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The island itself rises out of the Mediterranean Candia, the Crete of the ancients, makes its Sea, and marks the southern limits of the Grecian appearance frequently and sometimes prominently Archipelago. It consists of a continuation of the in profane as well as in sacred history; its earliest, mountain districts which extend through Greece traditions take us back to the mythological ages, and the Peloponnesus, that give to it a rugged, and give to it the honour of being the birthplace hilly character, and a long figure ; extending east of Jupiter. At the dawn of Christianity we find and west for about 160 miles ; in some places the first missionary, St. Paul, leaving Titus upon the narrowed to a breadth of six miles ; and never island to “set in order the things that are wanting measuring more than fifty miles across. The peaks and ordain elders in every city*.” Crete was next of the western mountains are elevated enough to overrun by the insatiate standards of Mohammed, be always covered with snow, but the eastern part and after having been bought by the Venetians, of the island is more depressed. The centre of was finally added to the Turkish empire. During this range is the celebrated Mount Ida, whose base the recent Greek revolution, the Cretans (vulg. has a circumference of twenty-five leagues, and Candiotes) failed to obtain their release from the whose sides rise in hilly groups heaped one above Ottoman yoke in spite of their constant efforts to another like a pyramid. In common with most join themselves to their more fortunate countrymen. objects hallowed by antiquity, or made famous by About ten years ago the island was ceded to Me the glowing imagery of the ancient poets, Mount hemet Ali, but by a recent treaty is again nomi- Ida has been invested with beauties it could never nally annexed to the Porte. The Christian popu- have possessed. It is bare, barren, and offers neilation has, however, revolted, and with every pro- ther landscape to the eye, nor spring nor pleasing spect of relieving itself from the trammels of Islam solitude to the traveller * The other mountains rule. The progress of this revolt must deeply render the south coast of Candia lofty, and in few interest the Christian world ; for it is a struggle places accessible, while the north shores more against intolerance, fraught with a degree of pre- boldly indented, present some remarkable headjudice and infatuation only to be matched in the lands and good anchorages. In this part of the annals of other nations whose misfortune it has island are situated most of the few plains it posbeen to be overcome by Mohammedan arms. sesses ; its rivers partake more of the nature of
mountain torrents than regular streams; for even * Epistle of Paul to Titus, v.:—the latter is the patron Saint of Crete; the inhabitants of which claim him as a native of the Messara, the largest of them, is dry in portions the island. This fable of Titus's Cretan origin is however of its bed during some parts of the year. Still rejected by Gibbon, (“ Decline and Fall," chap. xvi.) and by Bishop Kaye (Tertullian, p. 110. 2nd Edition).
* Tournefort, Relation d'un Voyage au Levant, vol. 1. p. 53. Candia is upon the whole a healthy island, for its | They marry Christian wives without scruple. La intense summer climate is tempered by north winds, Motraye, who lodged one night with a couple which rise about eight o'clock in the morning, but thus circumstanced, says, they “lived very well fall with the sun. They are called embát, and some together : the man went to the mosque and his times blow with great violence.
wife to the church ; as for the children, they were Since the Grecian revolution the Christians of brought up as Mohammedans. The husband made the Greek church have greatly preponderated over no scruple to light the lamp for his wife on Sunthe Mohammedan inhabitants of the island ; and days before the image of the Fanagia.” On the although Christianity is presented in its worst as- other hand, many men among the Greeks would pect by followers of the Greek schism, yet there rather submit to death than marry a woman who is no question of the superiority of its effects upon had not been duly baptized. And even with respect the morals, sentiments, and civilization of its pro- to their daughters, there are alliances to which fessors over those of the Mohammedan faith. The their aversion is insuperable: for instance, those question now agitated, sword in hand, throughout contracted with members of the Roman Catholic Candia is, whether its people shall follow their Church. It is a singular fact, that the hatred borne creed unfettered, or still submit to the iron rule by the Greeks to the members of the latter sect is, and vexatious exactions of the Turks. Such being and nearly always has been, much greater than the present aspect of their affairs-an interest their aversion to Mohammedans. having been by recent events awakened in Europe The degraded condition in which both classes of in favour of the population, and as Candia was the candiotes exist, renders it a difficult and arduous channel as it were through which the civilization field of missionary labour. People in a state of utter and Christianity of the east first passed into the barbarism are much more easily impressed by western world—we have thought a sketch of its truth than those who have already embraced an people and their religion would be timely and erroneous faith. In the one case, the missionary interesting
has only to teach, to enlighten ignorance; in the The island is divided into eight bishoprics; the other, his occupation is two-fold : he must cause metropolitan residing in the city of Candia, its his hearers to unlearn that which is false, and capital; but the Greek Church is fallen into such learn that which is true. Hence, although the a degraded condition, that “no man,” says Tourne- American brethren have established a missionary fort, “who has the least zeal for religion can reflect school in Candia, its effects have been as yet but upon it without shedding tears." Though this was unimportant. Though there are four native schools, said nearly a century and a half ago, but little the total number of scholars is no more than four improvement is observable at the present day. hundred. Mr. Pashley visited the Candiote archbishop on The visible improvement of the rest of the Greek the 2nd March, 1834, and had the misfortune to nation, since it was relieved from its Turkish find out before he left his holiness,“ that he is even slavery, gives hope that, should Candia gain what more ignorant than is usually the case with in- she is now struggling for, a few years of freedom dividuals of his profession in these parts of the -aided by European intercourse—will give her an world. His ekonomos (a sort of cardinal), how equal chance of improvement. Her people, like all ever, fully made up for the deficiencies of his mountaineers, are a hardy race, whose external superior.
manners are described as having arrived at the The higher dignitaries of the Greek Church are somewhat hollow point of civilization known as selected from its monks alone, (for the mainte- politeness.“ The ceremonious politeness even of nance of whom there are thirty large monasteries the poorest people of Crete," says Pashley, “whenand several small ones in Candia,) and are obliged ever they meet and address one another is very to take the vow of chastity ; while, in singular striking.” Several gestures and forms are gone contrast to the Roman Catholics, the working through while repeating the formulæ in which the clergy are compelled to marry previously to ordina- verbal greeting is made. The Affghans and Chition. There are five orders of priesthood, namely, nese present in this respect some similarity to the bishops, priests, deacons, sub-deacons, and readers, Cretans. Their moral character, as pictured by the who are also singers. The church service is chiefty ancients, is by no means favourable ; but whatever musical, and, like the Roman ritual, displays jewels, it may have been from the time of Polybius to that plate, and images, scarcely less valuable and of St. Paul*, the present race can hardly deserve splendid than those of the Roman Catholics. Most the censures passed on their ancestors. They are of the ceremonies, which are replete with theatrical frugal, and though robust and courageous, inoffeneffect, are accompanied with music.
sive when not roused by wrongs or indignities ; The social and religious position of the Cretan but all classes are filled with the most absurd Mussulmans is curious. They chiefly consist of superstitions. Their intellectual characteristics apostates from the Greek Church, or their descend are intelligence and vivacity; they may be comants, without any influx of strangers to the soil.
* See Epistle to Titus, i. 12.
HAYDON'S PICTURE OF THE ANTI-SLAVERY CONVENTION.
91 pared to the French of western Europe, or to the Persians of the East. The language spoken in HAYDON'S PICTURE OF THE ANTI. Candia is modern Greek.
SLAVERY CONVENTION. The constant state of oppression, and their fre
That friend of his race, Bernard Barton, gave quent efforts to ease themselves of it, have left the Cretans little leisure to devote to the useful arts.
to the world, a few years ago, two poems in which Though Candia abounds with olives, which produce interested. They both relate to one whose services
at the time we, in common with many, were deeply the finest oil, it is never sufficiently refined to serve any better purpose than that of making soap.
in the cause of philanthropy have been of incalcuAgriculture is at a very low ebb, and for raising lable value. The first is as follows, and refers to a wheat the land is merely scratched with the plough period when Clarkson had finished his collegiato once, and barley is sown on the wheat stubble essay, which first brought before his ardent mind without ploughing at all. The manufactures of the the enormous evils of slavery. island are nearly all domestic (there are, however,
THE STARTING-POST; OR, CLARKSON AT forty-five soap factories), consequently its trade is inconsiderable. The average annual exports have been estimated to exceed 18,500,000, and the
“Coming in sight of Wade's Mill in Hertfordimports 17,800,000 Turkish piastres *. W.
shire, I sat down disconsolate on the turf by the roadside, and held my horse. Here a thought came into my mind that the contents of the
Essay were true, it was time some person should REFINEMENTS OF INVENTION.
see these calamities to their end. Agitated in this
manner, I reached home. This was in the summer To the superficial observer, Mr. afterwards Sir
of 1785."-Clarkson's History of the Abolition, vol. i. H. Davy has remarked, the attempt to extend the refinements of invention beyond that state in which they are fitted for all the useful purposes of life,
A WANDERER by the road-way side,
Where leafy tall trees grow, may appear wholly unnecessary; but it should be
Casting their branching shadows wide, remembered, that, in aiming at perfection in a ma
Sits on the turf below. nufacture, the workman is constantly improving himself; and in attempting to produce articles Though rich the landscape, hill and plain, which are to sell at a high price, he makes a num- Before him there out-spread ; ber much better than they would otherwise be, One hand holds fast his bridle-rein, which are disposed of at a moderate rate. A finely- One props his thoughtful head, polished knife, for instance, which costs a guinea, may not have a better case than one which sells
The flush of youth is on his brow,
Its fire is in his eye, for a shilling only; but the cutler who has produced
And yet the first is pensive now, the expensive knife, from his accurate acquaint
The latter nought can spy. ance with his art, gained from habit and laborious operation, is able to make the common knife bet- Does proud Ambition's fitful gleam ter and at a lower rate. A thousand cases of the Light up his soul within, same kind might be adduced. The clay and mo- Or fond Affection's gentler dream dels of the Etruscan vases, produced by the inge- Prompt him Love's bliss to win 1 nuity of the late Mr. Wedgwood, may be said to have no immediate application to common uses ;
These are forgotten, or unknown :
For o'er the Atlantic main, but yet, in consequence of their invention, a spirit
His ear has caught the captive's groan, of instruction and of emulation has operated on
Has heard his clanking chain. every branch of the porcelain manufacture, and even the forms and composition of our common Nor less from Afric's land afar, pitchers and common flower-pots have, in conse- Borne by the billowy waves, quence, been improved.
The hideous din of sordid War,
The shrieks of kidnapp'd slaves
Has enter'd in his soul !
How shall Power's tyrant spell be broka censures all, and him least who is indifferent about The sick at heart made whole ? all.-Larater.
Who, e'en on Albion's far-famed Isle, * For the information contained in this article the writer is
Where Freedom gives her laws, indebted to Tournefort, before quoted; Encyc. Britannica, art. Candia; Travels in Crete, by Robert Pashley, Esq.; Mo Cul.
Nobly forgetting self the while, loch's Dict. of Geography, vol. 1. pp. 653-655, &c. &c.
Shall live but for her cause ?
DEGREES OF CONFIDENCE.
Who, the Apostle of her Creed,
His name, with those of his com peers,
Have travell’d earth's wide round;
And grateful hearts, and listening ears,
Have hail'd the welcome sound.
His toils are o'er, his part is done,
The Captive is set free ;
But, Europe, though his goal be won,
Much yet devolves on thee.
The bondage that made Afric vile
Can ne'er be wrapt in night,
Until her barren wastes shall smile
Beneath the Gospel's light,-
Till where the Scourge created fear,
The Cross shall waken love, priate.
And Afric's children altars rear
To Him who reigns above ! THE GOAL ; OR, CLARKSON IN OLD AGE.
These poems have been recalled to our minds by Near half a century hath flown ;
Haydon's Picture of the late Anti-Slavery ConvenThat way-side wanderer now
tion. The artist's description of the circumstances A venerable sage has grown,
in which it originated is peculiarly happy, and With years traced on his brow.
may not only serve to induce some of our readers More bent in form, more dim of eye,
to inspect it, but will doubtless gratify others at a More faltering in his pace;
distance from the metropolis, who may not have But time has stamp'd in dignity,
the opportunity of doing so :More than it reft of grace.
“Of all the meetings for benevolent purposes
which were ever held in London, none ever exAnd joy is his, age cannot chill,
ceeded in interest or object that which met at the Memories it need not shun;
Great Room, Freemasons' Tavern, in June 1840, The lone enthusiast of Wade's Mill
headed by the venerable Clarkson, and composed His glorious goal hath won!
of delegates from various parts of the world, in
order to consult on the most effectual method of Not vainly has he watch'd the ark
abolishing the curse of Slavery from those counWherein his hopes were shrined,
tries which, in spite of the noble example set them Nor vainly fann'd fair Freedom's spark
by England, still maintained it in all its atrocity In many a kindling mind.
“ The day before the meeting a deputation of genAt times, indeed, those hopes might seem Lost in the whelming wave ;
tlemen waited on me, to ask if I thought such an That spark—a faintly, struggling gleam
assemblage, with such a leader, might not be a Quench'd to the hapless slave.
subject fit for an historical picture? As it was
necessary for me to be present before I decided, Anon the dove with weary wing
they invited me to attend the next day; and I canHer olive-branch would bear,
didly acknowledge I did so, rather unwilling to be A sign to which his hopes might cling
drawn from my painting-room, and expecting In hours of anxious care.
nothing more than the usual routine of a public
meeting-votes of thanks, and such like things. The bow of promise has come forth,
“On entering the meeting at the time appointed, It stands as erst it stood
I saw at once I was in the midst of no common When the old landmarks of the earth
assembly. The venerable and benevolent heads Emerged above the flood !
which surrounded me, soon convinced me that And Christian states have own'd His right
materials existed of character and expression in Who bade the waves recede,
the members present, provided any one moment of As Freedom's champion, in His might,
pictorial interest (on a fact) should occur. I imFor Afric rose to plead.
mediately prepared for a sketch, and drew slightly
with a pen on the back of my ticket the general Well may the vet'ran of that band,
characteristics of the room and meeting. In life's declining days,
n a few minutes an unaffected man got up, and Offer, with lifted heart and hand,
informed the meeting that Thomas Clarkson would Thanksgiving, glory, praise !
attend shortly; he begged no tumultuous applause
SPELLS AND CHARMS.
HAYDON'S PICTURE OF THE ANTI-SLAVERY CONVENTION.
93 might greet his entrance, as his infirmities were for the accomplishment of their great object ; and great, and he was too nervous to bear without risk if ever sound was an echo to the sense, or if ever of injury to his health any such expressions of their deep and undaunted meaning was conveyed to the good feeling towards him.
depths of the soul by sound alone, the death-war“ The friend who addressed them was Joseph rant of Slavery all over the earth was boded by Sturge, a man whose whole life has been devoted that Amen! to ameliorate the condition of the unhappy.
I have seen the most afflicting tragedies, imita“ In a few minutes the aged Clarkson came in, tive and real ; but never did I witness, in life or grey and bent, leaning on Joseph Sturge for sup- in the drama, so deep, so touching, so pathetic an port, and approached with feeble and tottering effect produced on any great assembly as by the steps the middle of the convention. I had never few, unaffected, unsophisticated, natural, and honest seen him before, nor had most of the foreigners words of this aged and agitated person. present; and the anxiety to look on him, betrayed “ The women wept—the men shook off their tears, by all, was exceedingly unaffected and sincere. unable to prevent their flowing ; for myself, I was
“ Immediately behind Thomas Clarkson were his so affected and so astonished, that it was many daughter-in-law, the widow of his son, and his little minutes before I recovered sufficiently to perceive grandson.
the moment of interest I had longed for had come “ Aided by Joseph Sturge and his daughter, Clark- to pass—and this was the moment I immediately son mounted to the chair, sat down in it as if to chose for the picture.” rest, and then, in a tender, feeble voice, appealed to the assembly for a few minutes' meditation before he opened the convention.
“ The venerable old man put his hand simply to his forehead, as if in prayer, and the whole assem
The use of spells and charms is not quite bly followed his example ; for a minute there was the most intense silence I ever felt. Having in his possession, given him as an infallible remedy
banished from our land. The writer has one in wardly uttered a short prayer, he was again helped for toothache, by one who so firmly believed in op; and bending forward, leaning on the table, he its efficacy, that he made its unfortunate failure spoke to the great assembly as a patriarch standing
a cause of quarrel. It runs thus :near the grave, or as a kind father who felt an interest for his children. Every word he uttered “ As Thomas sat upon a marble stone, was from his heart-he spoke tenderly, tremulously; Jesus came up to him all alone, and, in alluding to Wilberforce, acknowledged, Saying, Thomas, swear thus for my sake, just as an aged man would acknowledge, his decay And you never will be troubled with the toothache.” of memory in forgetting many other dear friends
A clergyman of acknowledged worth, to whom whom he could not then recollect.
this anecdote was related, has supplied the follow“ In this simple and beautiful sincerity lies the ing corroboration :—“I know this fact : a gentlebasis of Clarkson's character through life; and after solemnly urging the members to persevere to
man between twenty and thirty years of age, of a the last, till Slavery was extinct, lifting his arm leading family in his country, the son of a clergyand pointing to heaven (his face quivering with in his sister's petticoat, believing they would ease
man who had three parishes, sewed these verses emotion), he ended by saying, ' May the Supreme her of toothache." - Dr. W.C. Taylor. Ruler of all human events, at whose disposal are not only the hearts but the intellects of men-may He, in His abundant mercy, guide your councils and give His blessing upon your labours. There was a pause of a moment, and then, without an interchange of thought or even of look, the whole
THE English practice of strewing floors with of this vast meeting, men and women, said, in a rushes was general before the introduction of tone of subdued and deep feeling, ‘AMEN! AMEN! carpets for this purpose, and the first mansions
“To the reader not present it is scarcely possible in the kingdom could boast of nothing superior to convey without affectation the effect on the in this respect. Shakspeare has many lines in . imagination of one who, like himself, had never
reference to the custom ; Glendower, for instance, attended benevolent meetings, had no notion of interpreting Lady Mortimer's address to her hussuch deep sincerity in any body of men, or of the band, says,
_“ She bids you awful and unaffected piety of the class I had been brought amongst. That deep-toned AMEN came
Upon the wanton rushes lay you down." on my mind like the knell of a departing curse ; I Decker tells us of “ windows spread with hearbs, looked about me on the simple and extraordinary the chimney drest up with greene boughs, and the people ever ready with their purse and their person forre strewed with bulrushes."
FLOORS STREWN WITH RUSHES.