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The evils of the system were, however, quickly Some of the chief objections urged against the detected in England. All public support was with continuance of foundling hospitals in England, drawn, and the whole so modified as no longer to were, that the children being cut off from all interact as an encouragement to the vices which it was course with their fathers and mothers, would, when intended to check. Although the doors of the they grew up, be aliens in their native land, withhospital were not closed, they ceased to be open to out any visible obligations, and consequently withall comers, and its operations were so limited as to out affections: and it was supposed that they might prevent their exerting any perceptible influence look upon themselves as a kind of independent on society. With us the mischief was immediately beings in society; and that if they were permitted and effectually stopped ; but in all the countries to increase as they had done, no one could tell of Europe where the Roman Catholic religion is what harm might ensue to the state, when there professed, it has continued to gather strength, and were such numbers who could scarcely be said to has produced the most lamentable results. belong to the body politic at all. In the heat of
The avowed object of these hospitals is one so cal- argument much more was said that savoured of exculated to enlist our sympathies, that we find our-travagance, but the tendency of the system to selves disinclined to credit the assertion that our increase the number of exposed children was sagahopes of good results from them prove fallacious, ciously detected, and the condition of all the foreign while there is a dreadful certainty of their evil tend hospitals amply confirms the fact, as we shall proency. The facts, however, which have been collected ceed to show. in reference to foundling hospitals, present a mass First, however, it may not be amiss to notice the of really startling evidence, against which even their grand objection of the advocates of foundling hoswarmest advocates find it impossible to make head, pitals to any other system. Admitting, as the and which calls loudly for a thorough reformation more candid of them do, that such establishments of a system whose operations are in fact no more tend to increase the number of foundlings, a cirthan an offer of premiums to immorality.
cumstance contemplated from the commencement, The subject is so important to the well-being of since it was expected that the hospital would save the social state the system exerts so strong an
all who otherwise would have been murdered, they influence on the moral character of all who come assert that there has been a corresponding decrease within its limits, and through them in some degree of child-murder; and one, the Abbé Gaillard*, goes over all the nations of the earth, that we cannot
so far as to contend that the ratio of increase of refuse it our special attention.
foundlings does not, in France, exceed that of the It may excite surprise to find foundling hospi- population. That it seems to hold out a premium tals existing only in Catholic countries, and the for vice, is not denied, but a little more strictness question naturally arises, “ Is their existence there in the reception of children is thought quite sufto be attributed to any peculiar tenets of religion ficient to avoid that evil. professed, or is it to be accounted for on any other Now the avowed object of foundling hospiprinciple ?" It is not very easy, nor perhaps very tals is the prevention of child-murder. This is a important, to argue this point, since there is nothing crime so repugnant to human nature, that it is whatever in any of the tenets avowed by the rarely perpetrated under any circumstances than Catholic which afford any pretext to even the those induced by great fear, violent anger, or most bigoted devotee, for supporting a charity despairt; the fear of exposure is in the majority proved to be productive only of evil. The sins of such cases so great, that the most trifling obstacle gularity may be referred in part to national thrown in the way of admission to the hospital is character ; but the great stress invariably laid an effectual barrier ; and while every facility, such upon the exercise of charity by the Roman Ca- as the turning wheel, commonly used in France and tholic clergy as one of the most effectual means Italy, which effectually conceals the depositor from of extenuating our offences, renders their flocks observation while she places her luckless burden very disinclined to entertain a doubt as to the in the open part presented at an aperture in the possibility of any species of charity defeating its hospital wall, and gives her time to move away own purpose. Hence we find foundling hospitals
* Recherches Administratives, Statistiques, et Morales sur still existing and liberally supported in Ireland ; les Enfans Trouvés, les Enfans Naturels et les Orphelins en and hence the Italians justify the giving of alms to France, et dans plusieurs autres pays de l'Europe. Par l'Abbé sturdy street-beggars, who might obtain work, but
A. H. Gaillard. Paris et Poitiers, 1839. find it easier to beg ; and oppose all measures for state of social connexions in some other parts of the world has,
† We are speaking of the state of things in Europe. The introducing better regulations, because it is right we are quite aware, produced a callousness of mind even in that “ Christians may always have opportunity to the mother, which renders the life of her child valueless in earn the merit of charity *.” Such exaggerated her eyes. The Malay concubine habitually asks her white notions of charity cannot but lead to sad results : paramour whether she shall keep the child or slay it, and but to return to our subject.
obeys either order with equal indifference. This seeins a
strange statement, but it is fact, and serves to show to how low * Von Raumer's Italy, vol. ti. p. 282.
a depth our nature can descend.
FOUNDLING HOSPITALS.-EVILS OF STRIFE.
before the summons of the bell hung by the side is | weighing ail the evidences that come before us, obeyed by the porter,—while even this does not suf- we must not lose sight of the different modes fice to keep back the heart-broken and the desperate adopted in different countries for the support of from dyeing their fingers with the blood of the the really destitute, especially as regards England innocent, the shameless find it so great a conve- and Ireland, the one enjoying, and the other being nience, that they-and unfortunately they form a destitute of, legal provision for the poor. But we large party in the world—will always raise their must also recollect that the stimulus to child-murvoices against any assault upon such “ admirable der is rarely that of poverty alone ; very few ininstitutions;” and it must be a strong barrier, indeed, stances occur where the main cause may not be which shall keep back these, the most worthless. traced to some very different influence.
Our first point, therefore, is to show that found. The proofs we have adduced, though not so ling hospitals do not tend to diminish the number multiplied as we could have desired, are, however, of infanticides. Our information is not so full on this we conceive, sufficient to show that child-murder head as we could desire. We shall produce some is not checked by foundling hospitals. If that is very strong facts; and while, in the case of Italy, granted, the main argument for them falls to the we gladly acknowledge that the immediate murder ground. We shall hereafter show the great evils of children is rare, (we cannot speak of its increase arising from their establishment.-E. or decrease,) we shall have to show that the loss of life attendant on the foundling system is, as in all countries where it is adopted, dreadful.
EVILS OF STRIFE. The population of France, where the foundling systein is in operation, amounted in 1831 to The people of Romian in the Tenimber Islands 32,569,223. Between 1826 and 1835 (both inclu- happened to have more success in the Trepang sive) 984 infanticides took place, about 98 annually. fishery than the people of the other villages during Taking the medium number of the population at two successive years, which gave rise to an envious 32,000,000, the proportion of infanticide to the feeling on the part of their neighbours, which was whole population would be as 1 to 326,530. increased by a Chinese vessel having remained at
In the years 1834-5 twenty-four departments of Romian to trade, while every one of the Chinamen France decreased very greatly the number of their belonging to her proceeded to Ewena to barter foundling hospitals, as an economical and experi- with the inhabitants. These circumstances gave mental measure. The result showed that infanti- rise to distrust and estrangement, and the people cide decreased in thirteen departments, was sta- of both villages began to avoid each other, though tionary in one, and increcsed in ten ; in the remain without coming to an open rupture. ing fifty-four departments a diminution of 18.5 per A third accidental circumstance which occurred, cent. had taken place in twenty-five, but in twenty- tended to enlarge the breach. While the children nine had increased by 40.5 per cent., showing a belonging to the two villages were playing with great advantage in those departments which had small bows and arrows, a child from Ewena happartially abandoned the foundling system.
pened to wound slightly one of those from Romian. In Belgium, five provinces possessing foundling The inhabitants of the latter place, viewing the hospitals gave, in the four years from the com- accident as an intentional offence, demanded satismencement of 1826 to the end of 1829, a proportion faction, and whenever parties from each village of infanticide to the population equal to 1 in met, they proceeded from words to blows, and at 109,942; while in the other four provinces where length broke out into an open war with each other. no foundling hospitals existed, the proportion was Each party robbed the other of their women, deas 1 to 136,662.
stroyed their fisheries, and put a stop to their agri. In Ireland, from 1826 to 1832 inclusive, the number culture, becoming moreembittered at the occurrence of infanticides was 175 or 25 yearly, which, taking of every deed, until at length, a few weeks before the population at an average of 7,500,000, which we my arrival, a downright skirmish ensued, in which believe to be a fair estimate, gives 1 to 300,000. the people of Ewena had one man killed and nine
In England from the years 1810 to 1833, a period wounded, while ten belonging to the other party of twenty-four years, 339 cases of infanticide oc- were wounded also. curred, being about fourteen annually, and esti- The people of Ewena being the less powerful of mating the population on an average of the censuses the two, demanded assistance from the inhabitants taken during that time at 12,012,275, the propor- of Aweer. The parties now became so exasperated, tion of infanticides was as 1 to 856,581 *. In that there existed no possibility of those who had
not entered into the quarrel being able to pacify * It has been said that the proportion of infanticides has
them, and the strife soon extended to Sarrat, and been much raised by the operation of the New Poor Law. We doubt the fact, which is one that cannot be settled except by
even to the more distant Serra, where individuals decisive evidence. The subject is one of vital importance, and influenced by family connexions took up the cause we may find it necessary to return to it.
of one or other party.–Kolf's Travels.
The country of the Bechuanas is deficient in a MOFFAT AND THE BECHUANAS.
main ingredient for the support of life-moisture. Hence the only belief the Bechuanas possess of a
supernatural power to do good is in certain sorcerers, North of the limits of the Cape of Good Hope who they imagine can produce rain by the percolony lies the country of the Bechuanas ; a land of formance of prescribed rites. These rain-makers mountains and plains; of rivers whose narrow
are, it appears, no impostors, but sincerely believe banks nourish rich vegetation ; of wide, waterless they really possess the power of causing the wished. deserts, stretching over an untrodden expanse, for showers to fall; although, of course, their cerearresting the traveller's steps and concealing a monies end in disappointment more frequently mysterious land which has cost many European than otherwise. All the evil which befalls them, lives to penetrate, and which still remains unex- this misguided race attribute to a spirit of whom plored.
only a confused and irrational account has been From the apex of the African continent, (formed collected. The name, and the only name, which by a line of coast extending between the Cape of these tribes have for a Supreme Being is Isuiknass, Good Hope and Algoa Bay,) three parallel ridges which in its etymological derivation signifies neither of mountains intersect the country, distant from
more nor less than a sore or wounded knee ; of each other from thirty to three hundred miles; whom nothing more is known than that he was a each intervening space occupied by terraces; the great sorcerer, or, more probably, a chief of ancient whole subsiding in arid sand-hills near the high renown. Thus, in a spiritual sense, the Bechuanas banks of the Gariep or Orange river. Here the lived in the uttermost darkness. “No temples," southern limits of the Cape Colony terminates, exclaimed the subject of this notice in the Sermon and the country of the Bechuanas begins ; sepa- he preached before the directors of the London rated on the west from that of the Nainaguas and Missionary Society," No temples, no altar, no the Damara Caffres by a broad desert, and from sacred groves there ; no shasters, no koran, no the Caffre land of the east coast by a mountain holy relics there ; not one solitary idol there ; range running at an angle with those above men
neither the likeness of any thing in the heavens tioned. The northern boundaries of the Bechuana above, or in the earth beneath,' to represent a territory have never been defined.
Sacred Being ; no idea in the minds of the multiThe natural features of such a country impose tude that there is any thing greater or more habits and manners upon its people which pre powerful than mortal man. Their thoughts never sented them to their first European discoverers, in scaled the skies, nor sought to pry into the wonders that first stage beyond barbarism which is shown infinite with which they are surrounded. Among in the partial cultivation of land. Drawing, how the thousands and tens of thousands inhabiting ever, but a small portion of subsistence from that
those regions, there is not the shadow of an idolsource, the rest is derived from hunting, and their god, nor the slightest belief remaining that there chief property consists of cattle. With these they is a Creator, Preserver, or Governor of all things ! sometimes reside in towns ; sometimes driving As the last rays of tradition have sunk beneath them from pasture to pasture, according to the their intellectual horizon, the invisible things of season, as vegetation fails in one place or another; God from the creation are no more seen and unbut they are always subject to privation and long derstood by the things which are made." periods of drought. The rivers of the Bechuana Here then was a people whose moral and spiritual country are either dried up in the hot season, or condition called loudly for civilization and Chrisoverflow their banks and cause great destruction tianity, and the call was promptly answered. In during the period of rain. Thus there are few the year 1813, the Reverend John Campbell, whose towns, there being few favourable spots for esta- name, together with that of Dr. Philip, will always blishing them.
be identified with South Africa, visited old LattaThe exigencies of the climate and the small koo*, the residence of the Bechuana Chief Mateebe; extent of available land frequently drive one tribe and, having been favourably received, was followed, to make war upon their more fortunate neighbours. three years afterwards, by Mr. Read. The natives, For this purpose they form themselves into ma- | however, removed to a new site, thirty-five miles rauding parties, or commandos, to get possession of distant from the old town, on the Kuruman river, cattle ; hence these incursions are less stained with
which joins the Gariep or Orange stream. Here a human sacrifices than those of other semi-barba- regular missionary settlement was established, to rians. Dreading reprisal, in case of success they im- which the Rev. M. Hamilton was appointed. mediately kill the beasts, each devouring his large Meantime Moffat was preparing to enter upon share at one sitting; their powers of enduring the field of missionary enterprise. On the 30th hunger, which are great, hardly equalling their day of September, 1816, he received, at the hands ability to eat scarcely credible quantities of food
* The geographical position of old Lattakoo is 24° 40' E. long., in satisfying it.
and 27° 10 s. lat.
MOFFAT AND THE BECHUANAS.
37 of the late venerable Dr. Waugh, his commission with a rude skin-cloak, completed their costumet! for the missionary enterprise. Beside him stood the The dress of the men was equally revolting. They Rev. John Williams, whose after destiny was the lived in huts, which, though neatly constructed of South Seas, and, alas ! martyrdom among the hea- plastered wicker-work, were devoid of cleanliness then. Both were young, perhaps the youngest the or comfort. Such were the people whom Moffat society ever sent out, but full of physical strength went among, early in 1818, to humanise, to Chrisand mental activity. How well each was fitted for tianise ! his high calling, after events have abundantly How did they receive him? “ I stand here as a proved.
living witness to testify;" continues the preacher, Robert Moffat, accompanied by his wife, arrived “that my ears have been hundreds of times stunned at Cape Town on the 13th of January, 1817, and, with roars of laughter, when, with my veteran and under the direction of the Cape branch of the faithful brother Hamilton, I have been labouring Missionary Society, went immediately into the to inform their darkened minds, and convince them interior. After several excursions among the that there was one mightier than man, even the Namaguas, Griquas, &c., he was finally appointed mighty God, the creator of the ends of the earth ; to the Kuruman or New Lattakoo * station, to and my eyes have often beheld their derision and labour in company with Mr. Hamilton among the scorn when reasoning with them on creation, proBechuanas. In what state did he find these people ? vidence, and redemption.” What ignorance had he to enlighten-what dan- Against this tide of discouragement our missiongers to encounter ? Even the imperfect sketch ary struggled manfully. Both himself and his wife that we are enabled to give, of the condition in studied hard to acquire an oral mastery over the which he found the objects of his mission, will sup- Sichuana or Bechuana tongue : they then reduced ply answers to these questions.
the sounds to writing, and formed a spelling-book. We have already seen what darkness had to be Their demeanour gradually acquired the admiradispelled, in a moral and spiritual sense, from the tion of the savage people; their earnestness in minds of the Bechuanas; but their political and pursuing the only end and aim of their mission, social state offered equally formidable difficulties. the patience they showed under the most trying They were an independent nation, who considered difficulties, and their courage when assailed by all their neighbours infinitely beneath them in danger, at length made them friends. In this repower, industry, and civilization. National pride spect Mr. Moffat seems to have been singularly induced them to treat every manner and custom, happy, which proves him to have been above which did not accord with their own barbarous others peculiarly fitted for his undertaking. A short views, with sovereign contempt. “ Often did they time after going into the interior, he returned to tell us,” says Moffat, “ to go to the Griquas, the Cape Town with some natives—incorrigible marauCorannas, and the Bushmen, and teach them, and ders ; whose fellows parted from their new teacher ask us with a sneer if we were really such fools as with tears, and every token of reluctance, lest he to suppose that the Bechuanas would ever adopt might not return. Arrived at the Cape, the savage our customs, or yield obedience to the government visitors were jealous of Moffat's absence from them of that Jesus we so often talked about."
for an instant for fear of losing him. “They keep,” Looking at their social institutions, they ap- says Campbell, in a letter dated Cape Town, 16th peared as barbarous as they were ancient-perse- April, 1819, “ a sharp look-out after Mr. Moffat; vered in for ages. The condition of women is if he moves only from one room to another, they always a good index to show the amount of civili-follow him instantly." zation possessed by a nation : among the Bechu. The same results soon showed themselves among anas they were found in the most degraded state; the Bechuanas. Having by the year 1822 mastered performing the rudest offices of labour, their per their language, Moffat translated a catechism which sonal appearance betokening the most disgusting was printed at Cape Town, several of his Bechuana habits. Fat and grease of all kinds formed their pupils having learnt to read (by the help of his delight ; their bodies and skin-cloaks being plen- spelling-book previously circulated among them) tifully anointed with sibilo, a grey sparkling iron sufficiently well to require further instruction. ore. Their naturally woolly hair, twisted into Who can estimate aright the toils of such efforts ? small cords, was matted with this substance into Nor was success denied. Improvement and friendapparently metallic pendules. Among the more ship were gradually developed, and the jeers and wealthy women cumbrous strings of beads, ivory surly looks which up to that time had met his toothpicks, and gourd snuffboxes were coiled labours at every turn, began to diminish. We round the waist and neck. An apron of leather must resume this striking and most instructive cut into thin strips, and clotted with an accumula- tale.-W. tion of grease and filth, reached to the ancles, and,
Captain Harris's Narrative of an Expedition to South * Lattakoo is derived from the native term tako, a wall,
Africa. with the plural prefix li or lee.
watchmaker in Clerkenwell, who can earn his two • FREE AND EASIES."
guineas a week. It is not many years since that
he married the daughter of a tradesman in a small Among the many causes of demoralization, and way of business. The girl had been well brought its concomitant, misery, in this metropolis, by no up--was pretty, mild-tempered, and lively. For a means the least prominent are the clubs bearing time he was an attentive and affectionate husband, the title prefixed to this article. We should as returning regularly home when his work was done, little consult our own tastes as subserve the cause and acquitting himself kindly in his domestic duties. we desire to promote, were we to dwell on the dis- In an evil hour he was induced by the solicitations gusting details of these “convivial” meetings, as of a companion to be present at a Free and Easy they are called; and although we may hereafter give club, and, finally, he became a member of it. And their statistics to our readers, we shall now hold it mark the change! when his day's work is done, he sufficient for our purpose to state that these clubs exchanges in the workshop the every-day jacket abound in every district of London, and are of va- for the blue coat with the yellow buttons, and inrious grades, being frequented by the mechanic, stead of returning to his home, proceeds to his club. the small tradesman, and, we regret to add, by many His wife the while is keeping a weary vigil by her whose superior position should open to them better melancholy hearth, and although accustomed thus taste, if not better feeling. Most of these societies, to spend hours without the society of him who had in burlesque imitation of Freemasonry, have their won her from the humble but happy home of her dignitaries—their “noble grands," “most noble childhood, and neglected her ere the wing of time grands," and other officers; and it is no trifling had swept off the bloom of her beauty, she still inaggravation of the evils of the system, that it is the dulges the hope of his coming. It may be that endeavour of each of these functionaries, during though her own attentions be powerless, the smile their tenure of office, to enlist as many as possible of his last-born may win him back to his home into the club, as his best recommendation to the before his wonted hour of midnight. And in that favour of his compeers, and to consequent promo- hope she has set her little room in order—alas ! it tion in the society. Their meetings are held at hath been swept and furnished only that an evil public-houses and low taverns, for the most part spirit may enter it. And it is long past midnight de nocte in noctem ; songs, speeches, mock treats, &c., before he arrives, and then in a state which, instead &c, being among the appliances to prolong the of rewarding her for her long vigil, strikes a pang debauch. The liquor consumed at these meetings to her heart. He enters with an unsteady step, a varies according to the tastes or the fancy of the flustered brow, a snatch of a low song, or, it may members—from the pint of porter to spirits and be, an oath upon his tongue. water, and punch.
And in what can all this issue, but in misery and Were the mischiefs resulting from these clubs death ? His wages are squandered in the dissipation restricted to those who frequent them, we should be that destroys body and soul together, and his wife spared much of our sympathy and regret on the occa- and little ones, whom he ought to have maintained sion. It is, however, on domestic life that the evil in comfort and plenty, are left to pine in neglect, most frequently falls, and although habits of dissipa-want-worn and squalid, and are finally left in pretion, by their influence on the constitution, have an- mature widowhood and orphanage to the cold ticipated the orphanage of many a helpless child of charity of the world.-H. wretchedness, it is woman who is the chief and most constant sufferer-woman, that fair flower, which whether it bend beneath the dew of the humble valley, or court the sun on the mountain peak, it is
FALSEHOOD IN PERSIA. the province and the privilege of man to touch with tenderness, and, if he pluck it from its native THE Rev. H. Southgate remarks in his Travels, soil, to wear it in his bosom until it dies! Mar- recently published, that he received such discreriage has been termed a lottery; and, looking to the pant statements on one occasion, that he told his short acquaintance on which it is often constructed, informants he knew not which to believe ; and it is, in truth, little else. If a man, however, has adds,-“ John interposed to remind me that I made an imprudent, or, as in many cases it may be should find everybody in Persia a liar. “Yes,' called, an unlucky choice, he has a resource, a said an old man, whose tottering steps proved that miserable one though it be, in the dissipation of he had nearly completed the allotted career of the world, or, if he be of a better mould of mind, three-score and ten,— Yes, we always lie when in its business; but a woman stakes her whole we can. I looked at him in utter amazement; wealth of happiness in the purchase of the ticket, but I could not discover from his expression that and if it arises a blank she is ruined.
he had not intended to speak for once a grave We will by way of illustration take a case, which truth. I began to imbibe some first impressions at this moment occurs to us, of a journeyman of Persian character."