. about 51° N., Lon. 12° 30' E. Pop. about 12,000. (B.) Alton, aul'-ton, a flourishing t. of Ill., in Madison co., on the Mississippi, 3 m. above the month of the Missouri. In commercial advantages, it is second to no other place in the state. Pop. 2,340. ALTonA or ALTENA, all-ton-á), a city of Holstein, the second town of the Danish dominions, as regards industry, commerce, and population; on the Elbe, about 2 m. W. of Hamburg. It is a free port, and contains a mint, besides several important literary and scientific institutions. The Observatory is in Lat. 53° 32' 51" N., Lon. 9° 56' 50" E. Pop. estimated at above 27,000. (B.) ALTorr, Al-toRf, or ALtdoor, (i.e. “Old Village,”) the cap. of the Swiss canton of Uri, about 2 m. from the S. E. extremity of the lake of Lucerne. Here the tyrant Gessler proceeded to those indignities which, through the patriotism of William Tell, laid the foundation of Swiss independence. Lat. 46° 53° N., Lon. 8° 38' E. Pop. about 1,500. (B.) ALTzEY or Alzev, Alt'-si, a t. in the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, 14 m. N. W. of Worms. Pop. 3,600. (B.) AMAGER, A'-mâ-ger, a small island in the Baltic, lying opposite to Copenhagen, with which it is connected by two bridges. It is about 9 m. long, and, on an average, 3 broad. It supplies the neighbourin town with garden vegetables, milk, butter, and cheese. A part o Copenhagen, called Christianshavn, is built on this island.

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AMAlfi, 3-mâll-fe, a t. of Naples, 10 m. S. W. of Salerno. It was quite celebrated in the middle ages, and possessed no inconsiderable commerce. Present pop. scarcely 3,000. (B.) Lat. 40° 38' N., Lon. 14° 35' E. AMARApoor A. See UMMERApoor A. AMAsia or AMAsieh, Ā-má'-see`-a, (Anc. Amasi'a or Amassei'a,) a t. of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, on the Yesheel (Yeshil) Ermak, 390 m. E. of Constantinople. It is an extensive and populous place, but the streets are narrow and dirty. The greater portion of the houses are of wood, though many are built of stone and covered with tiles. The river here is large and rapid, and the water is raised in buckets by ineans of large wheels turned by the stream. These buckets empty themselves into reservoirs, whence the water is conveyed to the baths and fountains of the city. This town was the birth-place of the famous o into Pop. 60,000 or 70,000. (E. G.) Lat. 40° 30' N., n. 36° 25' E. AMAsFRA, 4-mă/-sor-a, or AMAsREh, (Anc. Ames’tros,) a t. of Asiatic Turkey, in Natolia, on a point of land projecting into the Black Sea, 150 m. E. N. E. of Constantinople. Lat. 41° 46' N., Lon. 32° 24' E. AM/-A-zoN, (Sp. Marañon, mo-rān-yone': called by the Indians Ain-is'so-na, i. e. “boat destroyer,”) a r. of S. America, the largest in the world, formed by the union of the Tunguragua and Ucayali. It empties itself into the Atlantic, under the equinoctial line, after a course of more than 4,000 m. The mouth of this river is 180 m. wide, and it flows into the ocean with such violence that it carries its own waters unmixed into the sea to the distance of 80 leagues. In the freshets, the country, for several hundred miles, is laid under water. This river is also called the ORELLANA (o-rol-yā'-nā). AM-A-zo'-N1-y, a region in the central part of S. America, discovered in 1539, by Francisco Orellana, who sailed down the Amazon to the Atlantic. Observing, as he states, companies of women in arms on its banks, he called the country Amazonia, and the river Amazon." AMBERG, Am/-bf Ra, a t. of Bavaria, 32 m. N. of Ratisbon. It has a castle, arsenal, and mint, and various manufacturing establishments. Pop. 8,000. (B.) Lat. 49° 25' N., Lon. 11° 50' E. AMBERT, AM-bair', a t. of France, in the dep. of Puy de Dôme, on the Dore, possessing above 100 paper-mills, besides various other manufactories. ... Lat. 45° 33' N., Lon. 3° 48' E. Pop. 8,016. (M.) AMBoise, AMb-waz!, (Anc. Ambascia,) a t. of France, in the dep, of Indre and Loire, 14 m. E. of Tours. Lat. 47° 24′ N., Lon. 0° 58' E. Pop. 4,695. (M.) AM-boy', a small t. of Middlesex co., N. J., at the mouth of the Raritan, about 30 m., in a straight line, S.W. of New York, with an excellent harbour. It is a port of entry. AM-nov'-NA, an island of Malaisia, intersected by the parallel of

* It is not improbable that the Indian name of the river may have suggested this account of the armcd women.

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3° 40′ S. Lat., and the 128th meridian of E. Lon. It is the chief of the Moluccas, all the others being dependent on its jurisdiction. Length about 55 m. The vegetable productions are numerous, but the clove tree is the principal object of attention.—Adj. and inhab. AM-box-NESE/. AMBoyNA, the cap. of the above, is situated on a large bay, which divides the island into two unequal peninsulas. It is neat and regularly built, though its streets are unpaved. Lat. 3° 40′ S., Lon. 128° 15' E. Pop. about 7,000. (B.) o AMELANd, a/-inel-int, a small island belonging to Holland, off the coast of Friesland. Lat. 53° 27' N., Lon. about 5° 50' E. AM-E-L1-3, a co. of Va., on the Appomattox r., S.W. of Richmond. Pop. 10,320. Seat of justice, Amelia c. h. AMELIA, an island on the coast of Florida, about 50 m. N. of St. Augustine. It is 13 m. long, and 2 broad; is very fertile, and has an excellent harbour. AM-ER/-I-cy, one of the five grand divisions of the globe; bounded on the E. by the Atlantic, which separates it from Europe and Africa; and on the W. by the Pacific, which separates it from Asia. Towards the N. its limits are but imperfectly known. At the S. it terminates in a point called Cape Horn. It is more than 9,000 m. long, and, on an average, about 1,500 broad, and extends from about 35° to 168° W. Lon., and from 71° N. to 56° S. Lat. According to Hassel, it contains about 16,500,000 sq. m. America is remarkable for the size and grandeur of its mountains, lakes, and rivers. A range of mountains runs from N. to S. through its whole length. This continent is divided by the isthmus of Panama into North and South America.Adj. and inhab. AM-ER'-I-cAN. AMERsfont or AMERsfoort, Å'-mors-forts, a manufacturing and commercial t. of Holland, in the prov. of Utrecht, on the navigable r. Eem (aim), which flows into the Zuyder Zee, 25 m. E. S. E. of Amsterdam. Lat. 52°12' N., Lon. 5° 22' E. Pop. about 9,000. (B.) AMHARA, am-há'-rá, a general division and kingdom of Abyssinia, comprehending the provinces W. of the Tacazzé. Its cap. is Gondar. —Adj. AMHARic, aim-há'-ric. AM/-ukast, a co. in the central part of Va., N. of and bordering on, James river. Pop. 12,576. Seat of justice, Amherst c. h. AMHERst, a township of Hampshire co., Mass., 76 m. W. of Boston, with a flourishing college, founded in 1821. AM'-HERst-bung", the cap. of Essex co., Upper Canada, on L. Erie, near the mouth of the Detroit r. There is a safe and commodious harbour, with a good anchorage, in 34 fathoms water. Lat. 42° 5' N., Lon. 83°5' W. AM/-1-ENs, (Fr. pron. 3'-me-ãN',) formerly the chieft. of Picardy, and now the cap. of the dep. of Somme, on the r. Somme, 40 m. from the sea, and 75 m. N. of Paris. It has a number of literary and scientific institutions, and various manufactories. Amiens was the birth-place of Peter the Hermit, and the astronomer Delambre. Lat. 49° 58' N., Lon. 2° 17' E. Pop. 45,000. (B.)

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AMITE, am-eets, a co. near the S. W. extremity of Miss., bordering on La. Pop. 9,511. Co. seat, Liberty: AMlwch, am/-look, a seaport t. of Wales, in the N. E. corner of Anglesey. There are extensive copper-mines in the vicinity. Pop. of parish, 6,217. - - AM'-Mon-oo-suck, Upper and Lower, two rivers of N. H., rising in the White Mountains, and flowing into the Connecticut. AMoo or AMU. See Oxus. AM-oons (AMUR or AMoun), called also the SAGHALIAN, sog-hăl'e-an, a large r. in the E. part of Asia, formed by the union of the Argoon and Shilka, in about 53° N. Lat. and 121° E. Lon. Its general course is

easterly, and it empties itself into the Gulf of Saghalian, between the

Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk, in Lat. 52° 30' N., Lon. about
140° E. Entire length, including the Argoon, its principal branch,
above 2,000 m.
AMRETsir, àm-ret-seer', or UM-Rit-ser:R' (the pool of immortality),
an important commercial t. of Hindostan, in Lahore, on the high road
between Cabool and Delhi, Cashmere and the Dekkan. The name is
derived from a sacred basin, immersion in which is supposed by many
tribes of the Hindoos to cleanse from all sin. Pop. 100,000. (B.) Lat.
31° 33' N., Lon. 74° 50' E.
AM/-stER-DAM (Dutch pron. Ān'-ster-dām"), the largest, richest, and
most populous city of the Netherlands, situated on the Y. It was, in
former ages, a simple village, meanly built, and inhabited by fisher-
men, having first acquired the name of a commercial town about the
year 1370; it was encompassed with walls and other fortifications in
1482, and in the 17th century arose to the first rank among the trading
cities of Europe. The river Amstel divides it into the old or eastern,
and new or western towns. It is intersected throughout by canals,
which cross each other in a thousand different ways. The name is
said to have been derived from Amsteldam, i.e. “dam or dyke of the
Amstel,” which was afterwards softened into Amsterdam. Lat. 52° 22'
N., Lon. 4°53' E. Pop. above 201,000... (B.)
AN-A-DEER' (Anadir), a r. in the E. part of Siberia, which flows into
a gulf of the same name, near 64° N. Lat., and 178° E. Lon.
ANconA, An-co'-nā, a seaport t in the Papal state, and the cap. of a
delegation or prov. situated on a point of land running into the Adriatic
Sea. It is the most commercial place in the Papal state. In 1732 it
was declared a free port, and became the rival of Venice. Lat. 43° 38'
N., Lon. 13° 29° E. Pop. about 30,000. (B.)
ANDALUsia, an-da-lus-she-a, or VANDALUsia, (Sp. Andalucia, ān-dà-
loo-thee'-à,) a prov. or division of Spain, comprising the four Moorish
kingdoms, Seville, Cordova, Jaen, and Granada. It is bounded on the
N. by La Mancha and Estremadura, E. by Murcia, S. by the Mediter-
ranean, the Strait of Gibraltar, and the Atlantic, and W. by Portugal.
Length, from E. to W., 300 m. : greatest breadth, from N. to S., about
150 m. The name, it is supposed, was given to it by the Wandals, who

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