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ANCIENT AND MODERN TRAVELLERS.-THE LAKE OF RANCO.
79 exclusive pages of the societies' transactions ;-the world, except as influenced by the learned few, is
THE LAKE OF RANCO. none the wiser, none the better : with stores of My attention was soon drawn to some of the knowledge locked in the national cabinets, it re- peculiar features of the lake we were approaching; mains an ignorant world still.
the bold mountains which environ its banks now Now the result of this state of things, though occasionally appeared through the openings in the " the proper study of mankind is man,” is popular forest. Having understood at the house where we ignorance. From this ignorance proceeds the had passed the night, that Neggiman, the chief, was apathy of the world and the lukewarmness of the absent on a visit to Arique, we continued our route church towards Christian missions, and generally early on the following morning, still passing through towards all philanthropic institutions—which, if a forest of high trees, until we reached another truth be told, are rather tolerated through the cluster of houses, among which was that of the media of good dinners, and good speeches, than chief. Some of these houses I entered, but hassupported with the real which owes its birth to tened forward to the brow of a rising ground, in knowledge and its continuance to affection. order to enjoy a full view of the lake, of which I
Such being the state of the case, and we firmly had only hitherto caught detached glimpses. believe it is not exaggerated, a great necessity is We were standing on its western border; an apparent for some engine that may be rendered extensive sheet of water lay before us, probably effective in gathering up and presenting to the about fifty miles in circumference. Eight islands eyes of all who are willing to read as they run, the of different sizes, some mere rocks, appeared in the scattered fragments of knowledge that lie in their centre; one of them, which gives name to the lake, path, serving rather to render their road rougher is inhabited, and about two miles in length. With than more pleasant : for some friendly organ which so many remarkable features, all blended and whilst affording fresh stores of knowledge, and heightened by the interchange of wood and water, much of a character that would not, probably, come and the occasional flitting of clouds under a brilbefore the eyes even of the wealthy and well-read liant sky, it would be needless to say that it was in any other shape, shall never cease to point their beautiful ; but there were other and not less interattention to the real uses of such knowledge, and esting objects for contemplation. From the same to remind them of the sacred duty which they owe spot the scattered houses of Vutronway (the name to their brother man; a duty which cannot be of this Indian village), with their several patches faithfully disclarged unless they clear their minds for cultivation, although half embossed in copses of the dust of prejudice, and store them with the re- and indigenous apple-groves, were visible; the sults of a careful study of facts, not specious fictions. abodes of accountable human beings, but unto
Such an engine, and such a warning voice, is whom as yet the saving truths of the incorruptible the “ JOURNAL OF CIVILIZATION." Vast stores gospel had not been made known! All without, of most curious facts affecting the condition of every object that met the eye, seemed to speak its society, both at home and abroad, lie hidden, great Creator's praise ; but he, for whose enjoyment buried in ponderous public documents, and yet all these beauties were arrayed, had not yet learned more interesting private collections opened for our one song of thanksgiving to Him who crowneth the use. From these ; from works native and foreign, year with his goodness. In the earnest hope that from their cost almost inaccessible ; from corre- it might please the Lord to permit us to enter upon spondence, that most valuable means of obtaining some work for his glory in this place, I first made knowledge, and from every other possible source, application to the chief's eldest son, and afterwards 80 much may be drawn as to deeply interest the entered into a conditional agreement with a native statist, the manufacturer, the trader, and the mer- called Calfupang, who resided at the very foot of chant, the man of science and the philosopher, as the knoll, which commanded the view I have dewell as the Christian philanthropist.
scribed, to let his house to me, until a more suitable The one great principle on which all our labours one could be erected.- Captain Gardiner's Visit to are based is, that all attempts at civilization not the Indians of Chili. founded on the gospel must and will be ineffectual. The facts which we shall adduce in support of this principle will fully bear us out; and as a corollary, we intend to prove that an extended civilization, far and near, is necessary to the well-being of the Ar Colchester, in 1296 and 1301, a carpenter's world in every point of view social, political, and stock was valued at a shilling, and consisted of five commercial. In short, we plead the cause of mis- tools. Other tradesmen were almost as poor ; but sionaries versus Mandevilles and Munchausens- a tanner's stock, if there is no mistake, was worth of Truth versus Fiction-of Civilization versus £9.78. 10d., more than ten times any other. Tanners Barbarisin-of CHRISTIANITY versus Ignorance. were principal tradesmen, the chief part of their We trust our clients will have no cause to be dress being made of leather. ashamed of their advocate.-E.
ARTISANS OP FORMER DAYS.
THE STRANGER AND HIS FRIEND.
A Poor wayfaring man of grief
T'hen in a moment, to my view
Once when my scanty meal was spread,
I spied Him where a fountain burst
'Twas night; the floods were out,-it blew
DAILY LABOURS OF A PAWNEE
WOMAN. She rises an hour before daybreak, packs up the dried meat, the corn, and other bales, strikes the tent, loads and saddles all the horses and mules, and at dawn the march commences; they generally go from twelve to fifteen miles before their midday halt; the husband rides; some animals are loaded, many run loose ; she.travels on foot, carrying on her back either a child or a package of a considerable size; in one hand a bundle or can of water, with the other leading one or two packhorses. On arriving at the camping-place, she unpacks the animals and proceeds to pitch the tent or lodge as before described. But in order to appreciate the extreme labour of this apparently simple operation, it must be borne in mind, that she has to force eight or ten poles, sharpened at the point, into ground baked nearly as hard as brick by a vertical sun, they requiring to be driven nearly six inches deep by the mere strength of her arms, as she is not assisted by the use of any ironpointed instrument, or any mallet. As soon as the tent is pitched and arranged, she goes in search of wood and water; the latter is generally within half a mile of the camping-place selected, but the former, I can positively affirm from my own observation, she frequently has to seek and carry on her back three or four miles. From mingled commiseration and curiosity, I once or twice raised these wood-bundles thus brought in, and am afraid to hazard a conjecture as to its weight, but I feel confident that any London porter would charge high for an extra load, if he was desired to carry one of them half-a-mile : she then proceeds to light the fire, cut up the meat, and pound the corn, for which latter purpose she is obliged to use a heavy club, round at the extremity, and a mortar hollowed by herself from the trunk of a walnut tree. As soon as the meal is finished, she has to strike the tent, reload the horses, and the whole foregoing work has to be repeated, except that the afternoon walk is generally not more than eight or nine miles.
Hon. C. Murray.
Stript, wounded, beaten, near to death,
In prison I saw Him next, condemn’d
BELF-APPROVAL. We follow the world in approving others, but we go before it in approving ourselves.--Colton.
Norman Peasants, in the Church of St. Wandrille, doing Homage to the Statues of St. Mien and other Saints.
houses and churches for the instruction of the
ignorant in the knowledge of the history of both Ay account has recently gone the round of the the Old and the New Testament ; that so they may newspapers, of a ship-launch at Blackwall; the be acquainted with the sacred persons of patriarchs, figure-head of the vessel consisted of a bust of prophets, and apostles, and be informed of the our greatest naval commander, Nelson. Several wonderful works wrought by God in man's creation young midshipmen were on board, who, over- and redemption.” This indeed was, in the dark ages, come by recollections of his achievements with an easy and most obvious experiment of instructing which history had supplied them, went forward, the people, when reading was a notable accomembraced, and kissed the figure with every sym- plishment ; just as picture-Bibles were till lately ptom of honest, unaffected enthusiasm. This act put into the hands of young persons. These graresembled the hero-worship of the classical an- phic and graven representations of events and cients, and reminds us of those feelings to arouse persons were substitutes for the more difficult but which Romanists adorn their churches with effigies more just and rational method of enlightening the of the Virgin, the Saviour, and the Saints.
minds and cultivating the intellects of mankind by A controversial author at the end of the seven teaching them to read, and so to learn the historical teenth century, when hot war had been waged by records of the Old and the precepts of the New the puritans against all graven images, writes thus Testament from the Bible itself. But the appeals in their defence and in explanation of their uses of the Romish Church having been always made and influence :—"It is the professed doctrine and more to credulity than to reason, the general practice of the Church of Rome to have the pictures spread of knowledge was discouraged and learning and images of holy things and passages both in strictly confined to the clergy.
PART 11.-NO. VI.
Thus, the reasoning powers suppressed and the circumstances corroborative of this shall be preintellects fettered, the stimulant of palpable and sently cited. visible objects was resorted to, so that continues The different kinds of representative imagery the same defender of the Catholic ritual—“ the used in the Romish Church may be divided into Church of Rome teaches that the images of Christ three classes :-Paintings, Calvaries or sculptured &c. ought to be kept especially in churches, and tableaux of the crucifixion, and detached statues due honour and veneration given them*; not for of the Saviour and the Saints. The former being that any divinity or virtue is believed to be in them too refined for the mass, it became necessary to for which they are to be worshipped, but because present such emblematic objects to the lower classes the honour shown to them is referred to the proto- as came within the range of their less cultivated type or things represented by them; so that by ideas; and hence we see in almost every Catholic the images we kiss and before which we kneel, we cathedral wooden figures carved as large as life to adore Christ and reverence his saints whom the represent the crucifixion : and while it is possible said images representt."
these may be on a level with the taste of the That the introduction of pictorial and carved em- people for whom they are provided, yet they problems into churches originated in such an expe- duce a contrary, a revolting effect upon educated dient as we have described, and not in any warrant minds*. They are composed of the cross and a or command to be found in the Scriptures, there figure of the Redeemer nailed to it; huge clots can be no question. It appears from the prac- of red paint drop over the face and pour out of tice of the Church recorded by the earlier fathers, the side ; which a pseudo centurion is piercing that Christians during the first three centuries with a real spear. The Virgin and Martha someafter Christ and the greater part of the fourth times occupy one corner, amidst rocks of jagged neither worshipped images nor used them in wor- wood ; the whole painted to imitate nature, and at ship; and the defenders of the practice allege the back of the group there is a scene such as is merely a decree, said to have been made in a used in theatres. This description applies particouncil held by the apostles at Antioch, com- cularly to the Calvaries in the Cathedral at St. manding the faithful that they may not err about Omer and to that of St. Roch in Paris, both the object of their worship, to make images of which we have seen. Sometimes Calvaries occupy Christ. But the existence of such a decree cannot an entire building or chapel, constructed expressly be proved, nor was it mentioned till seven hundred for them. The most imposing of these is at years after the apostolic times, when the disputes Antwerp. about image-worship commenced I.
Then come the separate figures of the Virgin and The Scriptures themselves, so far from affording other saints, with the shrines which surround them. any passage that by the utmost ingenuity could be To these devotees repair, and after reading the interpreted to favour this species of idolatry, prescribed aves, kiss them and pass to others to expressly forbids it in many places g.
whom that particular day is sacred, or according But looking at the use of images as a means for to the particular affliction they may be suffering; the instruction and an aid to the devotion of the for as the pagans had their gods who were supposed ignorant -- as a substitute in point of fact for to order certain events, so the Romish calendar wholesome book instruction-the effort is commonly consists of saints for every specialty—there are vain to teach the people to draw a nice distinction “ our Mother of Victory, our Mother of Joy,” &c. between worshipping the thing itself, and making
our Mother of Hate.” Mr. Trollope in it aid in the worship of the incomprehensible or his “Summer in Brittany" mentions one of these beatified Spirit it represents. This distinction is so last shrines to which devotees secretly repair, and difficult to be drawn, especially by the untutored implore the malediction of the Almighty upon their mind, that whatever the intents and purposes of the enemies ! Church might be, it is much to be feared that the Inold churches some parts of the sculptured saints more ignorant Romish devotees, even of the pre- are completely obliterated by the constant kisssent day, attribute supernatural powers to the in- ing and embracing they have been forages subjected sensible images which they kiss and worship. Some to; in others the portions of the figure within
* The eighth article of the Romish formulary of faith enjoins reach of the worshipper are worn down quite the subscriber to declare :-"I most firmly assert that the smooth, and exhibit as fine a polish as if they had images of Christ, of the mother of God, and also of other saints,
come from the hands of a lapidary. Perpetual ought to be had and retained, and that due honour and veneration are to be given to them."
dropping, it is said, will wear away a stone ; per+ Discourso on the Use of Images in the Church of Rome. petual kissing seems to have the same effect. London, 1687.
# A good summary of these controversies may be found in a * This fact shows at once the effect of discouraging education pamphlet which the one we bave already quoted professed to among the ignorant, for as in the absence of it, these theatrical answer, entitled "A Discourse concerning the Nature of tableaux may have the desired effect upon theix passions, so Idolatry."
were they properly enlightened, such exhibitions would be $ Exodus, chap. XX. ver. 4 and 5, and chap. xxxi, Levit. looked upon with aversion chap. xxvi. ver. 1. Psalm xcvii. 7. &c. &c.
83 It is not only to the images of Saints that this | This act is clearly an ancient innovation on the sort of labial homage is paid ; their relics also re- formulæ of the Romish service, which is still toleceive similar honours. A recent and intelligent rated; for it is not universally practised. The idea traveller details such a scene in a church at Bras- that by any physical act a peculiar sanctity can be pars in Brittany. “During the whole morning,” he communicated to persons or things, is one of the says, “ the church was crowded. No service was first and most obvious superstitions which takes performed, but a priest was unceasingly engaged in possession of a mind but half awakened to the exexposing some relic to the adoration of the people. istence of a Deity. “If,” said a Bechuana chief to It was contained in a little silver box in one of the Robert Moffat, “you eat your books, we would sides of which was a small round piece of glass more easily believe what you tell us they conwhich the people kissed; the priest after every tain.” Some of the Mohammedans entertain kiss wiped the glass with a napkin, and each de- the same notion ; and to charm away any sickness votee concluded the ceremony by dropping a piece or disease, write certain verses of the Koran on of money into a plate carried round to receive the the inner surface of a bowl or cup, and having contributions of the faithful."
poured in some water, stir it until the writing is We must now record our promised instances quite washed off; the water with the sacred words which support the painful notion that among mul- thus infused in it is then drunk by the patientt. titudes of adherents to the Romish creed the To effect the same object, Roman Catholics have honour shown to images is not always “referred recourse to votive offerings, presented to figures of to prototypes or things represented by them." St. Antoine, whose influence is supposed to cure Since the destruction of sacred edifices which took all diseases. A deformed li:nb, a carious tooth, or place during the great French Revolution, many of any member afflicted with pain, is modelled in the churches in France are not fully supplied with wax, and hung up on waxed threads, either upon images, and consequently the fragments of statues, the statue, or at its shrine. On one occasion, while the architectural ornaments of ecclesiastical build- examining a collection of such mimic deformities ings, and indeed any form which might bear the in the church of Berques, near Dunkirk, we beheld smallest resemblance to that of a saint or virgin, is an old peasant approach the shrine of St. Antoine set up and bowed down to. Of a great monastic and hang upon it the model of a crooked leg, beestablishment at St. Wandrille, for instance, only longing to her daughter. She informed us that the church and several small ruins of the struc- when the leg became straight, she would cause ture remain. A few summers since we visited another imitation of it to be moulded, and would the chapel, and having satisfied our curiosity suspend it beside the deformed one, in honour of within it, observed, in an outhouse, an altar the wonder-working saint. At Antwerp, we saw figure of Christ as dead, which had been evidently a much larger collection of such objects. The in the first instance ill-executed, but was now saint was covered with them in every part: a more rendered hideous by the fractured condition of the heterogeneous assemblage can hardly be conceived, features. The huge blood-marks were more than –wry necks, dolls' heads (to cure the headache), usually exaggerated, and the whole figure pre- breasts, arms, toes, fingers—in short, almost every sented a revolting object. While gazing upon it, part of the human body that was to be, and had a woman bearing in her arms a young child came
been cured, are there congregated. to kiss it, and after having done so, placed the At other shrines, votive offerings of a more infant before it to do the like. The child recoiled sightly and costly character are deposited, particuin affright, but the inflexible devotee insisted on larly at that of the Holy Virgin; consisting of jewels, its performing an act of love towards an object valuable dresses, and other expensive articles. which had awakened its utmost dread. How could But image-worship is not confined to churches. that child refer the act to any spiritual prototype ? At the corner of alınost every street in Belgium a And if it could, what notion would it possess of figure is erected, which is never passed without an the Redeemer, from so terrific a representative ? act of adoration; and when the procession of the
Besides the kissing and embracing we have men- host or consecrated wafer parades along, every tioned, it is the practice, particularly in the South good Catholic, regardless of any state of weather, of France and in Belgium, to stroke certain images never fails to kneel down and mutter an ave. with the hand, and also to pass a prayer-book over Such is the image-worship observed in the Rothe surface of one, while other worshippers kneel man Catholic Church, particularly in the South of before it, and a priest recites a homily contained in France and in Belgium. It offers a great obstacle the particular page thus used, -as is represented in to an enlightened state of Christianity, and consethe annexed engraving. A superior efficacy is sup- quently to the end it is our especial purpose to posed to be communicated to the prayer by its con- promote and advocate-Civilization. W. tact with the figure at the time of being uttered.
* Moffat's Sermon, preached before the London Missionary
Society. * Sco“A Summer in Brittany," by Mr. Trollope, vol. ii. p. 225.
+ Lane's Modern Egyptians, chap. xi.