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whole Ways and Means for the Year 1798. Repeal of the Clock and
Watch Tax. Bill for consolidating the several Duties upon Houses and
Windows. Bill for imposing new Duties upon Imports and Exports.
CHA P. IV.
Alarms respecting an Invasion. Means proposed by Ministers for the Safety
of the Kingdom. Motion of Mr. Dundas in the House of Commons to
that Effect. Detail of the Plan. Debate on that Subject-In the Com-
mons- In the Lords. Alien Bill. Debates on that Subject. Debates
in the House of Commons on the Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act.
Bill for more effectually manning the Navy. Debates on that Subject.
Debate on the Slave Trade. Slave Carrying Bill. Slave Restraining
Debate concerning the Office of third Secretary of State-Mr. Tierney's
Motion on that Subject-negatived. Metion by the Duke of Bedford, in
the House of Lords, for the Dismission of his Majesty's Ministers-ne-
Debates in the British Parliament concerning the Affairs of Ireland.
Earl of Moira's Motion in the House of Lords-negatived. Interesting
Explanation between the Earl of Moira and the Marquis of Downshire.
The Duke of Leinster's Motion respecting Ireland. Lord G. Cavendish's
Motion in the House of Commons on the same Subject-negatived. Mr.
Fox's Motion on the same Subject-rejected. Message from his Majesty.
Proposal from certain Militia Regiments to serve in Ireland. Debates on
this Proposal in the House of Lords-In the House of Commons.
Affairs of Ireland. The late Rebellion connected with remote Causes. Brief
Sketch of the History of Ireland, as relating to those Causes. National
Character of the Irish Peasantry, Concessions made to the Roman Catholics.
Further Concessions required. Ill Policy of Lord Fitzwilliam's Administra-
tion. Republican Faction in Ireland. Society of United Irishmen-Its
Institution. Views of the Society. Theobald Wolfe Tone. Constitution and
Laws of the Society. Affiliated System. Orange Men. Defenders. Conven-
tion Act. Connexion formed by the United Men with France. Mission of
Jackson. His Trial and Conviction. Trial of Stone. Flight of Tone,
Rowan, and others. United Irishmen joined by Mr. O'Connor. Accredited
Minister from the Irish Directory received at Paris. Iuvasion of Ireland.
Why the French were not supported by the Peasantry. Military Organisa-
tion of United Irishnen. Insurrection Act. New Plan of Invasion. In-
tended Insurrection. Conspiracy in Part developed to Government. Reports
of Secret Committees. Severities exercised in Ireland. Efforts made by the
Whigs to conciliate the hostile Parties. Miserable State of Ireland at this
Crisis. Troops embarked on board the Dutch Fleet for the Invasion of Ire-
land. Wretched Policy of the French. Disturbances in Ireland. Town of
Cahir ransacked the Insurgents. Proclamation. New Attempt to con-
ciliate made by the Whig-Party---Ill-received by the United Irishmen.
Mr. Arthur O'Connor. Trial of O'Connor, Binns, &c. Execution of
O'Coighly. Destruction of" The Press." Discovery of the grand Conspi-
racy. Leinster Delegates, and some of the Directory, apprehended. Death
of Lord Edward Fitzgerald. Plot for a general Insurrection--Discovered
and defeated. The rebellion breaks out in various Places---Rebels repulsed
at Naas---Take the Town of Prosperous---Defeated at Kilcullen--At Rath-
farnham---At Tallagh-hill---At Carlow---At Kildare. Progress of the Re-
bellion in the South. Cork Militia defeated. Battle of Enniscorthy. Rebels
advance and take Wexford. Mr. B. B. Harvey appointed Commander in
Chief of the Wexford Rebels. Battle of Ross. Horrid Massac es by the
Rebels. Rebels repulsed at Gorey and Newtown Barry. Col Walpole de-
feated and killed by the Rebels. Rebels repulsed at Arklow. Battle of Vine-
gur-hill. Wexford retaken. Execution of Rebels there. Ill conduct and
Cruelty of Rebels. Rebellion in the North. Antrim taken by Rebels, and
retaken by General Nugent. Battle of Ballinahinch. Lord Cornwallis ap-
pointed Lord Lieutenant. Conciliatory Measures. General Amnesty. Trial
of I. and H. Sheares, and other Conspirators. Submission and voluntary
Confession of Arthur O'Connor, and other State Prisoners, Justice and
Equity of Lord Cornwallis's Administration. Bill of Attainder. Final
Dispersion of the Rebels. Invasion of Ireland by General Humbert. Ge-
neral Lake defeated. Lord Cornwallis advances to attack the French---
And defeats them at Ballinnamuck. Napper Tandy lands in Ireland---
Returns. Defeat of the Grand Expedition for the Invasion by Sir J. B.
Warren. Capture, Trial, and Death, of Mr. Theobald Wolfe Tone. En-
tire Suppression of the Irish Rebellion. Reflections.
Restrospect of Continental Affairs during the preceding Year State of the bel-
ligerent Powers on the Rhine on the Opening of the Year 1797. Sege and
Capitulation of the Fort opposite Huninque. State of the Austrian and
Fench Armies in Italy. New and Extraordinary Levies of Austrian
Troops. March of the Papal Troops to the Aid of General Wurmser. Sup-
posed Hostility of the Venetian Government. The French take Possession of
Bergamo. Preparations made by Buonaparte. Attack of the Austrians
under Alvinzi, and Repulse of the French to the Adige. Positions of Buona-
parte. Battle of Rivoli. Success of the Austrians. Perilous Situation of
Buonaparte, and of the left Wing of the French. Defeat of the right Wing
of the Austrians. Battle of Porto Legnano. Defeat of the right Wing of
the French. Provera's Progress toward's Mantua. Rout of the right Wing
of the Austrian Army. Attack of Provera on the Forts before Mantua.
Sortie of the Garrison under General Wurmser. Defeat and Surrender
of the left Wing of the Austrian Army under Provera. Destruction of the
fifth Austrian Army in Italy by the French. Situation of Affairs in the
French Republic. State of the Finances---Of Parties---Factions. Sup
posed Royalist Plot. Plan of the Conspiracy. Arrest of the Conspirators.
Trial and Conviction of the Chiefs before a Military Commission. Effects
of the Lenity of the Commission on the different Parties. Mysterious Con-
duct and Policy of the Directory. Confession of the Chiefs of the Conspi-
racy. Pursuit of the Remains of the Austrian Army, by the French, into
the Venetian Territory. Surrender of Mantua. Preparations for the Inva-
sion of the States of the Holy See. Intercepted Correspondence of the Papal
Ministry. Manifesto and Proclamation of Buonaparte. Reflections on
the Proclamation. Defeat of the Papal Troops. Surrender of various
Cities. The miraculous Image of Loretto. Progress of the French Army
towards Rome. Pope's Letter to Buonaparte with offers of Peace. Condi-
tions of the Peace. Buonaparte's Letter to the Pope. Negotiation between
CHA P. IX.
. Political State of the Northern Powers with respect to France. Of Russia,
Prussia. Of the neutral Powers in Italy, Naples, Tuscany, Genoa, Venice.
The Inefficacy of the Allies of the French Republic. Of Spain, of Holland.
Domestic Troubles. Refractory Clergy. Disaffected Magistracy. Seve-
rity of the Laws, and the Cause of their Inexecution. Amendments proposed
by the Directory. Supineness of the Legislature. Hostile Spirit of the
Journalists to the Republic. New Laws to punish Libels. Their Ineffi-
cacy. New Election of Part of the Legislative Body. Proclamatior
of the Directory. Proposal by the Directory of an Oath of Fidelity.
to be taken by the Electors---rejected by the Councils. Anti-directorial
Party in the Council strengthened by the Election of the new Third.
Motion of Inquiry into the Conduct of the Directory respecting the
Transport of the Galley-Slaves to the English Coast. Cause of this
Expedition. Preparations by the Austrians and French for the Con-
tinuance of the War. Hopes of the Court of Vienna in the Exertions
of Prince Charles. Positions of the two Armies. March of Prince
Charles to the Piara. Advance of the French from the Brenta. Re-,
treat of Prince Charles behind the strong Entrenchments of the Taglia-
mento. Difficulties of the Passage. Passage affected by the French.
Defeat and Flight of the Army under Prince Charles. The whole of
the Venetian Territory in Possession of the French. Attack and De-
feat of the Austrians in the Tyrol under Laudohn by General Joubert.
Retreat of Laudohn to Inspruck. Cupture of the Austrian Artillery
and Magazines, by. Joubert, at Brixen. Attack and Defeat of the
Centre of the Austrian Army by Massena, and their Retreat to the
Mountains. Siege and Surrender of the Fortress of Gradisca. Posses-
sion of the Province of Goritia by the French. Proclamation of Buo-
naparte. Retreat of Prince Charles to Clagenfurt. Defeat of the centre
Army of the Austrians on the Snows of Tarvis by Massena. Defeat of
the Austrians, by Guieux, at Chinze. Capture of their Artillery and
Baggage by Massena. The Province of Carniola in Possession of the
French. March of Joubert across the Tyrolian Alps. Junction of the
Republican Armies at Clagenfurt. Further Retreat of Prince Charles.
French in Possession of the Province of Carinthia, and of the whole of
the Austrian Possessions to the Adriatic. Proclamation of Buonaparte
to the Inhabitants of Carinthia. Letter of Buonaparte to Prince
Charles, offering Terms of Peace. Prince Charles's Refusal. Alarm,
Precautions, and warlike Preparations at Vienna. Propositions of
Prince Charles---rejected. Advance of Buonaparte towards Vienna.
Defeat of the Austrians, and further Retreat of Prince Charles across
the Murh. Serious Propositions for an Armistice from the Court of
Vienna. Accepted by Buonaparte. Conditions of the Armistice. Reflec-
tions on the relative Situation of the Austrian and French Armies.
Commencement of Hostilities on the Rhine. Positions of the French and Aus-
trian Armies. Retreat of the Austrians behind the Lahn, and Passage of
the French across the Rhine. Proposals of the Austrian General for an
Armistice rejected. Defeat of the Austrians on the Lahn. Further Defeats
of the Austrians, and Retreat to Frankfort. Position of the Army of the
Rhine and Moselle under general Moreau. Passage of the Rhine in Face
of the Austrians at Kehl. Dangerous Positions of the French. Defeat of
the Austrians, and Capture of the Fort of Kehl, the most brilliant Action of
the German War. Preparations for the Invasion of Germany. Arrival of
the News of the Preliminaries of Peace to the Armies on the Rhine. Senti-
ments of the differrent Parties at Paris respecting the Peace. Causes of the
Signature of the Preliminaries by Buonaparte. Government of Venice.
Sketch of the different Situations of Venice with respect to Austria, and the
French Republic. Accusations of the French against the Venetian Govern-
ment. Insurrection against the French. Massacre of the French at Verona.
Letter of Buonaparte to the Senate. Answer and Proclamation of the Senate.
Retaking of Verona by Augereau. Laudohn's March from the Tyrol.
Danger of the French in the Venetian States. News of Peace. Murch of
the French to Venice. Declaration of War. Annihilation of the Govern-
ment of Venice, and Escape of the Patricians. Provisionary Government.
The Arsenal, the Fleet, and Stores. Venetian Islands in the Adriatic and
Archipelago made French Departments. Reflections on the Fate of the
Venetian Government. Formation of the Cisalpine Republic. Government
of Genoa. Enmity between the popular and patrician Parties. Causes of
its apparent Neutrality with respect to the Coalition and France. Secret
Assistance said to be given to the Emperor by the Genoese Government. In-
treasing Discontents of the popular Party. General Insurrection of the
Genoese against the Government. Desertion of the Military Forces to the
People. Dissolution of the Patrician Government of Genoa. Provisional
Government formed. State of Genoa changed into that of the Ligurian
Partial Renewal of the French Legislature. Increase of the Anti-Directorial
Party. Nomination of Barthelemy to succeed Letourneur in the Directory.
Pichegru President of the New Assembly. Repeal of different restraining
Laws. Discussion on the Colonies. Denunciation against the Commissa
ries. Inculpations of the Directory and Ministers by the Anti-Directorial
Party in the Councils. Decrees against the Public Delapidators. Re-
flections on the Situation of the Directory, and the Conduct of its Opponents.
Report of the Commission of Finance to diminish the Expences of Govern
ment. Report of the Commission on the internal State of the Republic. Pro-
posal for the Recall of the refractory Clergy, and the Abolition of the re-
straining Laws. Of the Emigrants from the Departments of the Rhine and
Toulon. Formation of the Constitutional Circle in Support of the Direc-
tory. Suppressed by Vote of the Councils. Licentiousness of the Journalists.
New Denunciations against the Ministers of Finance and Marine. Charges
on the Ministry. Renewed Denunciations against the Directory. March
of Troops towards Paris within the Distance permitted by the Law. Ex-
planation of the Directory. Application of the Directory for Supplies---
rejected. Decree of the Councils for restraining the Power of the Directory,
and for the Increase of their Body-Guard. Suspended State of the Nego-
tiations for Peace between the Republic and the Emperor. Increase of
Disaffection between the Legislative and Executive Authorities. Addresses
from the Army, promising Support to the Directory. Denunciation of the
Army-Addresses in the Councils. Report on the Subject of the Dissensions.
Speech of the President of the Directory. Addresses of Departmental
Administrations to the Councils. Preparations for Hostilities between the
Executive Government and the Councils. Decrees of the Councils for arm-
ing the Citizens of Paris. Emigrants and Royalists at Paris prepared to
take Advantage of the Dissensions. State of the Public Mind at Paris. Se-
cret Plan of the proposed Attack on the Government known to the Direc-
tory. Events of the Revolution of the 18th of Fructidor. Assembly of the
Councils near the Directorial Palace. Proclamations of the Directory to
make known the Conspiracy. Pretended Correspondence of Pichegru with
the Prince of Condé. Report of the Committee on the Conspiracy. Resolu-
tions of the Councils. Reflections on the indiscriminate Sentence of Exile,
Messages of the Directory on the Mode of raising Supplies, and on the Filling
up the Vacancies in the Directory. Banishment of the Journalists. Nomina-
tion to the Directory. Disorders in the South. Recall of the French Nego-
tiators at Lisle. Mission of others. Departure of Lord Malmesbury. Ab-
surd Account of Lord Malmesbury's Mission published in the Official Papers
of the French Government. Reflections on the forged Letter. Final Close of
the Negotiation between the French Republic and England. Negotiu-
tion with the Emperor for definitive Treaty. Supposed Causes of the
Delay in the Negotiations during the Summer. Treaty of Peace con-
cluded at Campo-Formio. Principal Conditions of the Treaty. Pacifica-
tion with the Empire---referred to a Congress. Surrender of Venice to the
Emperor. Despair of the Venetian Patriots. Portugal. Treaty of Peace
negotiated by Portugal with France during the Summer---dissolved. Impri-
sonment of the Portuguese Embassador. Ambiguity of the Conduct of the
Spanish Court. Disaffection and Inefficacy of the Allies of the French Re-