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for the purpose of establishing a free settlement grain raised by the settlers, rice and Indian corn of negroes. After it had been decided to make occupy the principal places. The cotton plant the settlement in Africa—the country to which and the sugar-cane are also native to the soil, and the constitution of the negro is best suited-a are capable of being cultivated with facility to a number of voluntary emigrants of the class referred large extent, although it does not appear that any to were sent out in 1820, followed by others in the great share of attention has hitherto been devoted succeeding year, when a purchase was made from to raising them in any quantity; and among other the native African chiefs of a tract of land in the indigenous products are coffee and indigo, the neighbourhood of Cape Mesurado (lat. 6° 191 N., former of which grows in abundance in the forests, long. 10° 48' W.), and the foundation laid of a and is found to be of excellent quality. town called Monrovia,—the whole district occupied The whole population of Liberia amounted, in by the colony being called Liberia. Since the 1838, to about 5000 persons, of whom 3500 were period of its foundation, the settlement, although negro emigrants from the United States, and the experiencing considerable fluctuations during se- remaining 1500 natives of Africa, who had volunveral years, has continued to progress in extent tarily united themselves with the colonists, in and in the number of its inhabitants.

order to become sharers in the advantages which Liberia at present comprehends the whole line the superior civilization of the latter enabled them of coast extending from Cape Mount on the north- to realise. There are not more than about thirty west, to the Cavally River on the south-east; a white men in the entire community, most of whom length of more than three hundred miles, with a are attached to the colony as physicians, or conterritory extending inland to a width, varying in nected with the different missionary and education different places, of between ten and thirty miles. societies ; but with the exception of the governor, Within these limits are comprised several settle scarcely any of them hold authority of any sort. ments, established by various Colonization Societies The governor is appointed by the American Colowhich exist in the different States of the American nization Society; but all the other officers, including Union ; each of them containing one or more towns 1

a vice-governor, legislative councillors (constitutor villages. The principal of these, holding the ing a House of Assembly), a high sheriff, constables, rank of capital, and distinguished as the seat of &c., all consisting of coloured men, are elected government for the whole colony, is Monrovia, annually by the people themselves. Their legissituated on the neck of land which terminates in lative enactments pass through the forms usual to Cape Mesurado. Near it are the towns of Mills- the most civilized communities, are reported by, burgh, Caldwell, and New Georgia, the population or referred to, committees, discussed, amended, of the last-mentioned of which consists of Africans and finally referred to the governor for his approrecaptured from vessels engaged in the slave-trade. bation and signature. Should they not meet with Caldwell is described by Mr. Jones (an intelligent his assent, they still become law if passed by a man of colour, who was sent out by the American vote of two-thirds of the legislature. Thus the Colonization Society in 1833, for the express pur- inhabitants of Liberia enjoy the advantages and pose of inquiring into and reporting on the condi- privileges of political and civil freedom, and live tion of the settlement) as being larger and more under an administration by which the lives and prosperous than Monrovia. Along the coast far- property of the citizens are secured by laws which ther to the south-east, are the towns of Marshall, have every probability of being adapted to their at the mouth of Junk River, and Edina and Bassa wants and condition, since they are made and Cove, on the opposite sides of the St. John's River; administered by the most intelligent among themfurther up the same stream are also the more recent selves. There are at present 21 places of worship settlements of Bexley and Rosenburg. Other estar in the colony, and about 60 ministers of the gospel, blishments have likewise been formed at Sinou belonging to the various denominations of Chrisand at Cape Palmas. The country is in general tians in the United States : four of the former,-emlevel, with merely a few trifling rises of ground bracing a Baptist, a Methodist, an Episcopalian, and intervening between the sea-shore and a chain of a Presbyterian Church,—are in the capital Monro mountains situated above thirty miles inland. The via. Besides these there are various mission stations land is well covered with wood, producing several located among the natives in different places, as at kinds of trees which constitute articles of com- Cape Palmas, and among the Kroos and Bassas, merce, one of the most valuable among which is each of which have presses attached to their misthat called Cam-wood, the wood of which is of a sion, by means of which they have been enabled red colour, and is extensively used as a dye. Be- to print and circulate among the natives the Bible sides this the palm-nut, from which palm-oil is and several other books translated into their native manufactured, is produced in abundance, as well tongue. as other trees and fruits of the most valuable One of the features in the colony, which it is kind; among the latter pines, guavas, limes, plan-most pleasing to contemplate, is the great attentains, bananas, &c. Among the different kinds of tion paid the instruction of the young, and to

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the acquisition of knowledge by the settlers in I have a longer course than any other, is obstructed general. There are numerous day and Sunday by a bar at its mouth, which prevents vessels of schools in each of the settlements; some of them much burthen from entering it; and when this is manual labour schools, in which various branches passed, it is described as dangerous, from its shalof trade and agricultural arts are taught in addi-lowness and its being full of rocky shoals. Mr. tion to the usual instruction; and if our space per- Laird remarks, that “as to the commercial situamitted us, we might quote some interesting accounts tion of the colony, the Americans have certainly of the examinations held in them from the “Africa's not shown their usual acuteness in the choice of Luminary,” a periodical published twice a month natural advantages.": But probably this disadat Monrovia, under the management of the mission vantage is more than compensated for by the supeof the Methodist Episcopal Church of America. rior healthiness of this part of the coast to that Besides this, there is also published at the same near the mouths of the larger rivers. This consiplace, a monthly newspaper, the “Liberia Herald,” deration leads us to make a few remarks upon the edited by a coloured man, one of the most striking climate of the settlement, a subject upon which features in which is the great quantity of original great differences of opinion have been expressed. matter which it contains, and the whole manage- The climate of Liberia appears to be liable to the ment of which would do credit to the intellectual usual evils which prevail in the climates of tropical tastes and intelligence of its contributors and countries in general, and particularly in tropical readers, were they members of any class of men; Africa, such as the prevalence of fevers which are but which is more especially deserving of notice liable to affect injuriously the health of white men when it is regarded as resulting from a race in at certain seasons of the year, and which make whom even the existence of a capacity for such themselves apparent even among those of the negro undertakings has been so often and so obstinately race on their first arrival in the colony. But these contested. In some of the settlements, literary defects are of comparatively little importance in societies and lyceums have been formed for mutual regard to the constitution of white men, for the improvement, and at Bassa Cove and Monrovia settlement was never intended for such, and we there are public libraries for the use of the inha. have the united testimony of numerous witnesses bitants ; that at the former of these places con- who have been resident there for a length of time tains from 1200 to 1500 volumes. The general tone in support of the fact that “the inhabitants are as of society is religious, and the state of morals is robust, as healthy, and as long-lived, as those of any admitted to be of a high order, even by many of other country.” On first reaching the colony, emithose who have adopted unfavourable views of the grants are commonly attacked with a fever, which ultimate success of the colony ; profanity and is generally of short duration, and which, if proper drunkenness are vices of very rare occurrence. precautions be taken, is very rarely attended with The general prevalence of temperate habits is fatal results ; but after this period of " seasoning” evidenced by the fact that the temperance society has elapsed they usually enjoy excellent health. The established at Monrovia numbered 502 members temperature of the air is mild and uniform,—the within two months after its foundation.

thermometer rarely being lower than 68° or higher Nearly all the inhabitants of Liberia are engaged than 88°; this regularity is doubtless in a great in mercantile transactions, and the amount of the measure owing to the constant prevalence of a seacommerce carried on is already considerable. breeze. It is admitted on all hands that the coast Among the articles exported annually are cam- of Liberia is less unhealthy even for whites than wood, palin-wood, ivory, tortoiseshell, gold-dust, either that further to the north or to the east. If palm-oil, and hides, in return for which are obtained on the one hand there has been a disposition to exthe manufactured commodities of Europe and aggerate the advantages of the colony in this reAmerica. The harbour of Monrovia is frequented spect, so there has been on the other at least an annually by more than seventy foreign vessels equal disposition to draw too unfavourable a picbelonging either to the United States or to various ture, by attributing to unhealthiness of climate European countries ; besides which, the town many of the evils which are invariably attendant carries on a considerable coasting trade, by means upon the early periods of new settlements, and of small vessels built and owned by her own which are in great measure produced by the change citizens. In the year 1838, there were twelve or from a temperate to a tropical country, and vice fifteen of these, averaging from ten to thirty tons versâ, the want of comfortable houses, by the irreguburthen ; and the number has probably increased lar mode of living, and the various fatigues, dansince that time. In reference to the commercial gers, and privations invariably experienced in such prospects of the colony, it must, however, be ad

Instances of the mortality produced by mitted, that its situation is subject to the disad- these causes are furnished by the early history of vantage of not possessing a large navigable river,

* “ Narrative of an Expedition into the Interior of Africa, by which might furnish an easy opening into the

the River Niger, in 1832, 3, and 4." By M Gregor Laird and interior. The river St. Paul, which appears to R. A. K. Oldfield. Vol. i. p. 40.

cases.

all new settlements, by whatever nation and in petent observers that there is no class of men whatever part of the globe, and they constitute no better formed and adapted by nature and circumproof of the unhealthiness of the climate of a stances for African colonists than the American country unless confirmed by the experience of sub- negroes, who are distinguished by an acuteness and sequent years. In regard to Liberia the results of enterprise which is the more valuable as it is enthis experience are decidedly and increasingly grafted on an African constitution. And it is favourable in their bearing upon the general health gratifying to reflect on the fact, that in the United of the inhabitants.

States there are daily growing up a class of men We have thus given a brief statement of the with negro blood in their veins who are likely to actual condition of the colony of Liberia at the be so capable of ministering to the intellectual latest period to which our information extends, wants of their African brethren. We have before and shall conclude with a few remarks upon the us a letter addressed by a coloured man of the probable influences of the colony on the general name of Hansom—(grandson of the king of Ashancause of African civilization. There are many who tee, and resident in the United States)—to Elliott have expressed disappointment at the nature of the Cresson, Esq., of Philadelphia, the benevolent prorelations in which the settlers have been placed moter of the cause of African colonization, in which with regard to the surrounding tribes, and assuredly the writer expresses his earnest desire to aid as a the frequent hostilities in which they have been missionary in the christianization of his native land, engaged with the natives are deeply to be regretted. and from which, if our space permitted us, we These, however, are now to be in great measure might quote many passages indicative of the pure numbered with the dangers and difficulties attend benevolence, the deep feeling, and the lofty faith, ant upon the first establishment of every new by which the sentiments of its author are prompted, settlement,-dangers and difficulties which have in as well as the high order of intelligence by which the present case arisen both from the barbarism they are guided. And who that had ever seen or and ignorance of the natives on the one hand, and heard of the barbarous court of an Ashantee monfrom something of an over-grasping spirit on the arch, with its superstitious ceremonies and its part of the colonists on the other ;-and we have bloody sacrifices of human victims, would a few already observed that great numbers of the natives years ago have anticipated a member of such a are now united with the settlers, while the friendly family becoming the author of a document of this relations between them are daily extending and kind ? In the colony of Liberia itself, too, many increasing. As to the influence of the colony in of the native youths are already qualifying thempromoting the advancement of civilization among selves, by the diligent study of the sacred writings, the native Africans, it is obvious that such a result, to become agents in the diffusion of christianity can only be the slow. work of years, for the supe- among their countrymen. riority of civilized life to barbarism must be made We think, then, that every one who disinterestevident to their faculties of observation as well as edly desires the well-being of his fellow men, to their intelligence, before they will willingly re- must regard with complacency and gratification linquish their old habits and adopt new ones. Too this settlement of free negroes—this Liberia—upon much ought not to be expected from a single colony; the coast of Western Africa,-during so many cenand so long as the effort has been made in the right turies the resort only of the inhuman slave-trade, direction, we must be content to wait patiently for and the scene of the sufferings and misery of the the results. That the effort has been thụs rightly victims of that iniquitous traffic. The colony may directed we feel deeply convinced, for if Africa is to not have accomplished all that had been anticibe civilized at all it must by the agency of people pated by the sanguine spirit of some of its benevobelonging to her own race. The question is like that lent founders and promoters, but still it has effected of education for the lower orders in this or in any much. The light of christianity has by means of other country :-who shall educate the poor but it been kindled upon those long-benighted shores, those of their own class, for who else can be ac- and the blessings of civilization made apparent in quainted with the wants—moral, social, and intel- a land of previous barbarism ;-and belief in the lectual—of the poor? So none but the negro can history of the past, grateful experience of the pretruly appreciate the wants of the African, the pre- sent, and faith in the beneficent purposes of that judices and difficulties under which he labours, and Providence which will regulate the future, alike the consequent means to be adopted for their re- forbid us from thinking that that light is doomed moval, and for his advancement to a higher position to be extinguished, or that those blessings attendin the scale of happiness. The white men, whether ant upon it are destined to pass away. W. H. of Europe or America, may be (and it is requisite that they should be) the directors and guiders in the task, but the agents in it must be those who

We are never so well pleased with an antagoare themselves of the negro race. In reference to nist as when he makes an objection to which we their physical wants, we have the assurance of com- are provided with a good answer.-Menage.

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CONTROVERSY.

THE WESLEYAN CENTENARY.

361

him while living, and to his character after death THE WESLEYAN CENTENARY HALL AND that respect and admiration which none but the MISSION HOUSE.

good can command. It is one of the privileges of a good man, that, Such a man was John Wesley, the founder of in a moral sense-he never dies. His character, the large Christian community which bears his his actions, his words, become the property of pos- name. To those who belong to this community, it terity, and shine out more and more brightly as is unnecessary to say a word as to the sentiments time advances. Even those who may not join in held towards his name and memory; but the title opinion with him on certain points, bear towards at the head of this paper, and the object of the

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Wesleyan Centenary Hall, paper itself, make it necessary that we should that religious services should, at particular times briefly allude to an event, or rather a series of in the following year, be performed, suitable to the events, which took place two or three years ago, occasion ; and also that a subscription should be and which are only partially known to other com- entered into among the Wesleyan' body, for the munities of the Christian world.

furtherance of certain objects pertaining to that The year 1739 was that in which John Wesley | body. Among the objects thus proposed were such began forinally to devote himself to the ministry, as the following :-To erect and endow a Wesleyan and to enter upon that career which terminated Theological College or Seminary, for the education only in his death. As the period advanced when a of preachers for home stations, and missionaries for complete century from that time would have been abroad; to provide a Polynesian Missionary Ship, passed through, the Wesleyan body became in for the conveyance of missionaries to and from fluenced by a wish to celebrate the circumstance several of the Eastern islands ; to provide superin some notable manner. In 1838 it was resolved, / annuation allowances for aged ministers, and pensions for their widows; to aid in building or re- connexion with, the former. The two taken togepairing chapels; and to aid in another object which ther consist of apartments for the general business we shall detail presently. The subscription was of the connexion, and others for the missionary commenced, and has ultimately amounted to a sum business; and we may remark that the latter most unexpectedly large. The religious comme portion has been liberally and gratuitously premoration of the Centenary, and the general manner

sented to the missionary society, at the expense of in which the subscribed funds have been, or are to the Centenary Fund, without any charge, either be, appropriated, are subjects which we do not for the ground or for the buildings, upon the mispropose to enter upon here; one portion of these sionary fund. funds has, however, been devoted in a manner The building presents an elegant exterior on the which it is the object of this paper to notice. eastern side of Bishopsgate Street, exactly opposite

The Wesleyan-Methodists, in the same Christian Threadneedle Street. There are three stories spirit which has actuated the Established Church, visible in front, the upper and middle one of which the Baptists, and other religious bodies, have esta- are each lighted by five large windows; while the blished a missionary society, which has gradually ground-story has two windows on either side of the increased the sphere of its operations to an im- entrance door. The door opens into a large enportant extent. The Mission House in Hatton trance hall or vestibule, on each side of which are Garden, where the business of the society was doors leading to several apartments appropriated transacted, became every year less and less adequate as reception rooms, secretary's offices, &c.; while to the wants of the establishment; and the Wes- opposite is a flight of steps leading to a square enleyan Centenary Committee determined to devote closure which-under any other circuinstances, a portion of the subscribed funds to the purchase would be deemed a central court or quadrangle. of a building for the transaction both of the mis- It occupies a vacant space between the old house sionary business and of the general business of the and the new one; and the architect has ingeniously Wesleyan body. In one of the “ Missionary No contrived that numerous rooms, on all four sides of tices" (January, 1841) the subject is thus alluded it, shall receive light by windows opening into this to :-“In pursuance of this part of their design, square. If it were open overhead, it would really the Centenary Committee authorized the purchase be a quadrangular court, such as is found in most of extensive freehold premises, in Bishopsgate Eastern and in many European houses ; but it is Street Within, formerly well-known as the City entirely closed, -lighted by side windows a little of London Tavern,' and directed the adaptation of below the ceiling,—and painted with the same taste them, by various alterations and additions, to the and neatness as every other part of the building. purposes above-mentioned. In connexion with the From this central part (which, for convenience, more general object to which these premises are we will call the quadrangle) entrance is obtained devoted, the Centenary Committee were desirous to various parts of the building. Proceeding onto provide (what had for some years been felt to wards from the quadrangle, we come to two or be indispensably necessary) some more central and three apartments appropriated as warehouses, in adequate accommodation for the extended and ex- which the printed publications, as well as other tending business of the Wesleyan Methodist Mis- property belonging to the society, are deposited. sionary Society. To the special use of that society, The arrangements of the warehouses illustrate, in therefore, they resolved to offer certain portions some degree, the extent of the society's transactions, of the front buildings in Bishopsgate Street; and and the geographical organization (if we may use also to erect (in addition) in the rear of the same such a term) by which those transactions are premises, and in immediate contiguity with the carried on. On one side of one of the warehouses general and connexional apartments, a NEW MISSION is a range of recesses, about thirty in number, each HOUSE, for which, as a place of missionary business, one inscribed with the name of some country, the locality was peculiarly desirable and advan- island, or region in foreign parts ;-here Ashantee, tageous"

there in another part Caffraria, in another In the early part of the present year, the build Gambia, and so on. These are for the reception ing and alterations were sufficiently advanced to of packets and parcels, received from, or about to permit the transfer thereto of the missionary busi- be forwarded to, the foreign missionary stations of ness from Hatton Garden ; and we may now pro- the society. Again, the home transactions, by ceed to give a rapid view of the arrangements of which the parent society keeps up regular interthe building, so far as these arrangements have course with the auxiliary branches all over the been completed.

country, are aided and systemized by a similar It will be seen from the above extract, that the contrivance. A nest of small cells or boxes, three building is of a two-fold character, both as respects or four hundred in number, is appropriated to the its construction and its destination. It consists of reception of orders, &c., from these auxiliaries, an old building, greatly altered and thoroughly each cell being devoted to, and inscribed with the renovated, and of a new one built behind, and in name of, some particular town in the kingdom.

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