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Hame, Sir Jabesh Windbag: the Leader that England requires he thus describes:

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"A Prime Minister, even here in England, who shall dare believe the heavenly omens, and address himself like a man and hero to the great dumb-struggling heart of England; and speak out for it, and act out for it, the God's-Justice it is writhing to get uttered and perishing for want of,-yes, he too will see awaken around him, in passionate burning all-defiant loyalty, the heart of England, and such a support' as no Division-List or Parliamentary Majority was ever yet known to yield a man! Here as there, now as then, he who can and dare trust the heavenly Immensities, all earthly Localities are subject to him. will pray for such a Man and First-Lord;-yes, and far better, we will strive and incessantly make ready, each of us, to be worthy to serve and second such a First-Lord! We shall then be as good as sure of his arriving; sure of many things, let him arrive or not.”—P. 349.


After the abrogation of the Corn-Laws, which is "the beginning of the end," and indispensable to the commencement of anything good, Mr. Carlyle regards the then remedial Measures within the power of a Government to be, a right Education Bill; effective and generous Sanitary Regulations; and "a free bridge for Emigrants." With our author's method of introducing the two former of these Measures we must bring to a close this long analysis, and longer extracts.

"Are not Sanitary Regulations possible for a Legislature? The old Romans had their Ediles; who would, I think, in direct contravention to supply and demand, have rigorously seen rammed up into total abolition many a foul cellar in our Southwarks, Saint Gileses, and dark poison-lanes; saying sternly, Shall a Roman man dwell there?' The Legislature at whatever cost of consequences, would have had to answer, "God forbid !'-The Legislature, even as it now is, could order all dingy Manufacturing Towns to cease from their soot and darkness; to let in the blessed sunlight, the blue of Heaven, and become clear and clean; to burn their coal-smoke, namely, and make flame of it. Baths, free air, a wholesome temperature, ceilings twenty feet high, might be ordained by Act of Parliament, in all establishments licensed as Mills. There are such Mills already extant ;-honour to the builders of them! The Legislature can say to others: Go ye and do likewise; better if you



Every toiling Manchester, its smoke and soot all burnt, ought it not, among so many world-wide conquests, to have a hundred acres or so of free green field, with trees on it, conquered, for its little children to disport in; for its all-conquering workers to take a breath of twilight air in? You would say so! A willing Legislature could say so with effect. A willing Legislature could say very many things! And to whatsoever 'vested interest,' or such like, stood up, gainsaying merely, I shall lose profits,' the willing Legislature would answer, Yes, but

my sons and daughters will gain health, and life, and a soul.' What is to become of our Cotton-Trade?' cried certain Spinners, when the Factory-Bill was proposed; 'What is to become of our invaluable Cotton-trade?' The Humanity of England answered steadfastly: 'Deliver me these rickety perishing souls of infants, and let your Cottontrade take its chance. God himself commands the one thing: not God especially the other thing. We cannot have prosperous Cotton-trades at the expense of keeping the Devil a partner in them!'

"Bills enough, were the Corn-Law Abrogation Bill once passed, and a Legislature willing! Nay this one Bill, which lies yet unenacted, a right Education Bill, is not this of itself the sure parent of innumerable wise Bills,-wise regulations, practical methods and proposals, gradually ripening towards the state of Bills? To irradiate with intelligence, that is to say, with order, arrangement and all blessedness, the Chaotic, Unintelligent: how, except by educating, can you accomplish this? That thought, reflection, articulate utterance and understanding be awakened in these individual million heads, which are the atoms of your Chaos : there is no other way of illuminating any Chaos! The sum total of intelligence that is found in it, determines the extent of order that is possible for your Chaos,-the feasibility and rationality of what your Chaos will dimly demand from you, and will gladly obey when proposed by you! It is an exact equation; the one accurately measures the other. If the whole English People, during these twenty years of respite,' be not educated, with at least schoolmaster's educating, a tremendous responsibility, before God and men, will rest somewhere! How dare any man, especially a man calling himself minister of Gud, stand up in any Parliament or place, under any pretext or delusion, and for a day or an hour, forbid God's Light to come into the world, and bid the Devil's Darkness continue in it one hour more! For all light and science, under all shapes, in all degrees of perfection, is of God; all darkness, nescience, is of the Enemy of God. 'The schoolmaster's creed is somewhat awry?' Yes, I have found few creeds entirely cor rect; few light-beams shining white, pure of admixture; but of all creeds and religions now or ever before known, was not that of thoughtless thriftless Animalism, of Distilled Gin, and Stupor and Despair, unspeak ably the least Orthodox ? We will exchange it even with Paganism, with Fetishism; and, on the whole, must exchange it with something.". -P. 357.


Mr. Carlyle contemplates permanence of contract' between the Manufacturer and the workman as one of the elements indispensable to a healthy condition of the relations between them. The workman must regard himself as a member of society, as a friend and client whose interests the Mill-Owner, will not conceive himself at liberty to disregard, except so far as he can use his labour for his own benefit. In a free and prosperous condition of Trade it is likely that this connexion between en ployed and employer would spontaneously appear; but that the Mill-Owner, when depressed himself, should dis

charge the functions of the State, and give permanent support to a body of workmen, when he has no permanent field for his own Enterprise and Industry, is an unreasonable expectation. We believe that individual Millowners have made great sacrifices for the sake of their work-people, and the Landowners who speak of overproduction should remember that this has been at the cost of the Manufacturer, for the benefit of the workers, who would otherwise have been destitute of employment, and thrown upon the Poor-Laws. 'Permanence of Contract' between an individual and a large body of work-people, unless permanence and prosperity of Trade can be guaranteed, is an impossibility. But by all means the feeling and moral connexion between the parties, that would naturally lead to this state of the relations between them, should be constantly cultivated, and would be the best security for the good conduct of the employed, and the peace of the employer.

That the true remedies will at last be found, that God will send the true Leaders, and that when they appear the world will acknowledge and obey them,—with Mr. Carlyle, we devoutly believe. Our present experience may be the means by which Providence is both preparing our true Guides and Governors, and that condition of mind among the people which will give them glad welcome when they come. The conservative, the healing influences of Society, must be found in brotherly relations of help on the one side, and trust and love on the other; between the instructed and the ignorant, the strong and the weak, the rich and the poor. To leave things to take their course, each man looking only to himself,-or to trust as our Author has it to cash payments as the sole nexus of Society,' is deliberately to expunge from the world the highest relations that man holds to man. The issue of such a state is not doubtful. When the moral relations are wrong, nothing else can long be right. Men that will restore these relations, in an uncompromising spirit of Justice and brotherly Love, are the Statesmen and Leaders the times require.

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"Let a chief of men reflect well on it. Not in having no business' with men, but in having no unjust business with them, and in having all manner of true and just business, can either his or their blessedness be found possible, and this waste world become, for both parties, a home and peopled garden.

"Men do reverence men. Men do worship in that one temple of the world,' as Novalis calls it, the Presence of a Man! Hero-worship, true and blessed, or else mistaken, false and accursed, goes on everywhere and everywhen. In this world there is one Godlike thing, the essence of all that was or ever will be of Godlike in this world: the VOL. V. No. 21.-New Series. 2 B

veneration done to Human Worth by the hearts of men. Hero-worship, in the souls of the heroic, of the clear and wise, it is the perpetual presence of Heaven in our poor Earth: when it is not there, Heaven is veiled from us; and all is under Heaven's ban and interdict, and there is no worship, or worth-ship, or worth or blessedness in the Earth any more"-P. 383.

Here we close, with the expression of one deep regret, that Mr. Carlyle by the style he has adopted, for it was not his original one, has chosen notoriety rather than Fame; to be the admired of a few admirers among contemporaries, rather than to be numbered among the perennial feeders of the heart of man. We know not of a single exception from the Law, that Posterity has no remembrance of those who, in their day and generation, delighted themselves in affectations, and fantastic tricks. The severe taste of the collective judgment of mankind tolerates no mannerisms. Genius itself is unable to confer immortality upon eccentricities,-or rather the highest Genius is incompatible with them. Mr. Carlyle has the power to produce an interest deeper far than any arising from the tickle of his style, but many will not believe it.


WITHIN these few weeks, four hundred and sixty ordained ministers of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland have, along with a still larger proportion of lay office bearers and members, withdrawn, in a quiet and orderly manner, from their connexion with the State; and have thus sacrificed and renounced the advantages and emoluments of a Church establishment.

An event like this-so rare in the annals of religion-calls for an investigation into the causes which have led to it; and, however difficult the task may be, we shall endeavour to present our readers with a candid and impartial account of the origin, the history, and the results of this disruption in the Scottish Church.

It will at once, however, occur to every thoughtful mind that the recent struggles betwixt the Church of Scotland and the Civil Courts will not, of themselves, furnish a satisfactory explanation of what has taken place; and that much light may be thrown upon the controversy, by looking back into that Church's History. This preliminary inquiry will, at all events, form a good preparation for understanding, more clearly, the precise points in dispute, when we come to notice them; and is on that account, if for no other reason, desirable, and indeed indispensable.

Christianity is supposed to have been introduced by the Culdees into Scotland in the end of the second, or more probably in the course of the third century. The history of these early times is lost in tradition; but it is conjectured that the Culdees, whose name is synonymous with religious refugees, fled, about that period, from the Roman dominions, and found a safe retreat in the Western Islands of Scotland, in one of which (Iona), they afterwards established a council or college, resembling, in some respects, a Presbyterian Assembly.

The Culdees had made considerable advancement in diffusing their religious principles throughout different parts of the kingdom, where their progress was impeded by the appearance, in the seventh century, of Augustine, the Popish monk, to whose mission, in conjunction with the fierce and distracting wars of the subsequent centuries, may be traced the entire suppression of the Culdees, and the complete establishment of Popery throughout Scotland.

This happened in the thirteenth century. For three hundred years afterwards the people of Scotland struggled against Popery

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