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THE FIRST MISSIONARY TO THE NEGROES.
under the influence of the drug to care for passing God. Joyfully and successfully did he then labour, events, and fast merging to the wished-for consum- till the fever of tropical climes suspended his efforts. mation.
Comparing the ease and luxury of the governor's The last scene in this tragic play is generally a mansion with the condition of a field-negro, to room in the rear of the building, a species of dead- which he had resolved to stoop that he might house, where lie stretched those who have passed give every moment to the ministry of the gospel, into the state of bliss the opium-smoker madly he now reproached himself for the enjoyments he seeks-an emblem of the long sleep to which he is had, and on his recovery sought his dismission blindly hurrying.-Lord Jocelyn's Sir Months with from his Excellency's service, which was reluctantly the Chinese Expedition.
He then obtained little more than bread and water to sustain life by acting as watchman on
some neighbouring plantations, and performing A CHAPTER FOR THE YOUNG.
other small services; but great was the blessing THE FIRST MISSIONARY TO THE NEGROES,
which accompanied his humble, self-denying, and faithful labours. For a long time he heard nothing
from Europe; but at length a vessel arrived, and he DOBER and Nitschman on reaching the shore of St.
sent a negro to ask the usual and almost hopeless Thomas, were naturally the subjects of various and question if there were letters for him. Anxious for conflicting emotions; and on the following day, they the result, and the night coming on, he went to the wentin search of Anthony's sister. After a little in harbour, and being weary, sat down by a watchquiry, they reached the plantation where she and her fire at the way-side to wait for his messenger. husband laboured, bearing the names of Anna and
While musing, three men, whom he had not perAbraham ; and having delivered to the former her ceived coming, stood before him ; and, to his indebrother's salutation, and read a letter from him to scribable surprise and joy, one of them was his early his sister, they preached Jesus and the resurrection friend and brother Leopold, who, with seventeen to them and to the blacks, who joined them during the party, were to be stationed, some in St.
other missionaries, including the wives of four of the conversation. No sooner was it said to the and the rest in the adjacent island of St. Croix. sable crowd, as the work of the Redeemer for perishing sinners was described—“For you also
During the first years of the mission on St. our Saviour has procured this salvation, and we are
Thomas, great hindrances and occasional persecucome hither on purpose to bring you the glad tidings,”
tions were raised by the planters to prevent the
Then and the meaning of this appeal was caught, than preaching of the gospel to the slaves. the poor negroes clapped their hands with delight. such a lamentation as the following might often be
heard. And doubtless there was joy also in the presence of the angels of God as they hovered over this
My native land ! far o'er the sea, memorable scene. Compared with it, the brightest
Enslaved and sad, I think of thee, spectacle of mere earthly grandeur which could
When, free as the unbridled breeze, then be beheld was mean and contemptible.
I chased the deer 'mongst spicy trees,
And stay'd, amidst his fleet career, It need scarcely be said that the brethren now
The ostrich, with my swifter spear. thanked God and took courage. A fresh cause Then bright of look-as sun at noon, for gratitude speedily arose. While deliberating how
Then gay of heart—as bird in June, they might live as cheaply as possible, a planter in- And careless as the lark that flies, vited them to his house, engaging to supply them With song to bid the morn arise, with all necessaries and comforts till they could I rose in gladness, breast and brow provide for themselves. This offer was deeply Fearless and free,-how rise I now? affecting, not only because on such hospitality they
How rise I ?-my heart throbs to ask ; had no claim, but from the consideration that they
See, there's the whip, and here's the task ; expected to have been obliged to sell themselves Nor toil alone enchafes my mood, for slaves, in order to promote the welfare of the My tax'd and burthen'd soul sweats blood ; negroes.
My heart leaps up in arms,—the brand This unlooked-for kindness was however not long Smites sharp in an insulted hand. wanted. Nitschman, according to previous agree- This golden clime, in vain for me, ment, returned to Denmark, and the governor
Pours liquid fragrance from the tree, engaged Dober as tutor to his children. The new
The fruits which cool men's lips at noon, situation supplied him with all he required; and it
The preacher's prayers beneath the moon, was accepted on the express condition that he
Are vain,-my trampled heart, in truth, should be allowed, after his daily duties in the
Nor food can cheer, nor words can soothe. family, to visit the negroes wherever he could gain Nor did the negroes suffer alone : for several access, and declare to them the whole counsel of months the missionaries, under false accusations,
on which they were brought to trial, were cruelly « The Lord preserve and bless you, together with your held in prison ; nor were they liberated till Count son and daughter, and the whole family; I shall not Zinzendorff arrived at St. Thomas, applied to the cease praying to the Lord for you. governor in their behalf, and obtained their imme. “Written in the name of more than two hundred diate enlargement. When the Count returned to negro-women, who love the Lord Jesus.” Europe, he was entrusted with two petitions,-one These very petitions, supported by a representafrom the negro-men to the King of Denmark, the tion from the Count, when he reached Copenhagen, other from the negro-women to the queen. The had so happy an effect, that a royal ordonnance was following are exact translations.
passed, dated August 7th, 1739, securing liberty and “To His Majesty the King of Denmark.
protection to the Brethren in preaching to the slaves
in the Danish colonies. “ Most Gracious Lord King! “Now we hope that your Majesty will command that It must suffice to observe that Dr. Chalmers, filled
Of their subsequentlabours wecannot now speak. we may continue to learn to know the Lord Jesus.
with admiration at the labours, and sufferings, and We remain immovable, if it please God our Lord ; though we are greatly oppressed by men, who beat
cess of these Christians, exclaims :us and cut us, when Herr Martinus (Massa Martin) « Oh! when one looks at the number and greatness teaches us. They burnt our books, and say, “Negroes of their achievements when he thinks on the change must not be saved, a baptized negro is fuel for hell- they have made on materials so coarse and so unprofire !'
mising—when he eyes the villages they have formed “ They have put the brethren, whom God hath sent and when, around the whole of that engaging perspecto us, and who are the only survivors of twenty, for tive by which they have chequered and relieved the three months, into the fort, and now they intend to grim solitude of the desert, he witnesseth the love, and drive them out of the country. They all appeal to listens to the piety of reclaimed savages,—who would your Majesty, and say, you have forbidden that the not long to be in possession of the charm by which negroes should be made acquainted with our Saviour, they have wrought this wonderful transformation,-who and would shortly send Massa Martin away. But we would not willingly exchange for it all the parade of do not believe this ; and we pray your Majesty to human eloquence, and all the confidence of human allow us to be instructed in the knowledge of the Lord, argument ? and for the wisdom of winning souls, and to remain in connexion with the Brethren's who is there who would not rejoice to throw the loveChurch, for we wish to go with them to our Saviour. liness of the song, and all the insignificancy of its We will be obedient to our masters in all things; we passing fascinations, away from him ?"
8. only wish to send our souls to heaven to the Lord Jesus. Formerly we have cheated our masters, stolen provisions, run away, and been idle. But now things are quite different, as our masters themselves know very
THE NATIVES OF KASHMIR. well. Many a negro, for his wicked deeds, has resolulely suffered his hands and his feet to be cut off ; we The natives of Kashmir have been always conwill cheerfully put our necks under the axe for the Lord sidered as amongst the most lively and ingenious Jesus, if our masters, as they say, will kill us. people of Asia, and deservedly so. With a liberal
“God the Lord bless our gracious king a thousand and wise government, they might assume an equally times.
high scale, as a moral and intellectual people; but “ Written in St. Thomas, the 15th day of Febuary,
at present a more degraded race does not exist. in the name of more than six hundred and fifty scholars The complexion of the Kashmirians varies from dark of the Lord Jesus, who are taught by Massa Martin !"
to an olive, and is sometimes ruddy and transpaSigned by PETER, and three hundred Negro Assistants.
rent: the eyes are large and full, the nose is well The following was written by Magdelene, one of defined, and commonly of an aquiline form. The the female negro assistants :
stature varies; but the Hindus who have least in“ To Her Majesty the Queen of Denmark.
termixed with foreign races are, in general, tall
and symmetrically made. The inhabitants of the “Great Queen!
city are rather slight; but among the peasantry, “When I was in Papaa, in Africa, I served Massa both Hindus and Mohammedan, are to be found Mahu ; now, when I am come into the land of the
figures of robust and muscular make, such as might white people, they will not suffer me to serve the Lord have served for models of the Farnesan Hercules. Jesus. The white people will not obey him, and they In character the Kashmirian is selfish, superstitious, may do as they please ; but when the poor black brethren and sisters wish to serve the Lord Jesus, he has great ingenuity as a mechanic, and a decided
ignorant, supple, intriguing, dishonest, and false : they are looked upon as maroons (run-away negroes).
“ If it seemeth good to the Queen, may your Majesty genius for manufactures and commerce; but his pray the Lord Jesus for us, and also pray the king,
transactions are always conducted in a fraudulent that he would permit Massa Martin to preach the spirit, equalled only by the effrontery with which word of the Lord, that we may learn to know the Lord, he faces detection. The vices of the Kashmirian I and that he may baptize us negroes.
cannot help considering, however,as the effects of his
THE NATIVES OF KASHMIR.
31 political condition, rather than his nature, and con- three-pence per pound. Beef is not procurable, as ceive that it would not be difficult to transform him the Sikh ruler punishes the death of a cow capitally. into a very different being. Religious bigotry forms The chief food of the people is vegetable, turnips, no part of his character, and the teachers of either cabbages and radishes, the Sinhara, or water-nut, faith, Mullas or Pundits, are exceedingly ignorant, and rice. The turnips are purple or reddish, and and possess little influence. Since the establishment speedily become woolly : the radishes are mostly of the Sikh authority, Hinduism predominates, and white and strong; the cabbages do not head, but the country is infested by numerous and audacious the leaves are frequently stripped. Besides these, bands of mendicants. They are patronised rather lettuces, spinach, and other common vegetables, are by the government than the people, and the latter in extensive use, boiled into a sort of soup, with a would gladly get rid of their presence. There little salt, or even the leaves of the dandelion, dock, seems, indeed, to be little attachment of either the plantain, or mallow; and the catkins of the walnut Mohammedans or Hindus of Kashmir to their re- are employed as food, seasoned with a little salt, spective creeds, and I am convinced there is no part mustard, and walnut oil. of India where the pure religion of the gospel Although wheat, barley, buck-wheat, millet, might be introduced with a fairer prospect of maize, pulse, and amaranthus, are grown in Kashsuccess.
mir, yet the staple of cultivation is rice. This is Literature of any description is almost unknown sown in the beginning of May, and is fit to cut in Kashmir, and it is not easy to discover any relics about the end of August. The grain is either sown of those celebrated Sanscrit compositions which broad-cast in the place where it is intended to originated in the patronage of the princes of the stand till ripe, or thickly in beds, from which it is country whilst it was a Hindu principality. Our transplanted when the blade is about a foot high. attention was especially directed to this subject by As soon as the season will admit after the 21st of a communication from the Secretary of the Asiatic March, the land is opened by one or more ploughSociety, who was desirous of procuring copies of ings, according to its strength, and the clods are the Chronicles of Kashmir, the Raja Tarangini, of broken down by blows with wooden mattocks, a local legend called the Nila Purana, and a collec- managed in general by women, with great regulation of tales, entitled the Vrilat Katha. The most rity and address, after which water is let upon the particular inquiry was set on foot for these works, soil, which, for the most part of a reddish clay, or and after much delay, we heard of two copies of foxy earth, is converted into a smooth soft mud. the Chronicles, written on birch-bark, and one of The seed grain, put into a sack of woven grass, is the Vrihat Kathá, on a similar material: they were submerged in a running stream until it begins to shown to us, and appeared to be ancient. Nothing sprout, which happens sooner or later, according to could induce the owners to part with them, but they the temperature of the water and of the atmohad no objection tocopies being taken. A copy of the sphere, which ordinarily takes place in three or Raja Tarangini was accordingly transcribed during four days. This precaution is adopted for the purour stay, and one of the Vrihat Kathá was put in pose of getting the young shoot as quickly as hand, under the superintendence of a native friend, possible out of the way of a small snail, which who promised to forward it when finished to Cal- abounds in some of the watered lands of Kashmir, cutta. The Nila Purana was less scarce, and a but sometimes proves insufficient to defend it copy was purchased, and sent down. These were against the activity of this diminutive enemy. the only Sanscrit works of the existence of which When the farmer suspects, by the scanty appearwe obtained any information. The dress of the ance of the plants above the water in which the people, both male and female, commonly consists grain has been sown, and by the presence of the of a long loose wrapper and trousers, the former snail drawn up in the mud, that his hopes of a crop of woollen cloth. As a further protection against are likely to be disappointed, he repeats the sowing, the cold in winter, the Kashmirians usually carry throwing into the water some fresh leaves of the under their tunic an earthen pot, with a small prangos, called krangos, which either poisons the quantity of live charcoal; a practice that invariably snails or causes them to descend out of the reach discolours and sears the skin, and not unfrequently of its influence. The seed is, for the most part, occasions palsy. The Hindu women never go thrown broad-cast into about four or five inches of veiled, and never affect concealment, either at water, which depth is endeavoured to be mainhome or abroad. They had long been exempted tained. Difference of practice exists as to waterfrom the cruel obligation of burning with their ing, but it seems generally agreed that rice can husbands, the custom of which, according to tradi- scarcely have too much water, provided it be not tion, was never very popular in Kashmir
, having submerged except for a few days before it ripens, being suppressed by an edict of Aurangzebe in 1669, when a drier state is supposed to hasten and to and never subsequently revived.
perfect the maturity, whilst it improves the quality The food of those who can afford it, is partly of of the grain. In general the culture of rice is little meat, mutton of goats or sheep, which sells at about expensive, though more so in Kashmir than in
Hindustan, from its being customary in the former | Has immortality of name been given country to manure the rice lands, which is never To them that idly worship hills and groves, done in the latter. This manure for the most part And burn sweet incense to the queen of heaven ? consists of rice straw, rejected by the cattle, and Did Newton learn from fancy, as it roves, mixed with cow-dung. It is conveyed from the To measure worlds, and follow where each moves ! homestead to the fields by women in small wicker Did Howard gain renown that shall not cease, baskets, and is set on the land with more liberality Or did Paul gain Heaven's glory and
By wanderings wild that Nature's pilgrim loves? than might have been expected from the distance By musing o'er the bright and tranquil isles of Greece! it is carried. Many of the rice lands are situated much higher than might be thought convenient in Beware lest thou from sloth, that would appear Ilindustan, and are rather pressed into this species But lowliness of mind, with joy proclaim of culture than naturally inviting, but still yield Thy want of worth ; a charge thou couldst not hear good crops, through the facility with which water From other lips without a blush of shame, is brought upon them from the streams, which fall Or pride indignant ; then be thine the blame, down the face of the neighbouring hills. In
And make thyself of worth; and thus enlist common seasons the return of grain is from thirty 'Tis infamy to die and not be missid,
The smiles of all the good, the dear to fame; to forty for one, on an average, besides the straw.
Or let all soon forget that thou didst e'er exist.
Rouse to some work of high and holy love,
The good begun by thee shall onward flow
In many a branching stream, and wider grow ;
The seed, that, in these few and fleeting hours,
Shall deck thy grave with amaranthine flowers,
bowers. 'Tis when the rose is wrapp'a in many a fold
The late Rev. Carlos Wilcox of America. Close to its heart, the worm is wasting there Its life and beauty ; not when, all unroll'd, Leaf after leaf, its bosom, rich and fair,
FILIAL AFFECTION OF THE CHINESE. Breathes freely its perfumes throughout the ambientair.
The habitual reverence inspired in the mind of Wake, thou that sleepest in enchanted bowers, a child follows him through life, and forms an Lest these lost years should haunt thee on the night indissoluble link-a social bond of the strongest When death is waiting for thy number'd hours, kind. The duty incumbent on a son to provide To take their swift and everlasting flight;
for the necessities of his indigent parents is seldom Wake, ere the earth-born charm unnerve thee quite,
slighted, save by those who have no regard for And be thy thoughts to work divine address'd ; Do something—do it soon-with all thy might;
themselves, and is usually discharged with many An angel's wing would droop if long at rest,
other becoming acts of esteem. I have sometimes And God himself, inactive, were no longer bless'd.
admired the conduct of a son when he has brought
an aged parent to the hospital ; the tenderness with Some high or humble enterprise of good
which he conducted him to the patient's chair, and Contemplate, till it shall possess thy mind,
the feeling with which he detailed his sufferings, Become thy study, pastime, rest, and food,
showed how deeply rooted filial piety is in the And kindle in thy heart a flame refined.
heart of a Chinese. At Macao, a Chinese shoePray Heaven for firmness, thy whole soul to bind maker, who had done some work for me at SingaTo this thy purpose-to begin, pursue,
pore, called to ask for some further encouragement. With thoughts all fix'd, and feelings purely kind ; “ Why,” said I to him," did you leave Singapore, Strength to complete, and with delight review,
where you had a good business ?”—“My old moAnd grace to give the praise where all is ever due.
ther," he replied, " is getting very old, and she will
have me live near her.” In obedience to the comNo good of worth sublime will Heaven permit To light on man as from the passing air ;
mands of a parent, he had given up the certain The lamp of genius, though by nature lit,
pursuit of a livelihood abroad, and returned to take If not protected, pruned, and fed with care,
a very precarious chance at home. The reader Soon dies, or runs to waste with fitful glare;
will not be sorry to hear that this man used to And learning is a plant that spreads and towers
come, from time to time, for a stock of New TestaSlow as Columbia's aloe, proudly rare,
ments, to distribute amongst such of his country. That, 'mid gay thousands, with the suns and showers men as were likely to make a proper use of them. Of half a century, grows alone before it flowers.
Lay's Chinese as they are.
A Mother depositing her Child in the Turning-box of a Foundling Hospital.-Drawn in Paris, by F. Gigoux.
provision was certain for the infant which the
wretched mother found herself unable to provide When those excellent men, St. Vincent de Paul, for, would put an end for ever to the fearful pracand Captain Thomas Coram, following the dictates tice of child-murder, a crime usually the result of of their own noble hearts, successfully exerted despair and agony of soul ! themselves to establish Foundling Hospitals in their What wonder, then, that St. Vincent de Paul was respective countries, they fancied that they were hailed as an angel of light? That when Captain erecting institutions which would prove lasting Coram had succeeded in obtaining a charter for a blessings to all succeeding gencrations. Who, Foundling Hospital, the establishment immediately indeed, having ever gazed on such sights as had became one of the most popular objects of charity too often met the eyes of these warm-hearted -that munificent donations and subscriptions philanthropists—who, having ever beheld a weep- flowed in-that annual parliamentary grants were ing and wailing helpless infant, cast forth in the made ; and that when Handel lent his talents in streets to perish if not relieved by the chance its support, which he did by annually superintendpassenger, would not look upon the man who ing and aiding in the gratuitous performance of should make provision for such unfortunates, as a his oratorio, “The Messiah," in the chapel of the worthy benefactor to his fellow-creatures? How hospital, such crowds attended that the receipts natural the conclusion, that the knowledge that frequently amounted to nearly a thousand pounds!