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theft, and of treacherous dealing or other commuTHE CIRCASSIANS.No. II.
nication with the enemy. But the latter being now
the most important affair, it alone is to be proseWe resume our reference to Mr. Bell's “Resi- cuted at present, in order that all the delinquents dence in Circassia."
-supposed to be very numerous—may be dealt On crossing the valley of Ozerek, which is the with before the commencement of a new campaign. only large one between Semez and Anapa, and
So far as I have yet seen, there appears to be no which gives its name by usage to the neighbour-ground for complaint of the law's delay, at any hood, I was vexed to see, by the dispersing of a rate. multitude on the hills before us, the driving away Immediately on arriving in a district where criof the cattle, and the firing of small arms, that a
minals are reported to be, the tamatas and others trial, which was a case of manslaughter, had ter- assemble in some central locality, which affords minated with the payment, in cattle and sundry partial shelter from the wind then prevailing; and other articles of property, of the covenanted price whether it have been one from northward bearing of blood. Two hundred oxen are the legal fine for frost and snow, from the opposite quarter with each death-murder or manslaughter (as we call torrents of rain, the proceedings of these hardy it); but as few families possess so many, any other lawyers of the hills have gone on uninterruptedly articles that may be offered are taken instead ; and if the ground be in fit condition, the elders seat these assemblies are juries, for the purpose not themselves upon it on a little straw; if otherwise, only of trying the criminal, but of ascertaining the they stand in a circle, while those especially enequivalence of such articles as are substituted for gaged to co-operate (whose muster-roll is a notched oxen.
staff, and none of whom dare quit the vicinity of As we passed the temporary court of justice, a the wittenagemote, or field of justice, without the thatched shed, we had further proof of proceedings special permission of the three presidents) remain having terminated, by its being set on fire too, as is around on horseback, or as their fancy may lead invariably done.
them, listening at times to what is going forward, The delinquent in this case appears to have been or practising their steeds, ready to be despatched insane, as he had killed a boy, and wounded two to bring by force before the elders any person other persons of a family he had conceived himself reported criminal, and who may refuse to attend. aggrieved by, and had entered a house for the pur- On the appearance of one of the latter, if his conpose of killing one of my countrymen whom he fession agree with the information against him, he expected to find there. His fraternity had conse
is at once adjudged to pay the fine attached to his quently put him to death in the usual manner, by offence, and payment being exacted immediately throwing him into the sea with his arms tied ; yet on condemnation, the most difficult duty of the his family and fraternity are bound, by the Circas- judges appears to be that of valuing the articles, sian ideas of justice, to pay the legal fines for his horses, arms, armour, merchandise, &c., taken in offences. It may easily be conceived that such lieu of the number of oxen one is liable to pay ; institutions, though at variance with our notions of viz., six (or three hundred piastres), if he prove by justice in the West, are yet highly conducive to witnesses or his oath that he visited a Russian fort good order, each family and fraternity being deeply solely for the purpose of purchasing salt; twentyinterested in watching the conduct of each indivi- four, if it be proved that he held communication dual connected with them, lest they should be for other purposes with the enemy; but, if he amerced for his misdemeanour.
have previously taken the national oath against The fines payable in this instance were two such practices, and it be proved that he has broken hundred oxen for a boy killed, and thirty for a it for any purpose, he may be held to have forfeited young man, and two for a woman wounded, the his life, which he or his fraternity must redeem by latter having been less severely injured. Of these the payment of 200 oxen or their value : such exonly the former has yet been exacted ; the parents tremity is not, however, resorted to excepting after of the boy having received the value of sixty oxen, repeated transgressions. The same fine falls to be and their fraternity the remainder. The payment paid by any one whose examination disagrees with of the other two is fixed for next summer, and will the report against him, and who, on being put to be proportionably divided among the sufferers and his oath, can be proved by the oaths of two or their fraternities. The cause for such division is, more witnesses to have forsworn himself. For the that the family and fraternity of the delinquent purpose of having the oath administered, the are amenable in similar proportions.
Koran is appended to two rifle-rests, hard by the Having by special invitation been now for some circle of elders ; and he who has to be sworn goes days in the immediate vicinity of the judicial | there apart with three or four of them, in whose assembly, I have gained some idea of the nature of presence he makes his declaration, taking the its proceedings. Their object at first was a double Koran in his hand and saying, This is the book of oue—the suppression of the national practice of God, and I declare, &c. I may explain that the
85 oaths of two witnesses are necessary to condemn | it were, a floating barrier around the tribunal ; for an accused, because the oath of the latter is taken; the heads of families, of whom with their attend. and if its testimony disagree with that of but one ants it is chiefly composed, may absent themselves witness, the one is held to have counterbalanced temporarily, if they please, and many for a timo the other, and judgment cannot then be pronounced go home on their own affairs, or elsewhere, for but by the convention of the judicial elders of eight other purposes. Thus my host, Vardan, and some fraternities. But if even they pass sentence of others, pending the present proceedings, made an death upon an individual, his fraternity-if it still excursion to the sea-side, between the fortresses of think him undeserving of such extremity—has the Anapa and Jamatia, where one of them was fortupower of redemption, by the payment of two nate enough to capture two Cossacks, their horses, hundred oxen. I may further explain that in each arms, and the postbag they were charged with, fraternity a certain number of the tamatas or containing some fifty letters from Russia, for which elders (according to the amount of the fraternity) only these faithful messengers pleaded earnestly, are selected by their fellows on account of their protesting that they cared not what became of integrity, wisdom, and experience, and solemnly themselves, if the letters were but forwarded in sworn to administer justice according to conscience, safety to their destination, which of course was not without regard of persons and without acceptance complied with. One of the letters was given me. of fee to pervert it. These elders are denominated It is a military one, and its number 30,870, proves tarko-khass-that is, sworn to justice.
what I have before observed--the immense multiIn the judicial and other assemblies any one plicity of such documents. present is at liberty to speak, but few who are not Another of these singular features is, that the tarko-khass (or at least elders) are much attended remuneration of the judges and of the whole posse to; and the latter, after the evidence in a trial has comitatus, accruing from a division among them of been publicly given and debated upon, go apart and the fines they impose, the amount of the one nedecide upon the judgment, when they return and cessarily depends upon that of the other ; which, it publicly communicate it through him who has been might be supposed, would lead to unnecessary appointed president.
severity, from mere self-interest. A case I have Daring the present circuit for the punishment of known of a fine having been remitted tends to treason, it has so happened that many of those prove the contrary; which is further proved by accused have been found to have absented them- the same leniency having been shown to one of selves. In such a case the house of the accused my late hosts, and to some others, upon their would be burned unless some friend became gua- taking oath that the salt used in their families rantee for his production on his return home.
had been purchased by order of their wives, and In cases of theft, the criminal is ordinarily tried entirely without their knowledge. Nay, I have by the judicial elders of his own fraternity and even heard of instances of the oath being administhat of the person robbed; but the latter if a tered a second time to individuals who were pretty judicial congress be assembled, has his choice of well known to have broken it the first. The host carrying his case before it. In the former case, the now mentioned had to feed and lodge in his hamlet, fine (which is to the value of seven oxen, in addi- during the night I spent there, some twelve indition to the restitution of the value of the article viduals, including myself and attendants. My host stolen, or twenty-four oxen if the crime be a second here has in like manner had seventeen; and all the one) falls to be divided among the judicial elders of householders are similarly inconvenienced. This the two societies; in the latter, these fines go into is like quartering a detachment of troops upon an the general account of the judicial elders and their offending district, and may thus be productive of assistants. In the case of a hardened malefactor, some good. It is, indeed, a means sometimes rehe is dealt by as in the case of extreme treachery; sorted to, to force on the discovery of thieves; the that is, he is either—besides condemnation on members of congress continuing to live at free his last offence-adjudged and put to death by quarters in the accused neighbourhood, sometimes his own fraternity (which is the usual mode), or for several months, though not continuously, until condemned to it by the judges of eight other such discovery be made. But the innocent are societies, leaving the power of redemption to his thus punished along with the guilty, and many of own.
the former have complained loudly of such hardThis administration of justice presents other ship. This complaint I feel disposed to re-echo, singular features : forinstance, the great assemblage and I am not without hope that by further harping of force, viz., four or five hundred men brought to- upon this (timeous) chord, I may lead the chiefs to gether, to such an amount, for no end that I can the construction of a permanent tribunal, according perceive, except that of proving that what is done to a modification of their own institutions, which is not the work of a party, but of the sovereign may serve eventually for some form of fixed or majority; and this force is not stationary, except permanent government, the object my countrymen those numbered on the muster-staff-but forms, as and I have long striven to effect.
attention, but made no reply. In the evening, A CHAPTER FOR THE YOUNG.
being invited to the house of the chief officer,
Swartz spoke for some time, to a large company of SWARTZ, THE MISSIONARY.
Brahmins, Moors, and courtiers, who were there
assembled. He found ch communication exIndia has awakened and sustained, for ages, the tremely difficult, but he surmounted every obstacle, liveliest interest of our race. The ancients con- and was " not weary in well-doing." sidered it the garden of Asia ; a land of beauty, It was his daily custom to go out among heathens, splendour, and abundance; a perfect paradise, Mohammedans, and papists, reading to them, and where every sense might have full gratification. urging them to be reconciled to God. On one For many of later times it has been the theatre of occasion he visited a spot, where crowds were conflict and of triumph, the region of fortune and busily adorning a new temple. Here were a numof fame, the land of gold and silver, of diamonds ber of stone idols, of uncouth and frightful shape. and pearls. The Christian philanthropist mean- But he drew off the multitude, who listened as he while has been absorbed in contemplating the told them, with much simplicity and affection, of moral condition of its people, and in employing the ever-living and only true God. A company of means for the promotion of their present and merchants now came up, and immediately he spoke eternal welfare.
to them of “ the true riches." Then, proceeding Among the instruments engaged with this de
on his way, he arrived at a place where most of sign, Christian Frederick Swartz, a native of Ger the inhabitants had gathered together in front of a many, holds a distinguished place. His mother had house, to follow a corpse ; and sitting down beside early devoted him to God : with her dying lips she the body, he told them how death might be the charged her husband, and her pastor, to train him gate to endless life-a night on which a briglit and up for his service alone; and most signally were her glorious day would quickly dawn. hopes realised and her prayers answered. Great In the afternoon, he describes himself, in his will be her happiness for ever for the gift of such journal, as in an excellent resting-house, which the a son ; and equally great and enduring will be his queen had caused to be built. Behind was a row felicity for the grant of such a mother. Her last of Brahmin houses, almost a mile long, in which and solemn charge continually and forcibly recurred was erected a new pagoda. In this house a hunto his mind, and mighty indeed was its influence. dred priests were daily fed. He says: “The great
In the early part of the year 1750, he arrived in farmer or lessee was just arrived, where the young Tranquebar, and in a few months, after intense Brahmins visited. It was as if a body of young and constant study, delivered his first sermon in students had assembled; they sung before him. the Tamul language. Here he laboured for some The sound of their voices; the coolness of the hour, years, but the soil was neither fruitful nor pro- for it was evening; and the loneliness of the place, mising ; the few plants it yielded could not satisfy in the middle of a vast plain-made it resemble a a heart which longed for many; and he therefore resting of the patriarchs of old.” And who will removed to Tanjore. He saw that the nations of not be struck with the devotedness of the misthis country were taught to read in heathen books sionary as he adds: “ I proposed and expounded the evil conduct of their gods, and that the body to them the parable of the prodigal son. Oh ! and the soul were thereby destroyed. Females that they would truly arise and go to their Father!" were fearfully neglected; he describes it as “ a At another time, when from home, he appears most rare occurrence” for a father to afford his visiting the merchants at their booths. As they daughter the means of learning to read; while a sat with their legs crossed, their beards resting on hundred thousand young Brahmins,or priests, might their bosoms, and their slippers laid aside in the easily be collected together, who, except their daily Moorish fashion, they listened to his words in deep ceremonies, did nothing but pass their lives in cor- silence. And here the heart, under the influence rupting pleasure and sloth. Of course they hated of its worldliness, appeared just as it had done in the missionary, and their opposition was the more other parts of the earth—just as it does in England formidable for being silent and contemptuous. even now. They answered : “ It is so written, but
One circumstance strikingly shows the power of who can live so? Who is able to root out his dethe priesthood. In an interview which Swartz had sires? We have it also on the palm-leaves, but it with the king of Tanjore, and while he was explain. is impossible to keep it.” But the word he bore ing the doctrines of Christianity, the chief Brahmin them meets all such objections. There we read : entered. But did he advance with an act of homage “ The things which are impossible with men are to the ruler ?-on the contrary, he proceeded to an possible with God.”—“My grace is sufficient for elevated seat, while the king prostrated himself on thee; for my strength is made perfect in weakness." the ground before the Brahmin. Afterwards the To be near the assemblies of the natives, Swartz king made signs to the missionary to converse with built in Urieur a little thatched cottage, standing the priest, who heard all he advanced with seeming apart from other dwellings, and shaded by a group A CHAPTER FOR THE YOUNG.
87 of trees from the sun. Hither at times he came, It must, however, be elearly stated that these preparing only a simple meal of rice, and quench- were pursued amidst difficulties of a truly formidaing his thirst at the neighbouring stream. When ble character. There are times, undoubtedly, highly evening advanced, as many temples were here, he favourable to the exercise of Christian principles, went forth and mingled with the people. At night, and the consequent promotion of the missionary during the feast, the pagodas were illuminated with enterprise. But the eighteenth century was not many thousand lamps, and as he heard the songs such a period in the history of the coast of Coroand cries of the deluded visitants, the impulse was mandel. War, one of the fiercest and most insarenewed to tender compassion and self-denying tiable scourges of the human race, and one of the labour. Ere long, however, he was deprived of most stupendous obstacles that can arise to the this “ lodge in the wilderness.” It was pulled cause of God and truth, was now furiously raging down, with one or two pagodas, that the nabob in India ; for Europeans had made it their battlemight have a large garden on the spot. Swartz field—the scene of relentless and deadly strife. felt the loss; it was not only the scene of sighs Hyder Ally, a man who it is said could never and sadness, but of hopes and joys, and communion write his own name, but of no ordinary energy and with his God.
valour, had risen from an humble rank to be the Now he betook himself to the dwellings of others commander of the forces of the Rajah of Mysore at Urieur. They received him, for he asked only Proper. In this capacity he added conquest to the shelter of their roof and the simplest fare. Tall conquest, until he usurped the throne he had proin stature, of a strong but not robust frame, with mised to sustain, and wore the crown he had ruthsilver hair, a high and fine forehead, a large and lessly torn from another's brow. As avowed light blue eye, and features in which firmness and Mohammedans, he and his son, Tippoo Sultan, carmildness were happily blended—he was, indeed, ried on the most fearful persecution, with the design an interesting guest ; and as he entered the native to increase adherents to their faith, and practised cottage, bestowed his blessing, and caressed its atrocious barbarity, to secure their power and domichildren, there was an attraction but rarely with- nion. Deeply afflictive is it to the common feelstood. He could not share their repast, for that ings of humanity, to say nothing of the highest they deemed unlawful ; and sometimes he would principles by which it can be influenced, to track go forth into the grove and eat his morsel alone. their course of cruelty and blood. And at the At length Urieur was set on fire by an enemy of crisis referred to, Hyder Ally, urged on by the its native prince.
French, descended from the Mysore with a powerSwartz was sometimes found in very different ful army, laid waste the Carnatic and the lower cicumstances. Passing one day through the streets countries, and twice threatened Tanjore with utter of Tanjore, the people crowded around him, even desolation. to the palace-gates. In the evening he was brought It is therefore one of the glories of Swartz that to the king : in front of the royal chamber, and he carried on his missionary labours amidst conunder the open sky, a table was set ; cushions were flicting nations and the noise of war.
Such was laid on the earth ; and the chief officers and attend- his familiarity with the language of India, the conants stood around. Opposite was an apartment fidence he infused into its people, and the respect where the king's wives, though unseen, were gazing and admiration he elicited even from its highest intently on this remarkable interview. Their de- | authorities, that all united to hail him as their sire was natural to look on one so remarkable, nor friend and benefactor. The majesty of truth-the less curious were they to hear the tidings he dignity of pure benevolence, here received its brought; for at the monarch's command, Swartz homage. So far indeed was confidence inspired, delivered an address in the Persian tongue. The that the Madras government asked him to negomind is impressed while the imagination pictures | tiate with IIyder Ally, that peace might return ; the venerable man, amidst the silence and beauty and he speedily set out for Seringapatam. of an eastern night, descanting on the things of God His journey thither was beset by no ordinary to this Hindoo assembly, who listened to his voice perils. He had to pass woods and mountains inwith profound attention. “ Perhaps," he remarks, fested with wild beasts ; and often, when compos" the fruit will appear when I am laid at rest." ing himself to sleep in his tent, he was aroused by
And well might he employ his deepest solicitude the cry of the jackal or the roar of the tiger. Here and utmost exertions in behalf of all ranks of the multitudes perished every year, and though he and people of India. There never was, in any age or his companions, when longing for a cooling draught, country, a superstition so cruel, so atrocious, and heard the sound of water in the heights around, 80 wicked, as that which has reigned over its they often feared, in their ascent, the pouncing upon millions of people. The ingenuity of Satan appears them of some beast of prey. But from dangers so to have created it, tha some might be made as imminent he was mercifully preserved, and on much like his angels as possible. No wonder then arriving at the capital a tent was pitched for his at the missionary's ardent and persevering labours. / residence on the glacis of the fort, where lie was visited by officers and judges of the court, as well down as dead, and corpses lined the streets every as Brahmins, anxious to know the doctrines he morning. At this juncture the Rajah called upon held. At length he had an audience of the prince, Swartz to interpose, and supplies were immediand was invited to reside in the palace," a place,” ately obtained. The word of the missionary presays Swartz, “ where the nearest friends do not vailed when every other had ceased to be believed. trust themselves to open their hearts. Within the Would the young know the secret of such a palace, Hyder's ancient friend, Kundee Row, is mighty influence over various ranks? It is found confined in an iron cage, and fed with bread and in that moral worth—that true excellency of chamilk; by which means the former kept his vow racter which is power, in every nation and in every that he would treat him like a parroquet. Dread- age. The minds of multitudes were swayed by ful punishments take place daily. I am hardly sure Swartz, as they have been by others, from a full whether I ought to describe how one of his official conviction that he was in the highest sense of the servants was punished. His screams were awful." phrase, a good man. We trust the character we
In a hall, supported by a double row of lofty have now described will interest many of the young; pillars of marble, whose capitals were cut into the hereafter we may trace his subsequent career. form of palm and cocoa-leaves—a hall opening into
8. a garden filled with beautiful trees, many of which being grafted, bore two kinds of fruit, Swartz often conversed with this Eastern despot. One evening
THE SABBATH IN CHILI. he desired the missionary to speak in Persian Ar Payne, our first halting-place, and where we before him as he had done to his people; but the remained for the Sunday, we were lodged at the appeal which he consequently made was in vain. Posada, dignified by the name of “El Hospital,”. During the three months of his residence at Serin- but where we had not even a bedstead in a room, gapatam he was zealously occupied, when not en- through the roof of which, in parts where the gaged with the prince, in the cause of his mission. thatch was thin, we could observe the stars when He visited many Europeans he had known in other the candles were extinguished. In these country parts. Amidst the coolness of evening, he often inns a ballad-singer is considered indispensable, repaired to the glacis of the fort and preached to who is constantly employed during the day, in persons of different ranks. And when about to order to attract customers. She takes her post depart, Hyder ordered all his officers between the near the principal entry, accompanying her voice, capital and Tanjore “ to permit the Father Swartz generally loud and cracked, with a guitar. No to pass unmolested, and show him respect and exception is made, even on the Sabbath, and this kindness, for,” he added, “ he is a holy man, and desecration of the Lord's Day continued, with means no harm to my government.” Nor was very little intermission, from soon after sunrise this all : “ when I took my leave," says the mis- until sunset ; but it was not the only annoyance; sionary, “Hyder Ali presented me with a bag of wine, which is less than a rial (6d.) a bottle, soon rupees, for the expense of my journey ; but having began to circulate, and many who came only to been furnished with supplies by the Honourable listen could scarcely sit upon their horses when Board at Madras, I delivered the bag to them. they returned. At Talca we were far better As they urged me to take it, I desired their per accommodated at the Café del Comercio ; but in mission to appoint this sum, as the first fund for the inner court, exactly facing our window, was a an English charity-school at Tanjore. Being told cock-pit which was only opened on Sundays. From that the governor intended to procure me a present the first dawn of daylight we were disturbed by from the Board, I begged leave to decline accept the shrill crowing of the numerous cocks, which, in ing any, declaring that if my journey had been order to be in readiness, had been leg-tied in every in any way beneficial to the public, I rejoiced at corner of the pateos. About eleven the place was it.” Is not here a display of admirable disinter- crowded with spectators, and from that time till estedness?
one or two o'clock in the afternoon, the noise and To the people of Tanjore he rendered also special disturbance were so great, that we were literally service in a time of great extremity. A powerful obliged to take our books and adjourn to the enemy was near the city, the people in the port hedges in the outskirts of the town for retirewere numerous, there was not provision even for ment. It is truly painful to reflect, that a governthe garrison, and the usual supplies could not be ment calling itself Christian, should not only toleobtained. The brinjaries, the gipsies of India, rate this barbarous pastime, but carry to its carry on merchandize between one country and account, as a considerable item of its revenue, the another ; supplying armies in time of war, and sums which it annually acquires from the licences having their persons and property respected by all granted to those who thus openly bid defiance to parties ; but now they would not trust the officers the better feelings of humanity and the express of the court; and thus the greatest distress pre- commands of God.—Captain Gardiner's Visit to the vailed. The seapoys, emaciated with hunger, fell | Indians of Chili.