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THE harbour formed by this island and the main has been the resort of foreign vessels since the Tartar authorities ordered them to quit Lintin upon the plea that many of them were concerned in contraband transactions, and were not sufficiently obedient to the mandates of the imperial dragon. The stipulations agreed to between Captain Elliot and Ke-shen, in January last, have given it a celebrity which its own intrinsic merits could never have gained for it. It is, however, deserving of our commendation as a spot where ships may anchor in safety under the shelter of the high hills upon the island on the south side, and

and where healthful breezes blow with all their grateful and reviving influences.

The island of Hong-kong, of which a western sketch is given at the end of this article, is about ten miles long from east to west, and about half that distance in its greatest breadth. It is irregular in its outline, and consequently forms several bays, where vessels might anchor with security, save in the months of July and August, when the typhons sweep among the islands in tempestuous and reeling eddies. The highest point, which is called Hong-kong Peak, is about two thousand feet high, and is obviously, from the ledged and precipitous nature of its sides, of a trap and volcanic structure. This peak is well distinguished in our

the ridges upon the main land towards the north,sketch, which was taken about three years ago,

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when the writer had little expectation that after the lapse of so short a time, his country would claim it as a part of the British possessions. The island seems to be composed mainly of trap, which of all kinds of rock yields a soil most friendly to vegetation. The far-famed Moluccas, or Spice Islands, are composed of this rock, and owe their extreme fertility not less to this circumstance than they do to the genial sun which beams upon them. These, though lofty, are clothed with vegetation to their very summits, owing to the soft breezes which blow upon their sides. In this particular Hong-kong cannot rival them; for the northeast monsoon is too chilling to allow anything to

thrive under its sway except the fir-tree (Pinus sinensis), and a few of the hardier kinds of grass. In the valleys where the neighbouring heights afford a protection against this wind, plants, shrubs, and trees flourish in all their beauty and loveliness.

The indentation in the coast, which in our map is termed the Pleasant Valley, is a charming delta, where a village stands embosomed in trees. The dwellings of this village seemed to have been conversant with better times, as there was a style in the construction of some which was not in keeping with the apparent unprosperous state of the little neighbourhood. It was at this village the


writer met with a very intelligent man, to whom he gave a copy of the New Testament in Chinese, which was regarded as so great a favour, that the villager ran to his home and fetched the choicest dainty his storehouse could furnish, that he might show himself grateful. The groves which surround this delta are not without their interest in the eye of the ornithologist, as a sportsman found a species of Eurylaimus distinguished by its short, thick bill, and its green plumage. The geologist might here also meet with an object of some curiosity in an enormous block of granite, which rests upon other blocks of granite, as if it had been placed in its present situation by the hand of art. In following the course of this valley, we soon find ourselves in a narrow ravine, with steep declivities on either side. After walking about two miles along a path skirted with shrubs and flowers, this narrow pass opens into a spreading valley, where rice is grown and man finds a habitation. With European dwellings and European comforts this would prove a most delightful nook, where, at so short a distance from the scene of mercantile bustle and excitement, the man of business might enjoy the retreat of a hermit, amidst hills and the wild murmurs of the waterfall which glides in liquid lapse over the glistening slopes of the mountain side. In this secluded spot the writer encountered a group of inquisitive peasants, who marvelled greatly why a foreigner should wander so far from the customary haunts of "shipmen," uninvited by the hope of gain and unprotected by weapons or attendants. A sight of the contents of the botanical box satisfied them as to the nature of his errand, and they soon turned their attention to an inquiry far more interesting. The texture of the foreigner's garments and the place of their manufacture were subjects for scrutiny and anxious interrogation. For so far are the Chinese from despising the goods which come from the "far west," that old and young, rich and poor, seize an opportunity of looking at them with the most eager curiosity, and dwell upon their excellences in terms of the highest rapture. On the day preceding this visit, the commodore of the Hong-kong fleet had taken to himself a very amiable companion, and as he was a great favourite among the captains of the different ships, the occasion was marked with salutes from all who had guns to join in the ceremony. The echoes of the pealing cannon had reached this spot, and rendered the inhabitants very inquisitive as to the cause. When the traveller assigned the reason, the females who formed the outer ring of the group gave a simultaneous cheer, as if delighted to hear that foreigners sometimes agree with the Chinese in thinking that noise is a very suitable accompaniment for other expressions of joy and festivity.

The cataracts which ornament a stream upon the southern side of the island seem to have furnished


a designation for it, since Hong-kong in the pronunciation of the middle and northern provinces is Heang-keang, which means "a fragrant waterfall.” The first of these, which stands by the sea-shore, is about sixty feet high, and forms a pleasing but singular object when viewed from the sea. The water falls down a series of ledges in what a Sandwich Islander would call a Pare, and we an escapement. As it is the exit of a valley, it stands of course within a nook of the shore. The rocks near it are of trap, and present a basaltic appearance, inasmuch as the outer surface is changed into a sort of bark or rind, which is cracked in an hexagonal manner, forming a humble imitation of the Giants' Causeway. The colour of these many-sided figures is peculiarly light and ashy. In tracing the stream, we meet with a succession of waterfalls, decreasing in height and breadth as we advance. The effect is very fine, and affords a beautiful contrast to the barren sameness which the hills of this part of China generally exhibit. A Chinaman on the route was asked whence the water flowed: "From two hill-tops (leong tong')," was his reply. This was found to be the case; for the traveller, after trudging three or four miles under a scorching sun, found the stream diverge with its two rays pointing to two sharp peaks which had everything volcanic in their aspect. The trap disclosed by these streams reached as far as the eye could ken, and was conspicuous for the japanned brightness which it wore when washed by the water. The ridges of the lower hills retained a little of the quartzose granite in a state of decomposition; but the abundance of clay below and the black colour of the rock near the summit of the hills made it evident that the preponderance was in favour of the trap.

By ceding the harbour of Hong-kong, the Tartar authorities will find, we think, that they have given up a portion of the mainland which forms the northern side of it. In form or express terms they may have made no such surrender; but as they will be very apt to harass and annoy those natives who are most friendly to foreigners, and thus materially injure our interests, the occupation of all that portion of the Chinese territory which intervenes between the sea and a zigzag range of hills will soon be a matter of expediency, if not of necessity. The territory to which we refer consists of a beautiful variety of hill and dale, and offers inexhaustible stores for the quarrying of granite, and wide fields for gardens and pleasure-grounds. There Europeans might enjoy their walks and drives, and taste in full fruition all the sweets of healthful exercise. The writer of these remarks visited this delightful region when much reduced in strength and spirits by a tedious course of medicine, and after a sojourn of a few days felt himself wonderfully cheered and invigorated. The natives have a great partiality for foreigners, especially for

the English, who never visit any place without benefiting others beside themselves. It is here that English ladies would perceive that the native females regard them with an admiration which is something like a feeling of worship, as if they had come, not from a good land in the West, but from some better country above the sphere of the moon. To this spot native merchants would resort from all parts of the empire, allured by the hope of gain and the natural love of sight-seeing. We assume as a matter of course, that the arm of British protection would be thrown over such visitors, otherwise their curiosity might expose them to great inconveniences. On this healthful spot an hospital might be reared, which would attract many who cannot obtain competent assistance from native doctors. Each patient on leaving the hospital might be presented with a copy of the New Testament, and thus the word of God would attain a very efficient mode of circulation. In a settlement consecrated by the hallowed influences of Christian liberty, the native and the foreigner might meet and exchange the courtesies of life on terms of equality and mutual respect. In all the concernments of diplomatic policy, religion, and commerce, this is a state of things greatly to be coveted.


thousand difficulties are removed by a very little friendly intercourse, and the mind is prepared to listen to terms, which would be at once rejected, in the absence of such a persuasive medium. We are speaking, not from the suggestions of theory, but from the results of experiment. We have seen a word of kindness succeed with a Chinese, when threats, rewards, and arguments have failed. It should be remembered that the Chinese are men and women, and consequently have all the essential characteristics of human nature about them. The officials of the Tartar government say and do strange things; but this results from the very nature of despotism, which at the best is but a miserable compound of power and weakness, and hence its supporters are oftentimes driven to the necessity of doing the meanest as well as the most absurd actions. In their wretched impotency, the Tartar commissioners will endeavour to limit and destroy the concession they have made; but every such attempt will only make their bands more strong, by obliging the conquerors to take from them the power of doing wrong as a measure of self-defence. See in this remark an historic epitome of British ascendancy in India, and, as in a sort of perspective glass, a sketch of what it will be in China.

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LORD JOHN RUSSELL, the political father of the colony of New Zealand, standing in the midst of the New Zealand Company, said, in his speech of February 13th, 1841, "I cannot look without anxiety to the future fate of those who are the aboriginal inhabitants of New Zealand-aboriginal inhabitants, let me say, who are not in that low and mean state of capacity and cultivation in which the natives of some regions have been found, but capable, as I believe they are, of acquiring the arts of civilized

life, and of imbibing the truths of religion. Let us all impress deeply upon our minds this fact, that whatever may have passed in former days-whatever is passing at this time in our own colonies -it is our bounden duty, when founding a new colony and propagating the doctrines of Chrisfrom our practice. Let it not be said that, while tianity there, to see that our precepts differ not preaching and professing the precepts of brotherly love that are written in the Bible, murder and pillage form our practice."

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Head of a Botocudo Man, disfigured by ear and chin pendants.

A STRIKING and most affecting contrast appears in the tribe of Brazilians from which the above portraits have been selected; the woman fairly proportioned as nature made her-beaming with an unaffected expression of good temper-the man debased by the arts of barbarism to the lowest stage


of ugliness, expressive of the most fierce and revolting passions.

In youth, and before the vicious process of defacement has commenced, the beauty of the native Brazilians has employed many pens in the expression of admiration. By far the most eloquent, and, although dressed in the garb of poetry, the


concurrent testimony of many writers assures us, not the least true, of these descriptions is that of the heroine of "A Tale of Paraguay," by Dr.Southey. It well applies to the youthful original of our engraving:

"No art of barbarous ornament had scarr'd And stain'd her virgin limbs, or 'filed her face; Nor ever yet had evil passion marr'd

In her sweet countenance the natural grace Of innocence and youth: nor was there trace Of sorrow, or of hardening want or care. Strange was it, in this wild and savage place, Which seem'd to be for beasts a fitting lair, Thus to behold a maid so gentle and so fair*." Such a picture of human loveliness the Botocudos-a tribe inhabiting the country between the river Doce and Rio Pardo-distort to most revolting and unnatural forms. According to their savage taste beauty can only exist in a protruding lip, ears with lobes vastly distended, and a head shaven to the scalp. In youth these people are described as possessing features of a pleasing character; in age nothing can exceed their repulsive aspect. The father of a child determines at what period the deformity shall be commenced. A hole is pierced between the lower lip and the chin, another in the ear-lobes, into which round pieces of wood are introduced, at first small; but as the youth gets older so the wooden distenders are enlarged, sometimes to the size of four inches in diameter and an inch or an inch and a half in thickness. A very light sort of wood is used for the purpose, that of the Barrigudo (Bombax ventricosa). From these bungs (botoque) the tribe derives its Portuguese designation of Botocudos.

Independent of the unsightly appearance, great physical misery is produced by this savage fashion. When the wooden encumbrance is displaced, the lower lip is seen protruded and depressed, laying bare the teeth, which are by the continual pressure pushed far inwards, and consequently soon run to decay. In Blumenbach's collection there is a Botocudo's scull, in which the sockets of the teeth are completely displaced. The lobes also seem suspended from the ear like large leather straps, and are much in the way during the ordinary employments of savage life—in forest hunting for example-so that they often get torn. The parts in such cases are re-united by a sort of skewer called cipo, made of barkt. Such are the sacrifices these barbarians offer at the shrine of custom.

Instances of wilful deformity might be multiplied while one race of people crushes the feet of

A Tale of Paraguay. In the more detailed description of his heroine the author has adopted the sentiments, sometimes the very words, of the jesuit Dobrizhoffer, who paints, in sober prose, an equally glowing picture of a Brazilian girl from life. See Hist. of the Abipones, vol. i. p. 92.

+ Rugenda's Picturesque Travels in Brazil; translated from the German by Golbery.

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its children, another flattens their heads between boards; and while we in Europe admire the natural whiteness of the teeth, the Malays file off the enamel and dye them black, for the all-sufficient reason that dogs' teeth are white! A New Zealand chief has his distinctive coat-of-arms emblazoned on the skin of his face, as well as on his limbs ; and an Esquimaux is nothing if he have not bits of stone stuffed through a hole in each cheek‡; but examples of the cure of these vices suggest more important as well as more interesting reflections.

Christianity-upon which is based the only practical system of civilisation-when introduced among savages has always produced the effect of abolishing the most sinful and absurd of their customs. Thus, to mention only one instance, Mr. Ellis, in his delightful "Polynesian Researches," translates a code of laws written by the king of Tahiti after his conversion, in which tattooing is prohibited as "belonging to ancient and evil customs."

The portraits we have presented, then, of degraded mortality remind us of the duty we owe to our fellow-beings. It is a condition annexed to those blessings of Christianity we pre-eminently enjoy, to spread its doctrines, to promote civilisation, and to raise degraded man from the abasement into which he is plunged by abject and ruinous ignorance.



The author of " Yamoeden " inquires :-
Know ye the Indian warrior race?
How their form springs in strength and grace,
Like pine on their native mountain side
That will not bow in its deathless pride;
Whose rugged limbs of stubborn tone,
No flexuous power of art will own,
But bend to Heaven's red bolt alone!
How their hue is deep as the western dye,
That fades in the autumn's evening sky,
That lives for ever upon their brow,
In the summer's heat, and the winter's snow;
How their raven locks of tameless strain,
Stream like the desert courser's mane ;
How their glance is far as the eagle's flight,
And fierce and true as the panther's sight;
How their souls are like the crystal wave,
Where the spirit dwells in the northern cave;
Unruffled in its cavern'd bed,
Calm as its glimmering surface spread;
Its springs, its outlet unconfess'd,
The pebble's weight upon its breast,
Shall wake its echoing thunders deep,
And when their muttering accents sleep,
Its dark recesses hear them yet,
And tell of deathless love or hate.

The following statement is made by one well

See The Chinese, by Davis, vol. i.

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