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above the level of the sea, is colder than might have been expected from its geographical position. (See ARARAT.) The principal productions are wheat, barley, cotton, hemp, tobacco, and manna, besides various fruits. Many of the Armenians are engaged in trade, and bear a high character for integrity in their dealings. They form the chief class of traders in the Persian empire, and are found scattered over various other parts of the world. Their religion is a species of Christianity.—Adj. and inhab. AR-ME'-NI-AN. ARMENTIEREs, an’-mâN-te-air', a t. of France, in the dep. of Nord, near the Belgian frontier, on the Lys, 10 m. N. N. W. of Lille. Lat. 50° 41' N., Lon. 2° 52' E. Pop. 7,700. (M.B.) ARM’-strong, a co. in the W. part of Pa., N. E. of Pittsburg, and intersected by the Alleghany r. Pop. 28,365. Co. t. Kittaning. ARN'-HEM (supposed to be the Roman Arenacum), a fortified city of the Netherlands; cap. of Guelderland. It was formerly one of the Hanse towns. Lat. 52° N., Lon. 5° 52' E. Pop. about 11,000. (B.) AR/-No (Lat. Arnus), the principal river of Tuscany, rises in the Apennines, and, passing through Florence and Pisa, flows into the sea, about 5 m. W. of the latter town. Length about 150 m. It is navigable to Florence. ARNsbERG, arns'-bêRG, or ARENsbERG, a t. of the Prussian States; cap. of a circle of the same name; the largest of the three circles which form the prov. of Westphalia. Lat. 51° 24 N., Lon. So 1" E. Pop. 3,200. (B.) ARNs rant, anns-stätt, a t. of Saxony, on the Gera, 11 m. S. of Erfurt. Lat. 50° 49' N., Lon. 10° 57' E. Pop. about 5,000. (B.) AR-oos'-rook, a co. forming the N. E. part of Maine. Pop. 9,413. Co. t. Houlton. ARPINo, art-pee'-no, (Anc. Arpi'num,) a city of Naples, near the confines of the kingdom, about 60 m. S. E. of Rome. It is celebrated as the birth-place of Cicero and Marius, to which circumstance it was once indebted for its preservation. In the wars between the houses of Anjou and Aragon, for the possession of the kingdom of Naples, Arpino took part with the French against the Aragonese and the Pope. The pontiff (Pius II.) generously commanded Orsini, his successful captain, to “spare Arpino for the memory of Caius Marius and Marcus Tullius.” It has manufactories of parchment, leather, paper, and of the best cloth made in the kingdom. Lat. 41°41' N., Lon. 13° 37' E. Pop. estimated at above 8,000. (B.) AR’-RA-cAN/ or ARAcAN (called by the natives Rakhaing), a country of Chin-India, lying along the E. shore of the Bay of Bengal, between 17° and 21° 30' N. Lat., and 92°20' and 94° 30' E. Lon. It formerly belonged to the Burmese empire, but in 1826 became one of the possessions of the East India Company. Its extreme length, from N.N.W. to S. S. E., is, perhaps, 230 m., and its average breadth about 50 m. . C. "*** the ancient cap. of the above prov., on a small river of the same name. It was once a flourishing and populous city, so that the

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number of its inhabitants was estimated at above 100,000, but at present it does not probably amount to a third of that number. (B.) Lat. 20° 43' N., Lon. 93° 25' E. AR'-RAN, a mountainous and romantic i. on the W. coast of Scotland, forming a part of Buteshire. It is more than 20 m. long, and about 12 wide. Pop. 6,241. AR’-RAs (Fr. pron. År-ràs'), a fortified and important t of France; formerly the cap. of Artois, and now of the dep. of Pas de Calais, on the S. bank of the river Scarpe, which begins here to be navigable, 108 m. N. by E. of Paris. It was the cap. of the ancient Atrebastes, from which it derives its name, and was a manufacturing t. in the time of St. Jerome, about the beginning of the 5th century. Robespierre was a native of Arras. Lat. 50° 17' N., Lon. 2°46' E. Pop. 23,485. (B.) ARRoe. See AFRöE. AR-TA (Anc. Ambrascia, Turk. Nars-dà), a t. of Albania, on a river of the same name. It was a few years since a flourishing place, with a population estimated at above 9,000, (B.); but it suffered greatly in the struggle for Grecian freedom. Lat. 39° 13' N., Lon. 21° 4' E. ARtois, ano-twä', a former prov. of France, now comprehended in the dep. of Pas de Calais. It takes its name from the Atrebastes, a nation of the ancient Gauls, who inhabited this region, and from whose name ARRAs is also derived. ARUNDEL, ar'-un-dol, a t. of England, on the Arun, in the co. of Sussex, 50 m. S. S. W. of London. Lat. 50° 51° N., Lon.0° 33' W. Pop. 2,624. Asaph (az'-af) St., an ancient city of Wales, in Flintshire, about 5 m. from the sea. Pop. of the parish, 3,338. Ascension, as-sen'-shun, an i. in the S. Atlantic, between Africa and Brazil. It is 74 m. long, and 6 m. wide. It owes its name to the circumstance of its having been discovered on Ascension-day, in 1501. It was then barren and entirely uninhabited by men. In 1815 the British took possession of the island, as a military station, and established a garrison there. Lat. of the fort, 7° 56' N., Lon. 14° 24′ W. Ascension, a parish in the central part of Louisiana, lying on both sides of the Mississippi. Pop. 6,951. Seat of justice, Donaldsonville. Asch-Af’-FEN-BURG or ā-shäfl-fen-bóóRG', a principality of Germany, now belonging to Bavaria.-Also, a t. in the above principality, 25 m. S.E. of Frankfort. Lat. 50° 1' N, Lon. 9° 7' E. Pop. about 7,000. (B.) Asch ERsleben, āsh-ers-lo'-ben, a t. of Germany, in a circle of the same name, 18 m. S. E. of Halberstadt. Lat. 51° 46' N., Lon. 11° 27 E. Pop. 9,000. (B.) Ascoli, Āss-ko-le, (Lat. As/culum), a t. of the Papal State, 15 m. N.W. of Teramo. It was a place of importance in the time of the Romans, and we find it often mentioned both in ancient and modern history. Ascoli is one of the best built and most pleasant towns in the Papal State. Lat. 42° 50' N., Lon. 13° 37' E. Pop. 12,000. (P. C.) Ash-AN/-TEE, a powerful kingdom of Africa, on the Gold Coast, founded during the last century, by Sai Tootoo. Little is known to ou, as in our; th, as in thin; TH, as in this; N, nearly like ng.

Europeans respecting the internal geography of this country; along the coast, it is considered as extending from the r. Volta, or Aswada, which separates it from Dahomey on the E., to the r. Assinee on the W. But its actual extent, including the tributary kingdoms, appears to be somewhat greater. The Ashantees are a brave, and, to a considerable degree, may be regarded as a civilized people. Their military enterprises have been attended with the most wonderful success; and a multitude of different states, amounting to near fifty, according to one writer, have been either incoporated into the empire or reduced to the condition of tributaries. Even the English, on the coast, were at one time compelled to purchase, with liberal presents, the peace of this warlike and powerful nation.—The Ashantees have schools, where the pupils are taught to read and write Arabic, and appear also to possess some skill in sculpture and other arts. They manufacture cloths of cotton, and sometimes of cotton and silk interwoven. Many of these cloths are of great fineness of texture, and their colour of the highest brilliancy. They also make earthenware, tan leather, and work in iron. The pop. of the empire of the Ashantees is estimated by Balbi at 3,000,000. The capital is Coomassie. AsHE, a co. forming the N. W. extremity of N. C. Pop. 7,467. Co. t. Jeffersonton. Asht Abu LA, ash-to-bu'-la, a co. forming the N. E. extremity of Ohio, bordering on Lake Erie. Pop. 23,724. Co. t. Jefferson. Ash'-tcN-UNDER-LYNE, a manufacturing t. of Eng. in Lancashire, 6% m. E. of Manchester. It is a well built and rapidly increasing town. The pop. in 1831 exceeded that in 1821 by more than 5,000, and the last census gives 7,841 more than that of 1831. This great increase is attributed, in part, to the employment of labourers on the Sheffield and Manchester railroad. Present pop. 22,678. Asia, A'-she-a, one of the five grand divisions of the globe, bounded on the N. by the Black Sea and the Frozen Ocean, E. by the Pacific, S. by the Indian Ocean, W. by the Red Sea, the Mediterranean, the Archipelago, the Sea of Marmora, the Black Sea, the river Ural, the Ural Mountains, and lastly, by the river and sea of Kara. The most northern point of this continent is Northeast Cape, near 78° N. Lat., and 104° E. Lon.: the most southern is formed by the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, which extends to about 1°20' N. Lat. Cape Baba, in Asia Minor, in Lat. about 39° 30' N., Lon. 26° 5' E., forms its western, and East Cape, in 66° 5' N. Lat. and Lon. 169° 40'W., its eastern extremity. The extreme length of this continent, from the Isthmus of Suez to Behring's Strait, is above 7,000 m.; the greatest breadth, from N. to S., about 5,300. The area is estimated by Hassel, at about 16,700,000 sq. m. Pop. estimated by Balbi, at above 525,000,000Adj. Asiatic, a -she-ats-ik, and Asian, al-she-an (poetical). Inhab. Asiatic. As -sa M', a country of Asia, lying beyond the Ganges, bounded on the N. by the mountains of Bootan and Thibet, E. by the countries tributary to Ava and China, S. by the Garrow Mountains, and W. by

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Bengal. Of the early history of Assam, little is known. It has more recently been under the dominion of the Burmese, till in 1824, when they were expelled by the English, and it is now a dependent of the East India Company. Present pop. estimated at 200,000. (P. C.) Assen, äss-sen, a little t. of Holland; cap. of the prov. of Drenthe, 15 m. S. of Groningen. Pop. 1,200. (B.) Assisi, Ās-see/-se, (Anc. Assissium,) a t. of Italy, in the Papal State and prov. of Umbria. Lat. 43°4'N., Lon. 12° 35' E. Pop. estimated at 4,000. (B.) Assouan or Assuan. See Asswan. Assumption, as-sump'-shun, a parish in the central part of Louisiana, W. of New Orleans. Pop. 7,141. Seat of justice, Assumption c. h. Assumption (Sp. Asuncion, à-soon-the-one' or ā-soon-se-one!), the cap. of Paraguay, in South Ainerica, situated on the E. bank of the r. Paraguay. t. 25°22'S, Lon. 57° 40' W. Pop. estimated at 12,000. (B.) As-sw AN/ (Assuan or Assouan), a small t. of Upper Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, remarkable for its commerce, its picturesque situation, and the monuments of antiquity which are found in its neighbourhood. Close to it, on the south, may be seen the ruins of the town built by the Arabs, on the site of the ancient Syene. Lat. 24° 5' N., Lon. 32° 55' E.—Adj. and inhab. As-sw AN/-EE. AsTERAbAD, As-ter-à-bāds, or Astrabad, a small prov. in the N. E. o of Persia.—Also the cap. of above. Lat. 36° 50' N., Lon. 54° 35' . Pop. estimated at 40,000. (B.) Asti, As-tes (Lat. Asta.) at of Piedmont, cap. of a prov. of the same name on the N. bank of the Tanaro, on the high road from Turin to Alexandria. This place has been distinguished both in ancient and modern history, and is remarkable as being the birth-place of the great Italian poet, Alfieri. Lat. 44°57' N., Lon. So 12° E. Pop. 22,000. (P. C. AstoRGA, as-toR/-gā, (the Astu'rica Augusta of the Romans,) a to Spain, in Leon. It was once the capital of Astu'res, and is called by Pliny a magnificent city. It contains some interesting remains of antiquity. Lat. 42° 27' N., Lon. 6° 10' W. Pop. 4,000. (M.) As-To'-R1-A, a settlement at the mouth of the Columbia r., made by the American Fur Company, so called from Mr. Astor, of New York. Lat. 46° 14' N., Lon. near 126° W. As -th A-ku.AN', (Russ. pron. Ås-trá-kān",) a t. of Russia, in Europe, cap. of a prov. of the same name, on an island formed by the Volga at its entrance into the Caspian Sea. It has a fine citadel, called Krem, or Kremlin, and numerous churches, with steeples and minarets; but the houses are generally of a mean appearance, and built of wood; the streets unpaved, irregular and dirty. Astrakhan is remarkable for its manufactures as well as its commerce; its harbour is the most freuented of any on the Caspian. It is the seat both of an Armenian and ussian archbishopric. Lat. 46° 21' N., Lon. 48° 3' E. Permanent pop. about 40,000. (P. C.)—Adj. and inhab. As'-TRA-RHAN-ESE'. Asturias, As-too-re-às, a prov. in the N. of Spain; bounded on the N. by the Bay of Biscay, E. by Old Castile, S. by Leon and W. by

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Galicia. Length, from E. to W., about 150 m.; breadth, from N. to S., 50 m.—Adj. and inhab. AsturiaN, As-too-re-an. ATACAMA, fit-à-cá'-mă, a district of S. America, belonging to Bolivia, and comprehending all the country of that republic which lies between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean. It is bounded on the N. by the r. Loa, between 21° and 22° S. Lat., and on the S. by the Salado, near 26° S. Lat. ; so that it extends along the coast perhaps 250 m., while its breadth is from 25 to 40 m. It is divided into the to. and Lower country. The latter is in almost every part an uninhabited desert. No rain ever falls on this coast, but in some places the soil is occasionally refreshed by mists and dews. (P. C.) Atchaf ALAYA, ach-af-a-lis-a, (an Indian word, signifying “lost water,”) a large bayou in La., which detaches itself from the right bank of the Red r., near its confluence with the Mississippi; and, after receiving the waters of L. Chetimaches and the r. Plaquemines, flows into Atchafalaya Bay. Its whole course is about 200 m. Arch-EEN', or Acheen, a kingdom on the N. W. part of the island of Sumatra. Also, the chief city of the above kingdom. Lat. 5° 36' N., Lon. about 95° 20' E. It contains about 8,000 houses, built chiefly of bamboo. (B.)—Adj. and inhab. Atch-IN-ESE/. AT-FEo, sometimes written Atfin, (Anc. Aphroditop'olis, or “city of Venus,”) a town of Egypt, on the right side of the Nile, 45 m. S. of Cairo. Lat. 29°28' N., Lon. 31°28' E. Pop. about 4,000. (B.) ATH or AATH, Aët, a commercial t. of Belgium, in the prov. of Hainault, on the Dender, 32 m. W. S. W. of Brussels. Lat. 50°42' N., Lon. 3° 46' E. Pop. 8,000. (B.) ATH-A-Pess-cow or AthAbAscA, the name of a river and lake in the N. W. part of N. America. The river rises near the Rocky Mountains, and flowing, for the most part, in a northerly direction, falls into the lake of the same name, by several channels. ATHAPEscow LAKE, also called the Lake of the Hills, is situated about 170 m. S. E. of the great Slave Lake; it is nearly 200 m. long, but its average width is not more than 20 m. Fort Chipewyan, at the W. S. W. extremity of the lake, is in Lat. 58° 42 N., Lon. 111° 18' W. ATH-boys, a t. of Ireland, in Meath, 30 m. N. W. of Dublin. ATH'-ENs, (Lat. Athente, Gr. A0myat,) a celebrated city of Greece, the capital of ancient Attica, founded, according to common account, by Cecrops, about 1550 B.C. It is situated about 5 m. from the seacoast; the little river Ilissus flows near the city, on the S. E., and the Cephisus on the N. W.-Passing over the well-known epoch in which Athens was the most powerful and most illustrious of all the Grecian states, we shall briefly mention that it was captured by the Romans under Sylla (86 B.C.). This was the first time the fortifications of Athens had been forced by an enemy. After remaining several centuries in a state of inglorious repose, it shared the fate of the rest of the empire, in being ravaged and plundered by the barbarians. Soon after the fall of Constantinople, in 1453, it was completely incorporated with the Turkish dominions; in which condition it remained till the late

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