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270 Longitude East from Greenwich 775
Map of New Zealand, here the excellence of the land is equally attested boundless ocean on either side, by the east and by the luxuriant and verdant fern which overruns west winds, are attracted to the high lands, which the depressed parts of the entire country.
distribute them over the country in rains. Thus To the fortunate position of the New Zealand the southern districts of New Zealand, where the mountain ridges may, in a great measure, be attri- mountains are highest and most numerous, are debuted the excellent dimate which is unanimously scribed as being often subjected to heavy rains ; assigned to this country. Stretching north and while they fall upon the northern parts in refreshsouth, their snow-clad summits lie out of the sun's | ing and not too copious showers. The general course except when crossed by him. The land is, temperature is even, the thermometer rarely detherefore, exempted from those terrible disruptions scending below forty-five degrees in winter (which of snow, loosened by radiated or direct heat, which begins in May), and in summer (commencing in at times descend in overwhelming avalanches and November) seldom rising above eighty-five. But torrents upon the lower regions of other mountain in many situations the weather is extremely varied. territories; while exhalations drawn from the West winds mostly prevail, and are sometimes attended with heavy squalls. North Island seems The means of transporting the productions of to possess the most genial climate. “I do not hesi- nature from place to place, presented by the riters tate to affirm,” says Nicholas, “ that there is not a of New Zealand, are not less serviceable than her finer or more regular climate than this part (the numerous bays und harbours for shipping, that afford Bay of Islands) of New Zealand +.” In proof that such facilities for export. The former meander one winter, at least, was not severe, Captain Cook, through every part of the land; the most considerduring his first visit to the country, sowed certain able of them being joined by innumerable smaller vegetables, and though they could not have sur- streams. The first river on the south-west coast is vived a European winter, he found on his return the Mukon. The Waikato is supposed to be the that they had not only survived a New Zealand most extensive ; for eighty miles from the sea it one, but were healthful and vigorous I.
forks into two noble currents, and many islets Possessing such a soil and climate, a rich and spring up from its bed. The Waltémeta falls into useful variety of vegetable productions may be looked the ocean on the western side of North Island, flows for in New Zealand ; and not in vain. The exten- within twenty-five miles of the Monukon, and very sive forests we have before alluded to, chiefly com- nearly adjoins thé Thames, a large stream which, posed of firs of different species (some of them un- before it is disembogued into the Bay of Plenty, known in Europe), might furnish a supply of valu- widens to form a broad frith, presenting a good able timber which the profusion of some ages to roadstead. Several lakes and lagoons spread their come would not be able to exhaust. That it is well waters over various parts of the island, particucalculated for ship-building has been long proved ; larly between East Cape and Hawke's Bay, many vessels having been built of it at the regu- The sea has hollowed out the eastern coast of larly established dockyard of E. O. Rackey, or North Island into a succession of bays and harDeptford $. Trees of inferior growth also abound, bours, which offer great facilities for an extensive some of them of excellent quality, well adapted maritime trade. The harbour of Wangarou, or Long for ornamental work, of a fine grain, and suscepti- Bay, is entered by a space scarcely equal to eight ble of a high polish. Many, also, cannot be enu- ships' length, but inside it is wide, deep, entirely merated for want of other than native names ; be- land-locked by high, verdant hills, and capable of longing, as they do, to species not met with in other affording shelter for a large fleet. The Bay of parts of the globe. The most noticeable of these Islands is also furnished with many excellent anis a tree whose stem only produces leaves, the chorages, and is a favourite resort of whale-vessels. branches being bare. An infusion of these leaves is The harbour of Wangania, or Port Nicholson, on a good substitute for tea, having much of its flavour the west coast of North Island, has an extent of and all its medicinal properties. In high and ex- nine miles, and all the ships of Europe might conposed places the plant seldom rises above six feet; veniently anchor within it. The coast around South but in sheltered situations, to thirty or forty feet. and Stewart's Island is not so inviting, abounding, Of shrubs the myrtle is most frequently mentioned as it does, in reefs of rock and dangerous shoals. by travellers ; but the herbage appears to be scanty, The barren summits of mountains and precipices on account of the rank luxuriance of trees whose which, jutting over the sea, arrest large patches of impenetrable thickness deprives it of the sun's snow, are here separated by deep ravines and treinfluence ll.
mendous gorges. Both Cook's and Forneaux Straits But in more favourable situations, the smaller are of difficult navigation *. vegetation gives to New Zealand a verdant and The varieties of animal life, of which New Zeainviting aspect. Indigenous to it are wild celery, land is the home, have been as yet but imperfectly wild parsley, and flax (Phormium tenax) an article, enumerated. Man, existing here, till within a rewhen cultivated, of excellent quality, and which cent period, unknown to and unknowing the rest has been already largely exported from this infant of the great family to which he belongs, presents a colony 1. Grasses flourish in abundance, and no new chapter in human history; which, however, fewer than sixty different species of fern have we have not space to open in this place t. Of the been noticed by botanists**. The natives cultivate lower animals native to the soil, but imperfect acvarious edible plants, amongst which we find pota-counts have as yet been furnished. Several useful toes, cabbages, turnips, and the tacca, a species of species have been introduced ; amongst which the yam. Fruits are scantily produced, and unpalat- Canis australis and pig appear to be most useful able to European tastes.
to man ; of whom both are the constant compa* Polack, vol. 1. pp. 277 and 281.--Hawkesworth, vol. I. p. 99.
nions, the latter being more completely domestiVol. ii. p. 231.
cated in New Zealand than in any other country. Hawkesworth's Account of Cook's Southern Voyages, Cattle, horses and asses have also become colonists. vol. I. p. 99. § Earle's Residence in New Zealand, p. 25.
* Polack, vol. i. pp. 248-272, passim. Nicholas, vol. ii. p. 245, 246.-Forster, vol. 1. p. 176.
+ The reader may refer with great advantage to a work on Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. ii.
the New Zealanders, published in the Library of Entertaining ** Polack, vol. 1. p. 293.
THE FIRST MISSIONARY TO THE NEGROES.
11 Notwithstanding the immense and abundant forests, no large species of the feathered tribe have
A CHAPTER FOR THE YOUNG. been noticed; though numerous, the birds are small,
THE FIRST MISBIONARY TO THE NEGROES. and include the parrot, pigeons, cuckoos, the kingfisher, mocking-bird, &c. The European poultryyard has been introduced with great success. Fish
The children of the present and succeeding abound in all the rivers ; there are few reptiles, but generations, as they read and hear of past times, obnoxious insects swarm in swampy situations *. On the whole, it appears, then, that New Zealand may well be surprised at many sentiments and
feelings which were familiar to their fathers. They is a favoured country. If the rugged and Alpine will find, for instance, a denial to the sable tribes character of her southern districts offer a field for of Africa of the powers and sympathies of our the cultivator comparatively small in extent, and
common humanity, as if the colour of the skin were interrupted by wide intervals of intractable waste,
a test of mental vigour and capacity, or rather the this is repaid by the superiority of the land capable brand of the most abject degradation. And yet, of tillage ; if, for the most part, her western coast,
poet depicts a slave musing on his wrongs, the bristling with precipices, or shallowed by sand-bars, remonstrance he supposes the bondsman to utter, repels the navigator, her eastern shores invite him
was long as necessary as it is just and forcible. to their deep and sheltered harbourage. “The huge glaciers and plains of snow which cover the higher
What! have we not a soul to feel, regions,” says a careful and accurate geographer; And eyes to weep, and hearts to bleed ! "the mighty torrents which pour down from them,
Though white man's heart is stone or steel ;
Ours-ours is human flesh indeed. forming stupendous cataracts; the lofty woods
If hate-revenge-if hope—despairwhich crown their middle regions; the hills which
Love-memory-all that mind can breed wind along their feet, decked with the brightest
Or good and evil angels share, vegetation ; the bold cliffs and promontories which
Be man-of man- enslaved, or freed ! breast the might of their southern waves ; the beautiful bays decked with numberless villages and The pangs unutter'd thoughts create canoes-all conspire to present a scene which even
The sweat-drops burning on my brow; the rude eye of the navigator cannot behold with
The words of anguish and of hate out rapture +."
That tremble on my lips e'en now, Possessing, then, such varied natural phenomena,
Are they not human ? Are they not
Of passions such as those which bow with a general aspect whose constituents are sel
The white man's spirit-those which blot dom found congregated in so small a tract, thus
The white man's page of vice and woe? presenting scenes of almost every clime, it is no poetical figure to call this unique land“ the world's
Yes ! He who moulded mortal clay, epitome."
W. And breathed his Spirit there,- who plann'd
Creation's infinite display,
Various and beautiful the race
Of scatter'd man-He stamp'd no brand The commerce between different nations, which Of slavery on the negro's faceis both an effect and a cause of national wealth, Life-Liberty-were His command. tends to lessen their disposition to war, by Nor were instances wanting of a far higher order making them mutually dependent. Many wars, of feeling than that which has just been expressed. indeed, have been occasioned by commercial To mention only one, which occurred about a hunjealousy; but it will be found that, in almost every dred and fifty years ago :-A negro slave, on the instance, this has arisen, on one side, if not on Danish island of St. Thomas in the West Indies, both, from unsound views of political economy, though no man cared for his soul, frequently sat which have occasioned the general interests of the on the sea-shore after the toils of the day, and community, to a very great amount, to be sacri
earnestly sighed for a knowledge of the gospel, of ficed, for a much smaller advantage, to a few indi
which he had caught an imperfect idea from the viduals. The ruinous expensiveness also of war
professions of Europeans. Sensible of want, he (which will never be adequately estimated till the longed for relief which he thought might be found; spread of civilisation shall have gained general as one acutely suffering, he pined for the only balm admission for just views of political economy), which could soothe and heal. would alone, if fairly computed, be almost suf
Not long after he had indulged this train of feel. ficient to banish war from the earth.–Archbishop
ing, he was taken by his master to Copenhagen ; Whately.
and here he heard “ the glad tidings of great joy." * Polack, vol i. chap. ix. passim.
he embraced them “ in simplicity and godly sin- f Ilugh Murray's Encyclopædia of Geograpby, p. 1506. cerity," and received at his baptism the name of Anthony. Here too he met with some pious com- were established, there was good reason to expect panions of Count Zinzendorff, who had arrived at success. Anthony was in consequence introduced the court of Denmark, to attend the coronation of to Count Zinzendorff, who, being a man of great Christian VI.
kindness, and one who from his youth had cherished These persons belonged to an interesting body a hope of sending the gospel to the heathen, eagerly of Christians, who have now long been known listened to his statements. The Count had lately under the name of Moravians, or United Brethren. become the patron of a small body of refugees
They claim for themselves a high antiquity. They from Moravia, the remains of the ancient church ascend up to the preaching of Paul and Titus, in of the United Brethren, who had found on his Illyricum and Dalmatia. When the Sclavonians estate in Lusatia, situated about fifty miles east rent these provinces from the Greek empire, they of Dresden, an asylum from persecution. Here, soon adopted as their own the Christian religion in the midst of a forest, they had built a few which they found here. The clergy of this country humble dwellings wherein to worship God in peace, made a stand in behalf of purity of worship; for after the manner of their forefathers. they united with those of Lombardy, the native land On the Count's return to this settlement, called of the Waldenses, in refusing to appear at the Sixth Herrnhut, a name meaning the Watch of the Lord, Council of Constantinople, on account of image- he mentioned to the little congregation, at their worship, which then obtained in the Greek church. daily evening meeting in the chapel, what he had
So long since as the year 890, Bohemia and Mo- learned in his interview with the converted negro. ravia received the gospel from two Greek monks, While he yet spake, two of his hearers, Leonard who are supposed to have diffused the purer prin- Dober and Tobias Leopold, longed to be heralds ciples of the Sclavonians ; for when Otho united of mercy to the slaves of the west. Though intiBohemia to his empire, and brought the Greek mate friends, neither of them spake to the other Christians under the see of Rome, they succeeded on the subject that night, but they prayed and wept in obtaining for themselves a liturgy in their own over their cherished desire till morning. Then tongue, and free from several popish corruptions. their feelings were no longer restrained, and they In 1176, the Waldenses arrived in Bohemia and found that, as answereth to face in a glass, so contributed to preserve the purity of religion ; but did one heart accord with the other. Mutual comafter having done so, and concealed themselves munication increased the holy flame which had from the popish power for more than two hundred been enkindled. In the evening, while they and years, they were discovered and scattered by the other young men of the congregation were return. fervid blast of persecution. In the fifteenth cen- ing from their usual walks in the forest, for spiritual tury they were again associated, attempted to form converse and private prayer, the Count was standa closer union, and took the name of Fratres Legis ing at the door of his lodging in company with a Christi-Brethren of the Law of Christ. Perceiv- pious clergyman, then on a visit at Herrnhut. As ing, however, that they were thought to form one they passed two and two towards their homes, the of the new orders of monks now springing up, they former turned and said to the latter, “ My dear assumed the name of Brethren, and when joined friend, there are amongst these brethren messengers with others from Bohemia, they took their present who will go forth to preach the gospel in the West title of Unitas Fratrum—the Unity of the Brethren. Indies, Greenland, Lapland, and other heathen From this period to the Reformation they were countries." This saying was remarkable, as no severely persecuted, but their bond of harmony plan had yet been contemplated, nor indeed was was unbroken. After various trials and distresses one likely to be undertaken by Christian exiles and during the seventeenth century, they became in a emigrants from various quarters, seeking liberty manner extinct ; but about the year 1720 they ap- and rest in that solitary place. The two friends peared suddenly to awake to life and energy; and were, however, greatly encouraged by that declaas free toleration was denied them in the country ration, to offer themselves for the work, first priof their birth, they agreed to emigrate.
vately to the Count, and afterwards openly to the It was with some of these people that Anthony congregation. enjoyed much delightful and profitable intercourse. A few weeks elapsed, and Anthony arrived at Nor did he fail to exemplify the pure benevolence Herrnhut. He now personally confirmed all that of true piety. He longed that others should par- he had before stated of the wants of his oppressed ticipate the blessings which had so happily realised countrymen in St. Thomas, and of their willinghis own desires; but his soul especially yearned with ness to receive the gospel. He added to this repreaffection and sympathy towards his sister, whom sentation another of no ordinary kind; for he he had left a slave in the plantations of the west. distinctly declared that so long and so severely
On this subject he often conversed with the were the slaves of that island worked by their brethren whom he knew ; he drew an affecting masters, that unless those who went to preach to picture of the temporal and spiritu condition of them would consent to become slaves themselves, the negroes, and assured them that if a mission and actually to labour with them in the plantaTHE FIRST MISSIONARY TO THE NEGROES.
13 tions, they would have but little opportunity for ment to hope for success in their future work. Christian instruction. Here, it must be admitted, Often indeed serious doubts and difficulties were was no ordinary trial. It would require a sacrifice started. One devout lady, the Countess de Stolon the part of these young men, to leave the asylum berg, at Werngerode, alone appeared to view their so mercifully opened to them and their companions, project with favour. Affected by their communiand to bear abroad the gospel; but what would it cations, she said, “Go your way; and should be to forego their liberty, to be treated as cruel they even put you to death, the Lord Jesus masters do their beasts of burden, to toil amidst is worthy that his servants should be ready to lay tropical heat to the full extent of their strength, down their lives for Him." “ These words," said and to sink at last, perhaps speedily, under the Dober, writing to the same lady several years extremest pressure of want and suffering—for the afterwards, “were a balsam to my heart, which sake of becoming Christian missionaries !
before had been almost broken by the discourageTo the honour of their principles be it recorded, ment which others had thrown in my way.” that Dober and Leopold could abide this test. On arriving at Copenhagen, they had to encounter The intelligence they received did not in the fresh trials. Their scheme was regarded by all smallest degree daunt these devoted young men ; with astonishment; and their idea of labouring in they were both ready not merely to suffer, but to the plantations as slaves, especially, was condemned be bound and die as slaves, for the Lord Jesus. as the height of infatuation. Still they patiently Such indeed was their strength of faith, that they persevered in applying for license to go to St. were willing to make any sacrifice that might be Thomas, and to obtain a passage by some vessel required, if they might bear the tidings of salvation bound thither ; but this was absolutely refused in to Anthony's sister-if they might but win one soul any of the Danish West India Company's ships. to Christ.
Meanwhile Counsellor Pless, who had from their Difficulties as to the attempt now arose, and arrival treated them kindly, though unable to see delay had also to be endured. At length Dober how they could accomplish their design, told their was set apart for the missionary enterprise, and errand to the Royal family; and the queen and the Nitschman, who had first met with Anthony at Princess Amelia condescended to desire an interCopenhagen, was invited and consented to be his view with them. The result was truly gratifying : companion. Little preparation was needed for they were dismissed with the most gracious assurtheir journey : their brethren and sisters had nei- ances of the royal good-will and protection ; the ther silver nor gold; the only outfit they could Princess afterwards sent them a sum of money, and offer was their best counsel and their fervent another gift which was peculiarly seasonable-a prayers. But these prayers were precious, for large Dutch Bible. Prior to their departure too, they were the petitions of the righteous; and that several persons high in the Danish court became counsel was the wisest, for it was literally this : so much interested in them, that besides supplying " In all things remember to follow the guidance the means of paying for their passage and procurof the Spirit of Christ.”
ing tools requisite for carrying on their respective The brethren began their pilgrimage on foot, handicrafts, the one being a carpenter and the each with his staff and his scrip, reminding us of other a potter, they dismissed them with these the mission of the seventy disciples of the Re- words, “Go, in the name of God. Our Saviour deemer. Count Zinzendorff accompanied them chose fishermen for preachers of the gospel ; He through the forest, and at the place of parting, himself was a carpenter, and called the Carpenter's having commended them to God and the word of son!” Our next Number shall describe their afterhis grace, he asked what money they had for the
S. charges of the way. They produced three dollars; and he, whose whole income was spent in the cause of religion, and was therefore always kept
SALE OF CHILDREN. low, added two ducats, making their whole stock In the Travels of Messrs. Moorcroft and Trebeck about thirty-one shillings and sixpence. Such was in the Himalayan Provinces, which have just issued the first missionary fund for preaching the gospel from the press, it is said in reference to Tiri,—" There to the heathen, on the plan which in later times is no doubt that the population was always kept down has so generally been adopted.
by the practice which has immemorially prevailed in With these small means, they proceeded on their many of the mountain districts, of the sale of children journey to Copenhagen, a distance of 600 miles, by their own parents, in times of scarcity and distress. hoping on their arrival there to be allowed to work married more wives than they had the means of main
In some places, I was credibly informed, persons their passage across the Atlantic in some merchant- taining, for the purpose of raising money by the sale man bound for the West Indies. On their way of their offspring; and although this may not be strictly they were hospitably entertained by Christian true, yet the story itself proves that the people of these friends to whom they had letters of recommenda-countries are aceustomed to look to the disposal of tion, but from whom they received no encourage their children as means of subsistence.”