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Pate, far, fall, fật; mẻ, mét; pine or pine, pin; nổ, nốt; bỏ, as in good; successful struggle for Grecian freedom. Notwithstanding all the vicissitudes which Athens has undergone, there still remain ample monuments to attest its former grandeur. The ruins of the temple of Theseus, the arch of Hadrian, and the buildings of the Acropolis, especially the Parthenon, may be mentioned as among the most remarkable. The walls of this once magnificent city are entirely demolished, but their foundations have been traced, by late travellers, under the shrubs which cover the plains. Athens is situated in Lat. 37° 58' N., Lon. 23° 46' E. The pop., before the late insurrection which threw off the Turkish yoke, was estimated from 12,000 to 15,000, but, at the termination of the war, did not probably amount to a third of the number. (B.) In 1834, it was declared the capital of the new kingdom of Greece, and it seems likely to recover, in time, some share of its former importance and prosperity.--Adj. and inhab. Ath-el-NL-AN.
ATHENS, a t. of Ga., in Clark co., on the Oconee, 92 m. W. N. W. of Augusta : it is the seat of the University of Georgia.
ATHENS, a co. in the S. E. part of Ohio. Pop. 19,109.
ATHENS, a small t. of Ohio, cap. of the above co., with a college called the University of Ohio, founded in 1821.
ATHENS, New, a small place in Ohio, 18 m. N. W. of Wheeling: it is the seat of Franklin College.
ATH-LONE', a borough of Ireland, on the Shannon, being partly in the co. of West Meath, and partly in that of Roscommon, about 70 m. W. of Dublin. Pop. in 1831, 11,406. (P. C.)
Ath-os, Mount, (It. Monte Sacro, Gr. Hagion Oros, i. e. Holy Mountain, so called from the number of monasteries, chapels, &c., on its sides,) a celebrated mountain of Macedonia, on a peninsula W. of the island of Lemnos, and rising abruptly from the sea to the height of 6,349 feet. Lat. 40° 9' N,, Lon. 24° 20' E.
ATHY, ath-il, a t. of Ireland, in the co. of Kildare, about 38 m. W.S.W. of Dublin. Pop. in 1831, 4,494. (P. C.)
ATINA, å-teel-nå, an ancient t. of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro, 10 m. N. of Aquino. Pop. about 4,000. (B.) It is mentioned under its present name by Virgil (Æneid. Lib. VII. 630), as at that time an inportant city.
AT-LANI-TIC OCEAN, that part of the ocean which separates the old from the new world: it washes the eastern shore of America and the western shores of Europe and Africa. Its with may be estimated at 3,000 m. The name was given on account of its vicinity to the Atlas mountains.
ATLANTIC, a co. in the S. E. part of N. J., bordering on the sea. Pop. 8,726. Co. t. May's Landing.
ATI-LẠs, a chain of mountains running through the north-western part of Africa, and separating the cultivated country from the great desert. The highest summits are estimated to be 2,000 toises (B.), or about 12,790 English feet above the level of the sea.
Aroor. See ATUI.
ou, as in our ; th, as in thin; th, as in this; n, nearly like ng. of Teramo, about 4 m. from the coast of the Adriatic, and 12 m. S. E. of Teraino. Hatria was once a place of considerable importance, but the present town is a small and poor place, and partly in ruins.
AT-TA-LA, a co. in the central part of Miss. Pop. 4,303. Co. seat, Kosciusco.
ATTIGNY, åt'-teen-yel, a srnall t. of France, in the dep. of Ardennes, on the Aisne, 31 m. N. E. of Rheims, anciently one of the summer residences of the kings of France.
AT -TOCK', or ATTOCK BEKARES (ben-ål -rez), a city and fortress on the E. bank of the Sinde or Indus, belonging to Lahore. Lat. 33° 52 N., Lon. 72° 10' F.
Atur, å-too'-e, one of the Sandwich islands, in Lat. 21° 57' N., Lon. Ꮧ 160° W.
AUBE, obe, a small r. of France, flowing into the Seine.
AUBE, a dep. in the N. E. central part of France, intersected by the above r. and by the Seine. Pop. 253,870). (B.). Capital, Troyes.
Avl-BURN, the chief t. of Cayuga co., N. Y., about 170 m. W. of Albany, on the outlet of the Owasco lake, a fine stream, with numerous mill seats. It is incorporated, and contains a theological seminary, founded by the Presbyterians in 1821. It is chiefly remarkable for the state prison established here, and conducted on a peculiar system of prison discipline. Pop. 5,626.
AUBUSSON, oʻ-bus'-són', a manufacturing t. of France, in the dep. o Creuse, on the r. Creuse, 23 m. S.E. of Guéret. Pop. above 4,000. (P.C.,
Auch, osh, an archiepiscopal t. of France; cap. of the dep. of Gers, on the r. Gers. Among its buildings the ancient cathedral deserves to be mentioned. Lat. 43° 38' N., Lon. 35' E. Pop. 10,461. (B.)
AUDE, õde, (Anc. Altax,) a r. in the S. of France, rising in the Pyrenees, and flowing into the Mediterranean.
AUDE, a dep. in the S. of France, intersected by the above r., and bordering on the Mediterranean. Pop. 281,088. (B.) Capital, Carcassone.
AUERBACK, oul-er-båk, a t. of Saxony, 70 m. W. S. W. of Dresden, famous for its manufacture of a metallic composition, called Rodewisch, which employs about 2,500 persons from the neighbouring villages. Pop. 3,000. (B.)
Avosl-BURG (Ger. pron. ouas-bõõrg), the cap. of the circle of the Upper Danube, in Bavaria, at the confluence of the Wertach and Lech. It has numerous scientific and literary institutions, and is distinguished for its works in gold and jewelry, its manufactures of clocks and watches, and of philosophical and mathematical instruments. Lat. 48° 21' N., Lon. 10° 54' E. Pop. 34,000. (B.) The Roman emperor Augustus planted a colony here about 12 years before the Christian era, which was called Augus/ta Vindelico'rum. Augsburg appears to be a contraction of August-burg ; i. e. the “ castle of Augustus.”
AUGUSTA. See AGOSTA.
Fate, får, fall, fåt; me, mit; plne or pine, pin; nd, nôt; öö as in good; the r. Kennebec, about 52 m., in a direct line, N. N. E. of Portland. Lat. 44° 19' N., Lon. 69° 50' W. Pop. 5,314.
AUGUSTA, a t. of Ga., on the right bank of the Savannah r., about 80 m., in a straight line, E. of Milledgeville. Lat. 33° 28' N., Lon. 81° 54' W. Pop. 6,403.
AUGUSTA, a t. of Ky.; cap. of Brecken co. It has a college, under the direction of the Methodists, founded in 18:25.
AUGUSTA, a co. in the centre of Virginia. Pop. 19,628. Co. t. Staunton.
AUGUSTINE, ST., scnt au-gus-teen', a city and port of entry of Florida; cap. of St. John's co., on an inlet about 2 m. from the main ocean. The harbour is defended by a fort. This place is much resorted to during 'winter, by invalids from the northern states. Lat. 29° 48' 30" N., Lon. 81° 35' W. Pop. 2,459.
AURUNG ABAD, O-rung-ga-båd', a prov. of Hindostan, situated in the Dekkan.--Also, the cap. of the above, formerly called Gurka, but, becoming a favourite residence of Aurungzebe (pronounced ó-rungzeeb'), it received from this circumstance its present name. The palace of that monarch, now in ruins, covers an extensive space. The whole city is rapidly falling to decay, but in 1825 was said still to contain a population of 60,000. (P. C.) Lat. 19° 54' N., Lon. 75° 33' E.
Aus/-TER-LITZ (Ger. pron. ousl-ter-lits), a t. of Austria, in Moravia, about 13 m. E. of Brünn, celebrated for a great victory obtained by Napoleon over the emperors of Austria and Russia, in 1805. Pop. about 2,000. (B.)
AUSTRALASIA. See OCEANICA.
Aus-TRA-L!-9. (See Int. XI.) A term sometimes employed like AusTRALASIA, to designate the fifth grand division of the globe, but more generally restricted to that portion of Oceanica which is situated immediately S. and S. E. of Malaisia, between 1° N. 55° S. Lat., and 110° and 180° E. Lon., including New Holland, (the Australian continent,) the islands of New Zealand, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, the Solá mon Islands, New Britain, New Ireland, Papua or New Guinea, besides many smaller islands.-Adj. Aus-TRA'-LI-AN.
AUSTRALIAN CONTINENT, or New HOLLAND, is situated in the South Sea, between 10° 30' and 39° N. Lat., and 113° and 153° 20' E. Lon. Length, from E. to W., about 2,400 m.: greatest breadth, from N. to S., near 2,000. Area estimated at 3,500,000 sq. m. New Holland is distinguished from all other parts of the globe by the general character of its plants and animals, as well as by the nature of the country. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of this continent is the total absence of permanently navigable rivers. The Murray, which, with its different affluents, is estimated to drain a surface of 400,000 sq. m., discharges its waters into the sea by a mouth so miserably small as to be overlooked by the first explorers of this portion of the Australian coast. There are mountains whose summits are covered with perpetual snow, but a very large portion of the country appears to be fiat land, which is sometimes marshy and flooded with water, and at other times so parched
ou, as in our; th, as in thin ; TĦ, as in this ; n, nearly like ng. as to be a perfect desert. The aboriginal inhabitants of this continent are classed in the same grand division of the human race with the African negro, but appear to be decidedly inferior both in their physical constitution, and in their intellectual and moral faculties. They are the only people, of whom we have any knowledge, that go completely naked.-Iohab. New HOLLANDER, or AUSTRALIAN.
Aus'-TRL-A (Ger. Oestreich, Öst/-rike), an empire of Europe, lying between 429 and 51° N. Lat., and 8° 30' and 26° 50' E. Lon.; bounded on the N. W. and N. by Saxony and Prussia, N. E. and E. by the republic of Cracow and by the Russian and Turkish provinces, S. by Turkey, the Gulf of Venice, the territories of the Pope, Modena, and Parma, and W. by the Sardinian States, Switzerland, and Germany. The length is estimated at 870, the breadth at 690 m. The superficial extent, according to Balbi, is about 259,300 sq. m. in 1826 was estimated by the same writer at 32,000,000. The empire of Austria is composed of the kingdoms of Bohemia, Galicia, Hungary, Illyria, Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia, and the governments of Lower ani Upper Austria, Styria, Trieste, Tyrol, Transylvania, the Military Frontier, and Austrian Italy, or the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, besides fome smaller districts, such as Great and Little Cumania, &c. • These will be treated of under their respective heads. The name Oestreich, which signifies “eastern empire," arose from this territory having been the eastern part of the dominions of Charlemagne. The area of Austria at that time scarcely exceeded that of the present archduchy. Vienna is the capital.— Adj. and inhab. Avsl-TRI-AN.
AUSTRIA, ARCHDUCHY OF, which constitutes the principal part of the hereditary dominions of the house of Austria, is bounded on the N. by Bohemia and Moravia, E. by Hungary, S. by Styria, Illyria, and Tyrol, and W. by Tyrol and Bavaria. Area about 14,881 sq. m. It is divided into Lower and Upper Austria. The former occupies the eastern, the latter the western portion of the archduchy.
AU-TAU!-G», a co. in the central part of Ala., N. of, and bordering on the Alabama r. Pop. 14,342. Co. t. Washington.
Autun, 7-tun', a city of France, on the r. Arroux, in the dep. of the Saône and Loire, 164 m. S. E. of Paris. This town existed before the Roman conquest under the name of Bibrac/te; after the time of Augustus, it was called Augustodu'num, of which Autun is a corruption. A number of interesting ruins may be seen here. Lat. 46° 57' N., Lon. 4° 18' E. Pop. 10,000.
AUVERGNE, Ö-vern or o'-vairñ, formerly a prov. of France, now divided into the deps. of Cantal and Puy de Dôme. The name is derived from the Arverni, an ancient nation who inhabited this part of Gaul.
AUXERRE, Ö'-sair', (Anc. Autissiodu/rum,) a city of France; cap. of the dep. of Yonne, on the r. Yonne, 92 m. S. E. of Paris. Lat. 47° 48' N., Lon. 3° 34' E. Pop. 10,989. (B.)
AUXONNE, óx conn', or AUSSONNE, Ö-sonn', a fortified t. of France, in
Fate, får, fäll, fit; me, mét; pine or pine, pin; no, not; oo as in good; the dep. of Côte d'Or, on the Saône, 19 m. S. E. of Dijon. Pop. in 1832, about 5,000. (P. C.)
Ava. See BIRMA.
AVALLON, å-vår-lon', a t. of France, in the dep. of the Yonne, 120 m. S. E. of Paris. Pop. above 5,000. (P. C.)
Aveiro, å-vale-ro, a city of Portugal, in the prov. of Beira. Lat. 40° 38' N., Lon. 8° 38' W. Pop. 4,000. (B.)
Avella, å-vell-lå, a. t. in the kingdom of Naples, 20 m. N. E. of the capital. Near to it are the ruins of the ancient Abella, from which its name has been derived. Pop. 5,000. (M.)
AVELLINO, å-vel-leel-no, a manufacturing and commercial t. of Naples; cap. of the prov. of Principato Ultra, 30 m. E. by N. of Naples. "Lat. 40° 55' N., Lon. 14° 45' E. Pop. 13,000. (B.)
AVENCHES, a'-vånsh!, (Lat. Aven'licum,) a little t. of Switzerland, about 3 m. from the Lake of Morat, and 20 m. W.S. W. of Bern, remarkable for the Roman antiquities found in its vicinity.
AVERNO, 8-vér-no, (Anc. Aver' nus,) a celebrated lake in the vicinity of Naples, abont 25 m. N. W. of Pozzuoli. It is circular, and about 14 in. in circumference.
Aversa, á-vér!-så, a t. in the kingdom of Naples, 12 m. N. by W. of the capital. It contains a large foundling hospital, and a lunatic asylum, which ranks among the best establishments of the kind in Europe. Lat. 40° 57' N., Lon. 14° 11' E. Pop. estimated at 16,000. (B.)
AVESNES, & -vain!, a fortified t. of France, in the dep. of Nord, 123 m. N. E. of Paris. Pop. about 4,000. (P. C.).
Aveyron, å-va'-són', a r. in the S. of France, flowing into the Garonne,
AVEYRON, a dep. in the S. of France, on the above r. Pop. 370,951. (B.) Capital, Rodez.
Avezzano, 8-vêt-sål-no, a t. of Naples, in the prov. of Abruzzo Ultra, about 20 m. nearly S. of Aquila. Pop. about 6,000. (B.)
AVIGNON, av-eenl-yon, or å -veen-yon', (Anc. Ave'nio,) a celebrated city of France; cap. of the dep. of Vaucluse, on the left bank of the Rhone, just above the mouth of the r. Durance. Avenio was a very ancient city; it appears to have been a town of some importance before the Roman conquest, and holds a conspicuous place in the history of the middle ages. About the year 1308, Pope Clement V., himself a native of France, removed his court from Rome to Avignon, which continued to be the pa pal residence till 1376, when Gregory XI. left it, to return to Rome. It afterwards became the residence of the anti-popes Clement VII. and Benedict XIII. Lat. 43° 57' N., Lon. 4° 48' E. Pop. 31,000: in the 14th century it amounted to 100,000. (B.)
Avila, dl-ve-lå,* a t. of Old Castile, Spain; cap. of a prov. of the same name, with a university. Lat. 40° 42' N., Lon. 4° 50' W. Pop. 4,000. (B.)
· Lerma 'the generous,' Avila 'the proud.'”—Rogers' Voyage of Columbus